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Metrode Products Limited Hanworth Lane, Chertsey, Surrey, KT16 9LL, UK Tel: Fax: +44 (0)1932 566 721 +44 (0)1932 569 449

Welding Consumables for the Power Generating Industries

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P92 welding consumables for the power generation industry


Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Introduction Background to alloy design Welding processes P92 welding consumable specifications Weld metal chemical composition Pre-heat, Interpass temperature, Post-heat and PWHT Metrode range of P92 welding consumables Weld metal mechanical properties Welding P92 to dissimilar materials Further Reading Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Data sheets 1 3 4 4 5 6 8 11 17 20
See Data Sheet A-20 in data sheet folder

Welding Procedure Specifications

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P92 welding consumables for the power generation industry

Figure 1

A modern, high efficiency, fossil-fuelled power station designed to have minimum emissions and environmental impact - Black Point, Hong Kong

One of the major challenges facing the power generation industry is to achieve targets for increased efficiency demanded by both mature economies and developing nations. Environmental regulations requiring reduced CO2 emissions coupled with inevitable pressures on reliability, availability and maintainability are all major driving forces, Figure 1. Material developments, in particular advanced creep resisting steels for high temperature pressure components, continue to play a significant role in new projects as well as improvements to existing power plant as shown in Figure 2. The modified 9CrMo steel (T/P91) is now well established and is in use worldwide. Attention is now being directed to more advanced variants such as T/P92 and this steel has already been used in some projects and is being considered for many others, Table 1. P92 is still a relatively new material and R&D continues particularly in the areas of welding, fabrication and creep performance of fabricated components in practical service. Metrode has been an active participant in the European collaborative project, COST 522 and 536. This is a project on advanced materials for modern power plants and Metrode has made considerable contributions to the development of welding consumables suitable for P92. The benefits of these steels can be exploited by either a reduction in wall thickness and weight for a given operating condition or by increasing design/operating temperatures with a consequent improvement in thermal efficiency. Such advantages can only be fully exploited if the steels can be welded with appropriate welding consumables to give joints which will not compromise the integrity and operating lifetime of the plant. This technical profile presents the range of welding consumables designed specifically for the welding of P92 steels, together with information on specifications, welding processes and properties.

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Examples of subcritical units Examples of super/ultra-supercritical units

Cycle Thermal Efficiency, (%)


Matsura Hemweg Drax

Avedore 2 Konvoj



Ferrybridge Ratcliffe

Castle Peak


Ferrybridge Ratcliffe Drax Castle Peak Meripori Hemweg Matsura Konvoj Avedore 2

Presure,bar, TemperatureC 166 568/568 159 566/566 166 568/568 169 541/539 239 540/560 260 540/560 241 593/593 298 582/580 300 580/600

30 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Year of Installation

Figure 2

Evolution of power station thermal efficiency with time

Table 1 Country Denmark Denmark Germany Germany

Selected installations that have used P92 Project

Vestraft Unit 3 Nordjyllands ET Keil/GK Westfalen Avedre 2/ Elkraft

Size IDxWT mm (inch)

240 x 39 (9.45 x 1.54) 160 x 45 (6.30 x 1.77) 480 x 28 (18.9 x 1.1) 159 x 27 (6.30 x 1.06) 400 x 25 (15.75 x 1.0) 490 x 30 (19.7 x 1.18)

Main steam pipe Header Header Steam loop Main steam pipes

Steam Temperature C (F)

560 (1040) 582 (1080) 545 (1015) 650 (1200) 580 (1076) 600 (1112)

Steam pressure bar (ksi)

250 (3.6) 290 (4.2) 53 (0.8) 180 (2.6)

1996 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001


300 (4.3)

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Background to alloy design

P92 is a development of the now well established alloy P91. The P91, 9%Cr-1%Mo plus microalloying composition, is modified by reducing the molybdenum content to about 0.5% and adding about 1.7% tungsten plus a few parts per million of boron. Controlled microalloying in the form of niobium (columbium), vanadium and nitrogen is retained. This composition modification gives rise to very stable carbides and carbo-nitrides which improve long term creep strength. This steel is designed to operate at temperatures up to 625C and it is claimed that high temperature rupture strengths are up to 30% greater than for P91. For example at 600C (1112F) the 100,000 hour creep rupture strength of P91 base material is about 95MPa (13.8ksi) whereas P92 is about 123MPa (17.8ksi). Exploitation of P92 is relatively limited and further confidence and experience in the fabrication and use of the alloy still has to be developed. However, a number of installations were completed in the late 1990s and more are under construction or being planned. A selected list of installations which have used P92 is given in Table 1. P92 was originally developed in Japan in the 1990s as NF616 and was subsequently incorporated into ASTM and the ASME code as Grade 92. Parallel developments in Europe resulted in a grade of steel designated E911*, in which the molybdenum is maintained at about 1% and a further 1% of tungsten is added.
* Note: Contact Metrode for further information and consumables for welding E911


P92: Specifications and product forms ASTM/ASME specified composition range is given in Table 2 and the various product forms, required properties and heat treatments are given in Table 3. The commonly used descriptors are given below and for the remainder of this document the material will be referred to as P92. T92 (ASTM/ASME A213): 92 tube P92 (ASTM/ASME A335): 92 pipe F92 (ASTM/ASME A182): 92 forging

Table 2
C min max
0.07 0.13

Specified composition for P92 steels

0.30 0.60




8.50 9.50


0.30 0.60

1.50 2.00

0.04 0.09

0.15 0.25



0.001 0.006

0.070 0.04

Table 3

Heat treatment and mechanical property requirements for P92 steels

Heat treatment Alloy Normalising temp, C (F)
1040 (1900) 1040 (1900)

ASTM/ASME specifications

Tempering temp, C (F)

730 (1350) 730 (1350)

Tensile strength MPa (ksi)

620 (90) 620 (90)

0.2% proof stress MPa (ksi)

440 (64) 440 (64)

Longitudinal elongation %
20 20

Hardness HB

A213-A335 A182

T/P92 F92

250 269

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Welding processes
The choice of welding process depends on a number of factors, including: The size and thickness of the components to be welded Shop fabrication or on-site installation/repair Availability of suitable equipment The necessary skilled staff Availability of suitable welding consumables Mechanical properties required, particularly toughness

Table 4 shows the arc welding process options for high temperature power plant fabrication.

Table 4 Component

Welding process options for P92 steels for power plant Joint type
Site welding/repair Tube to tube Spacers and attachments Site welding

Possible arc welding processes

Manual TIG and MMA Manual/orbital TIG and MMA Fixed/orbital TIG Manual TIG and MMA Manual TIG and MMA Manual TIG and MMA Orbital TIG TIG, MMA, FCAW and Sub Arc Manual TIG/MMA. FCAW, Mechanised TIG/MIG Manual TIG and MMA Orbital TIG, FCAW TIG, MMA, FCAW and Sub Arc

Boiler panels (small bore tube) Superheaters Reheaters Economisers (small bore tube)

Steam pipework and headers

Butt welds Stub to header butt welds Site welding

Pressure vessels e.g. steam drums Valve chests

Butt welds

Butt welds

Mainly TIG, MMA, FCAW and possibly Sub Arc Mainly TIG, MMA and possibly Sub Arc TIG, MMA, FCAW

Loop pipework

Butt welds Site welding

P92 welding consumable specifications

At the time of writing there are no national or international standards for P92 welding consumables. It is expected that future standards will follow those already in existence for P91 and composition limits will be similar to those of the parent steel. Metrode limits are shown on the data sheet in Appendix 1.

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Weld metal chemical composition

The P92 parent composition is essentially 0.1% carbon, 9% chromium, 0.5% molybdenum, 1.7% tungsten with controlled micro alloying in the form of vanadium, niobium (columbium), nitrogen and boron to give long term, high temperature creep strength. The composition is carefully balanced to give a fully martensitic microstructure with little or no retained delta ferrite. The microstructure is designed to be tempered martensite solid solution strengthened by Mo and W, with M23 C6 carbides and V/Nb carbo-nitrides for high temperature creep strength. The weld deposit compositions are designed to be as close as possible to the parent P92 steel consistent with achieving optimum properties, weldability and microstructures. Work on fully matching properties has shown that the toughness of weld metal, particularly those using flux shielded processes, is rather low. Weld metal toughness can be improved by raising the PWHT times and temperatures but it is important not to exceed the Ac1 temperature. In order to achieve the optimum balance of creep properties and toughness, the weld metals differ slightly from the parent steel composition as follows:


Work on both P91 and P92 consumables has shown that reducing the niobium towards the lower end of the parent alloy specification range has a beneficial effect on toughness. For this reason most weld deposits have niobium levels of 0.04 or 0.05%. One exception is P92 solid wire, which gives deposits with somewhat better inherent toughness, and has a typical Nb content of 0.06%. Is beneficial in improving toughness for two reasons, it lowers the Ac1 temperature and this improves the response to tempering and it reduces the tendency for undesirable ferrite formation. However, excessive nickel (>1%), is detrimental in that it can reduce the Ac1 below the PWHT temperature and so result in the formation of fresh untempered martensite. Excessive nickel may result in reduced creep properties. Nickel is therefore controlled at about the 0.5% level. Ni+Mn content needs to be restricted because if the Ni+Mn content is excessive it can reduce the Ac1 temperature. It has been found that Co can be substituted for Ni to provide more consistent toughness. Is generally controlled to a higher level than the parent plate to promote deoxidation and ensures a sound weld deposit. However it is important that the combination of manganese and nickel is not so high that the Ac1 temperature is reduced and there is a risk of austenite reformation at the higher PWHT temperatures. It is possible that some future specifications may limit Mn+Ni to 1.5% or less as is the case with P91. Is an essential deoxidant and in conjunction with chromium it contributes, in a small way, to the alloys oxidation resistance at higher steam temperatures. However lower levels of silicon benefit weld toughness. Weld deposits made with Metrode consumables generally have silicon levels in the range 0.2 to 0.3%. All have a minor influence on toughness, unless incorrect balance leads to ferrite formation. Therefore values and ranges are essentially the same as the parent P92 alloy to maintain good creep performance.





Vanadium Carbon Nitrogen

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Preheat, interpass temperature, post-heat and PWHT

Some references have already been made to PWHT, but this section clarifies the situation regarding various thermal operations in the light of practical considerations.


Preheat and interpass The welding of P92 requires the use of preheat to avoid the risk of hydrogen cracking. Although the hardenability of P92 is higher than that of P22 (2Cr-1Mo) and slightly greater than that of P91, the preheat required to eliminate hydrogen cracking in the Y-groove test is lower than that required for P22 and only slightly higher than that required for P91 as shown in Figure 3. This may be explained by the lower transformation temperatures of both P92 and P91 combined with the beneficial influence of a little retained austenite within the preheat-interpass temperature range. Except possibly for some TIG applications a preheat of 200C (400F) is standard irrespective of material thickness. For TIG welding, with a very low hydrogen potential, this can be relaxed to about 100-150C (200-300F). Maximum interpass temperature is usually restricted to about 300C (575F) to ensure that each weld bead substantially transforms to martensite which will be partially tempered by subsequent beads, see Figure 4 which shows the CCT diagram for P92.

Cracking ratio (%)

(P92) (P122) (P91)


Pre-heat temperature ( C)

Figure 3

P92 (data shown for NF616 see section 2) results of Y-groove weld cracking tests showing the cracking ratio/preheat temperature relationship compared with results for creep resisting steels P22, P91 and P122 (11Cr0.5Mo-2W-Nb-V-N).


Post-heat Post-heat is a term used to describe the practice of maintaining the preheat temperature, ~200C (400F) for 2-4 hours, or more for very thick fabrications, after completion of the joint. This procedure is designed to remove hydrogen by diffusion and allow the safe cooling of thick weldments down to ambient temperature. To be effective in P92, partial cool-out below the preheat temperature would be necessary to eliminate untransformed austenite before reheating for postheat, because hydrogen is trapped in the austenite and diffuses from it far slower than from martensite. Fortunately, unlike the earlier higher carbon alloy X20 (12CrMoV), post-heat is not considered to be necessary with P92 (and P91) and in practice, welds less than 50mm (2inch) thick can be cooled slowly to ambient temperature without problems. However, care should be taken to avoid

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mechanical and thermal shock until components have been subjected to PWHT. For sections above 50mm (2inch) the current recommendation is to cool no lower than 80C (175F). Untempered weldments may be subject to stress corrosion cracking if exposed to damp conditions for any length of time.

Figure 4

Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram for P92

Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) The hardness of as-transformed martensitic P92 weld metal and HAZ is similar to P91 at around 400-450HV so that PWHT is viewed as mandatory irrespective of thickness. On completion of welding it is important to cool down to below about 100C (200F) before full PWHT; this ensures that the martensite transformation is completed prior to PWHT and resultant tempering. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram given in Figure 4 shows that the martensite start (Ms) temperature lies between 300 and 400C (575-750F) and the martensite finish temperature (Mf) between 200 and 300C (400-575F), depending on cooling rate. The data shown relates to the parent alloy and there is some uncertainty as to the values for multi-run weld metal which could be a little higher. But it is recommended that fabrications should be cooled to below ~100C for a minimum of 2 hours before PWHT. There are certain constraints placed on the selection of a suitable PWHT temperature. The minimum temperature should not be less than the 730C (1350F) given in the ASME code but in practice for weld metal tempering to take place within a reasonable period of time, the temperature needs to be significantly above this minimum eg. 760C (1400F). One base material manufacturer tempers base material in the range 750-780C (1380-1450F). Some specifications give a maximum temperature but in any case PWHT should not exceed the Ac1 temperature since this will result in the formation of fresh austenite and therefore untempered martensite on subsequent coolout. There is some uncertainty about the exact Ac1 temperature for weld metal but it is likely to be less than the value of 845C (1550F) usually given for the parent steel. The value for weld metals containing significant amounts of manganese and nickel (both depress the Ac1) could be lower than this. Measurements carried out on Metrode weld deposits (MMA, SAW and FCW) found Ac1 temperatures in the range 790-810C (1455-1490F). This results in a rather narrow allowable PWHT temperature range and 760C (1400F) is the most frequently selected PWHT temperature. The tempering response of P92 is such that a minimum of two hours PWHT is advisable and four hours is preferable for processes other than TIG. Shorter durations may be appropriate for thin wall tube welds (0.5 hours has been applied to P91) but it should be recognised that tempering (and hence hardness/toughness) is temperature-time dependent.

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Metrode range of P92 welding consumables

Table 5 gives a summary of the Metrode welding consumables available for P92. A brief description of each of the consumables is given in this section along with representative welding parameters, where appropriate. Typical weld deposit compositions for each consumable type are given in Table 6, which also includes for comparison, the specified composition range for alloy P92.

Table 5

Metrode P92 welding consumables Welding process

MMA (SMAW) TIG (GTAW) Flux Cored Wire (FCW) Submerged Arc Wire (SAW) Submerged Arc Flux Submerged Arc Flux SAW + Flux

Metrode brand name Chromet 92 9CrWV Supercore F92 9CrWV LA491 L2N 9CrWV + LA491

There are as yet no specifications There are as yet no specifications There are as yet no specifications There are as yet no specifications BS EN 760 SA FB 2 55 AC BS EN 760 SF CS 2 DC There are as yet no specifications

Table 6

Typical P92 weld metal deposit compositions

0.07 0.13 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.11

Element, wt% P92 alloy min P92 alloy max 9CrWV wire[1] 9CrWV TIG deposit Chromet 92 MMA deposit Supercore F92 FCW deposit[2] 9CrWV/LA491 Sub Arc deposit[3]

0.30 0.60 0.71 0.74 0.60 0.8

0.50 0.29 0.23 0.25 0.29



8.50 9.50 9 8.5 9 9

0.40 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5

0.30 0.60 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5

1.50 2.00 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7

0.04 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04

0.15 0.25 0.20 0.17 0.20 0.20




0.010 0.020 0.008 0.009 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.008 0.006 0.017

0.070 0.040 0.006 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.04 <0.01 0.003 <0.01 0.002 <0.01 0.003 <0.01 0.003




0.005 0.010








0.015 0.001

Notes: [1] solid TIG/SAW wire composition [2] shielding gas: Ar + 20%CO 2 [3] flux: LA491


MMA (SMAW) Chromet 92 MMA (SMAW) welding is still the most adaptable of the arc welding processes and therefore is still widely used for construction and fabrication work, particularly for on-site repair work. Typical areas of application are given in Table 4. Typical deposit analysis is given in Table 6 and mechanical properties are covered in Section 8.

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P92 steels are fully martensitic under virtually all cooling conditions, and therefore as-welded hardness values are high (~450HV). This means that precautionary measures to avoid hydrogen cracking are particularly important. Preheat requirements are covered in Section 6.1, but in relation to MMA electrodes, coating moisture and hence hydrogen potential are critical. To ensure a low moisture content, as supplied, and after some atmospheric exposure, the electrodes are manufactured using a specially designed flux binder system. Chromet 92 electrodes are supplied in hermetically sealed metal cans as defined by AWS A5.5 Paragraph 22.2. The as-packed moisture content of the electrodes is 0.15%, and the exposed moisture content is 0.40%, as per A5.5 (27C/80F-85%RH). In AWS terminology, these electrodes are classified with the H4R suffix. The electrodes can also be supplied, to special order, in site packs. Each pack contains a convenient 1-2kg (2-4.5lb) of electrodes, depending on diameter. They give a guaranteed weld metal hydrogen content of 5ml/100g, even after on-site exposure of up to a shift (8 hours). Chromet 92 is a basic low hydrogen electrode with a moisture resistant coating designed to give low weld metal hydrogen levels. The electrode operates on DC+ and on AC (70V min OCV) but DC+ is preferred for most applications. The electrode is all-positional, except vertical down, and is suitable for welding fixed pipework in the ASME 5G/6G positions. 7.2 TIG (GTAW) - 9CrWV There is a need for a solid P92 welding wire suitable for TIG (GTAW) welding. This process is commonly used for root welding and for small diameter pipework. Some fabricators have invested in equipment for automatic orbital welding (auto TIG) particularly for welding thicker walled pipes. For these applications the wire is available in small diameters on spools.


9CrWV TIG wire analysis

Metrodes 9CrWV typical TIG wire analysis and deposit analysis are given in Table 6. In national standards, for example P91, solid wire classification is based on wire analysis. As can be seen from Table 6 the deposit analysis will be slightly different from the certified wire composition. In the TIG process the wire is melted into the weld pool, rather than being transferred across an arc, and therefore there is very little loss of primary alloying elements; however, small losses of deoxidants, Mn, Si and C could occur. Typical loss of carbon content could be 0.01-0.02%.


Procedural aspects
TIG welding of P92 using 9CrWV is carried out using pure argon shielding gas with the electrode DC- polarity. As many applications are for the deposition of root runs, it is important to ensure protection of the weld bead under surface by the use a gas purge, which should be maintained for at least the first three runs. The most commonly used size for manual TIG root welding is 2.4mm (3/32in) diameter used in conjunction with a similar diameter 2% thoriated tungsten electrode. Using DC-, typical parameters would be about 90A, 12V; with a gas flow rate of about 10 l/min (20cu.ft/hr).


Flux cored wire (FCAW) Supercore F92 Metrode flux cored wires for creep resisting CrMo steels are now well established and are being exploited because of their ease of use and the productivity benefits that can be achieved. These benefits are apparent in both shop and site welding applications, but the main interest is in the productivity advantages that can be achieved in the positional welding of thick walled pipes in the fixed ASME 5G/6G positions. Supercore F92 flux cored wire has been developed specifically for this type of application.

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Procedural aspects
Ar-20%CO2 mixed gas is the preferred shielding gas for use with Supercore F92. Improved toughness can be achieved, with slightly inferior arc characteristics, by using Ar-5%CO2. For situations where Ar-20%CO 2 shielding gas is not readily available, Supercore F92 can also be welded with 100%CO2 although slightly higher arc voltages, about 2 volts, are required. Typical gas flow rates are 20-25 l/min (40-50cu.ft/hr). A typical Supercore F92 deposit analysis made with Ar20%CO2 is given in Table 6. Welding should be carried out on DC+ and it should be noted that the optimum welding conditions to be used depend on the welding position. Suggested welding conditions are given in Table 7.

Table 7

Welding parameters for Supercore F92 Shielding gas Stickout (mm)

10 - 25 Ar-20%CO 2 15-20 15 10 - 25 100%CO 2 15-20 15

Current (A)
140 - 280 200 150 140 - 280 200 150

Voltage (V)
24 - 30 28 25 26 - 32 30 27

Parameter range Down hand - typical 5G/6G - typical Parameter range Down hand - typical 5G/6G - typical

Submerged arc (wire/flux combination) - 9CrWV + LA491 / L2N For components where mechanised welding is practicable and joints can be manipulated into the flat position (or rotated), SAW is often the preferred and most productive welding process. The use of 2.4mm (3/32in) diameter 9CrWV wire in combination with Metrode LA491 flux is recommended. The 9CrWV wire supplied on sub-arc coils is the same composition as that supplied for TIG welding. LA491 is an agglomerated fluoride-basic flux with a basicity of ~2.7. The typical sub arc weld metal composition is given in Table 6. There is a modest influence of the flux but the chemical analysis is very close to that produced by the other Metrode P92 consumables. It can be seen that there is slight reduction in carbon content and a little silicon pick up from the flux. The preferred flux for submerged arc welding with 9CrWV wire is LA491 but L2N can also be used. L2N is a fused flux with a basicity of ~1.3 resulting in a higher silicon pick-up and also lower toughness than is achieved with the LA491 flux.


Procedural aspects
9CrWV submerged arc wire is supplied in 2.4mm (3/32inch) diameter as standard. Typical welding parameters for 2.4mm (3/32in) diameter wire using DC+ with LA491 flux are given in Table 8.

Table 8 Flux LA491

Welding parameters for P92 submerged arc Wire dia, mm (in)

2.4 (3/32)

Electrode extension, mm (in)

20 25 (0.8-1.0)

Current, A
350 500 (DC+)

Voltage, V
28 - 32

Travel speed mm/min (in/min)

400 500 (15-20)

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The LA491 flux produces good slag release and an excellent cosmetic bead appearance. The flux is a basic agglomerated fluoride flux with a basicity index of about 2.7. As in the submerged arc welding of any low alloy steel, hydrogen control is important (see section 7.1 on MMA). Correct storage, handling and recycling of the flux is essential. If flux recycling is carried out, the machine hopper should be regularly topped up with fresh flux to prevent the accumulation of fines. LA491 flux that has become damp or has been exposed to the atmosphere for 10 hours or more should be re-dried at 300-350C (575-650F) for 2 hours, see Figure 5.

New Flux

Store in a Heated Hopper >100 C (200 F) 50 150kg (100 300lb)

At end of shift all Flux to be returned to Heated Hopper

Sub-Arc Machine Flux Hopper ~10kg (~20lb)



A or B Vacuum Recycling Unit Unused Flux

Figure 5

Control and storage of LA491 submerged arc flux


Weld metal mechanical properties

Ambient temperature tensile properties A high resistance to softening by PWHT (temper resistance) is an intrinsic feature of P92 weld metals. This is also a feature of the high temperature (supercritical) HAZ of weldments. Therefore all-weld metal tensile strengths will always overmatch P92 parent steel and cross weld tests typically fail in parent steel, beyond the hardened HAZ. Typical all-weld metal tensile properties at ambient temperature, for weld metals produced using Metrode P92 consumables are given in Table 9. The general similarity to P91 weld metals is shown in Figure 6 by the relationship between strength and hardness taken at the mid-section of weld slices. In Table 9, data for TIG and MMA weld metals is given after PWHT at 760C (1400F) for both 2 and 4 hours, whereas that for FCW and submerged arc welding is for 4 hours. It can be seen that there is little effect on reducing tensile strength by extending the soaking time of PWHT and the strengths are very similar for all four processes. The only noticeable difference is the slightly better elongation shown by the TIG welds.

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Table 9
Consumable Type 9CrWV TIG/GTAW

Metrode P92 weld metal tensile properties at ambient and elevated temperatures
PWHT temp/time C (F)/hr
760 (1400)/2

Test temperature C (F)

20 (68) 20 (68) 550 (1022) 600 (1112) 650 (1202) 20 (68) 20 (68) 550 (1022) 600 (1112) 650 (1202) 20 (68) 550 (1022) 600 (1112) 650 (1202) 700 (1292) 20 (68) 20 (68)

Tensile strength MPa (ksi)

766 (111) 751 (109) 455 (66) 387 (56) 312 (45) 752 (109) 764 (111) 511 (74) 422 (61) 340 (49) 774 (112) 471 (68) 400 (58) 308 (45) 215 (31) 715 (104) 722 (105)

0.2% proof strength MPa (ksi)

650 (94) 645 374 282 200 (94) (54) (41) (29)

Elong. 4d%
25 29 25 21 28 21 22 15 20 20 21 19 25 27 26 24 20

R of A %
70 70 82 85 89 49 50 64 73 80 50 68 77 81 86 62 50

Mid-section hardness HV
256 259 246 245 252 241 247

760 (1400)/4

Chromet 92 MMA/SMAW

760 (1400)/2

627 (91) 635 (92) 419 (61) 320 (46) 229 (33) 649 385 294 194 125 (94) (56) (43) (28) (18)

760 (1400)/4

Supercore F92 FCAW 9CrWV + LA491 Sub Arc 9CrWV + L2N Sub Arc

760 (1400)/4

760 (1400)/4 760 (1400)/4

584 (85) 590 (86)


P91 weld metal UTS

Strength, M Pa


P91 weld metal 0.2% proof stress

P92 SMAW UTS P92 SMAW Proof P92 GTAW UTS P92 GTAW Proof P92 FCAW UTS P92 FCAW Proof P91 average Proof P91 average UTS


400 225 230 235 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275

Hardness, HV (10kg)

Figure 6

The relationship between strength (UTS and 0.2% proof) and hardness for P92. The data points are for P92 and for comparison the two lines show the same relationship for P91

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Elevated temperature tensile properties For an alloy designed to be used at 500-625C (930-1160F), the high temperature properties of P92 weld metal are of considerable importance. Hot tensile tests are not representative of long-term service conditions for P92 weld metal, because of the short term nature of the test but they do provide a convenient method for the comparison of weld metals with base material data generated under similar conditions. High temperature tensile data in the range 550-700C (1020-1300F) is given in Table 9 and is shown plotted in comparison with base material data in Figures 7 and 8. It can be seen that the ultimate tensile strengths and 0.2% proof strengths of Metrode weld metal, from all P92 consumables, are higher than those of the base material minimum over the temperature range of interest. However, there is some convergence of the results at temperatures approaching 700C (1290F) and at temperatures over 600C (1112F) the weld metal results are lower than the average base material 0.2% proof stress. The all-weld metal hot tensile tests reported were carried out on specimens with a gauge diameter of only 5mm. There is some evidence that strength values on small gauge size specimens may be conservative when compared to results from specimens with larger gauge diameter. The results reported are from longitudinal all-weld metal tests, when tensile tests are carried out transversely on welded joints failure will occur in the base material at a UTS about 10-15% lower than the allweld metal values reported here.
FCAW (Metrode Supercore F92) GTAW (Metrode 9CrWV) SMAW (Metrode Chromet 92) SMAW (PWHT+600C aging) V&M T/P92 average Base material min. (NF616)

Tensil e s tre ngth, M Pa




0 0 200 400 Temperature, C 600 800

Figure 7 Elevated temperature UTS data for Metrode P92 weld metals compared with base material

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FCAW (Metrode Supercore F92) GTAW (Metrode 9CrWV) SMAW (Metrode Chromet 92) SMAW (PWHT+600 Aging) V&M T-P92 average Base material min (NF616)

0.2% Proof strength, MPa





0 0 200 400 Temperature, C 600 800

Figure 8 Elevated temperature 0.2% proof strength data for Metrode P92 weld metals compared with base material
8.3 Creep properties Stress rupture tests on all-weld metal specimens show that properties are within the parent material envelope and generally at or above the parent material average. Figure 9 presents a Larson-Miller plot comparing representative TIG, MMA, FCW and SAW weld metal with parent material.

565 C/10 hr P=34.36 +20%
o 5

Rupture Stress, MPa

600 C/10 hr P=35.80 -20%


SMAW (Chromet 92) SAW (9CrWV) FCAW (Supercore F92) SMAW & SAW (other sources) P92 base material average

10 31.0 32.0 33.0 34.0 35.0





P = K(36+Logt)x10

Figure 9

All weld metal stress rupture tests

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Weld metal toughness It can be argued that the toughness of P92 weld metal, which is designed to operate in the temperature range 500-625C (9300-1160F) is an irrelevant consideration, since this is far above the temperature where there is any risk of fast brittle fracture. However there are situations where components might be pressurized or loaded structurally at ambient temperatures during testing or construction. One example is hydrotesting, which depending on code requirements, may be carried out at a temperature between 0 and 30C (32-86F). ASME guidelines recommend a minimum hydrotest temperature of 20C (68F). To cater for these situations, it is considered by some authorities that the weld metal should exceed a minimum toughness at +20C (68F). There are as yet no national specifications for P92 welding consumables but the non-mandatory appendix to A5.5-96 proposes that suitable test criteria can be agreed between purchaser and supplier if required. On the other hand, the European specification BS EN 1599:1997 requires a minimum average value of 47J (35ft-lbs) and a minimum single value of 38J (28ft-lbs) at +20C (68F) for P91 MMA weld metal. It is possible that future specified values for P92 will be of a similar magnitude but reference to Table 10 will show that such levels may be difficult to achieve with some consumables in combination with realistic PWHT temperatures and times. The PWHT temperatures and times given in the table are both greater than those used for P91 and reflect the higher temper resistance of P92. As was stated before, the PWHT temperature is limited by the Ac1 temperature and the PWHT times reflect practical and economic considerations. In addition it may be difficult to justify the need for higher Charpy values than those specified in the same BS EN standard for X20 (12CrMoV), a well-established weld metal with a requirement of 34J (25ft-lbs) average and 22J (16ft-lbs) minimum single value at +20C (68F).

Table 10

Typical all-weld consumables

Gas or Flux








Welding Consumable 9CrWV GTAW/TIG

PWHT C (F)/hr
760 (1400)/2

Test temperature C (F)

0 (32) 20 (68) 0 (32) 20 (68) 20 (68) 0 (32) 20 (68) 20 (68) 70 (158) 20 (68) 20 (68) 20 (68)

Toughness [1] J (ft-lb) mm (inch)

90 (66) 168 (124) 182 (134) 212 (156) 50 (37) 37 (27) 70 (52) 26 (19) 60 (44) 29 (21) 35 (26) 43 (32) 1.08 (0.043) 2.06 (0.081) 2.13 (0.084) 2.25 (0.088) 0.80 (0.030) 0.61 (0.024) 1.10 (0.043) 0.39 (0.015) 0.94 (0.037) 0.41 (0.016) 0.52 (0.020) 0.76 (0.030)

Pure Argon 760 (1400)/4 760 (1400)/2 N/A 760 (1400)/4 760 (1400)/4 760 (1400)/8

Chromet 92 SMAW/MMA

Supercore F92 FCAW 9CrWV Sub Arc


LA491 Flux

760 (1400)/2 760 (1400)/4

Note: [1] There will inevitably be a certain degree of batch to batch variation in impact properties, but the values quoted above are representative of recent tests.

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Although +20C (68F) is the test temperature usually specified for impact testing, minor variations in this test temperature can result in significant changes in impact values. This arises because the transition temperature for P92 MMA weld metal occurs in the temperature range 0-40C (30105F). The typical impact properties achieved for Metrode P92 consumables are shown in Table 10. It can be seen that the TIG and MMA consumables are capable of achieving 47J (35ft-lbs) average at +20C (68F), although the MMA deposits only just achieve this value. The FCAW and submerged arc welds fall short of this particular requirement. An overview of the relationships found between Charpy absorbed energy and lateral expansion is shown in Figure 10. This log-log plot includes the results of tests at 0C and 20C and additional statistics from development data. Lateral expansion is not usually invoked as a notch ductility criterion for power plant materials or welds, but here it seems that when compared to the average trend for P91 weld metal, P92 welds may have a little more notch ductility.

Lateral expan sion, mm

SMAW PWHT 760C/2h SMAW PWHT 760C/4h FCAW 760C/4h FCAW 760C/6h GTAW 760C/2h GTAW 760C/4h P91 weld metal average

0.1 10 100 Impact energy, J 1000

Figure 10 Relationship between Charpy impact energy and lateral expansion for P92 weld metals, compared with the average trend for P91 weld metals
There are four factors which have an influence on weld metal toughness: composition, PWHT, welding process and microstructural refinement. These are reviewed in more detail in the following sections. The high temper resistance is also one factor which increases the difficulty of obtaining good toughness in P92 deposits with realistically short PWHT regimes or at lower temperatures within the permitted tempering range. The composition modifications for weld metals, already discussed in Section 5, are designed primarily to improve toughness by promoting a more rapid tempering response.


In general terms, those elements which are beneficial in improving creep performance are detrimental in terms of toughness, i.e. Nb, V, W and to a lesser extent N and Si. A composition balanced to restrict delta ferrite formation, also detrimental to toughness, and to give a fully martensitic microstructure helps to contribute to both optimum toughness and creep performance.

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Post weld heat treatment

It is important not to set PWHT at too high a temperature because of the risk of austenite reformation and subsequent transformation to fresh untempered martensite, particularly with weld metals containing nickel and manganese. In practice for the P92 weld metals a PWHT temperature of 760C (1400F) should be used for a period of 2 to 4 hours, depending upon thickness and welding process. This should give satisfactory results and ensure that the hardness is below 300HV throughout the welded joint and typically 250HV in the weld metal.


Welding process
The choice of welding process can have a dramatic effect on the toughness of P92 weld metal because of the effects of fluxes and shielding gases. From Table 10 it can be seen that by far the highest toughness values are achieved with the TIG process which gives low weld metal oxygen contents typically less than 100-200ppm, The flux shielded processes such as MMA, FCAW and submerged arc, have oxygen contents in the range 400 to 800ppm and these higher oxygen contents result in significantly reduced toughness values.


Microstructural refinement
Although not reviewed in detail here, microstructural refinement, which is influenced by heat input, bead size and bead sequence can also influence the weld metal toughness. This is generally true of all weld metals which undergo austenite transformation during cooling and reheating in multipass welding. It has been reported that thin weld beads result in superior weld metal refinement and hence produce better impact properties. For P91 MMA deposits, this was reported as resulting in improvements of up to 50% in impact values at +20C (68F). Tests carried out by Metrode have not shown such distinct differences in impact properties with variations in bead size/placement.

Welding P92 to dissimilar materials

P92 is logically applied where its combination of properties are most appropriate. It is therefore inevitable that in many cases, welded joints will be required between P92 and other dissimilar creep resisting steels. These may include P91 or lower alloy ferritic-bainitic types such as P22 (2Cr-1Mo) or one of the lean CrMoV creep-resistant alloys. Occasionally welded joints may be required between P92 and an austenitic stainless heat resisting steel such as type 316H.


P92 to P91 It is probable that any project using P92 will also have components made of P91 which will need to be welded to each other. Considering the similarities between the two materials it should be possible to obtain sound weld joints between P92 and P91 using either a P92 or P91 weld metal. Because of the relative costs and better availability of P91 consumables these would probably be the most widely used for dissimilar joints between P92 and P91. The PWHT could then be carried out as normal eg. 760C.


P92 to P22 or other low alloy steels Two specifications which offer relevant guidance for welding dissimilar creep resisting steels are AWS D10.8 and BS 2633. In AWS D10.8 the four possible options for weld metal composition are listed; these are (1) matching the lower alloy, 2CrMo, (2) matching the higher alloy, P92, (3) an intermediate composition, possibly 5CrMo or 9CrMo, (4) different to any of these, in practice a nickel base alloy. Preference is given to the lower alloy option, on the grounds that it should be sufficient to match the weaker of the two materials being joined. A similar approach is presented in

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BS 2633 except that the intermediate type 9CrMo is suggested for dissimilar joints involving P91, so would presumably also be considered for joints involving P92. Greater emphasis is also given, in BS 2633, to considering a nickel base weld metal, whereas in AWS D10.8 this approach is considered unnecessary except where stainless steel or nickel alloy base materials are involved. The use of nickel base also limits the scope for NDT methods. It is also important to consider the most appropriate PWHT regime to reconcile the different optimum ranges for P92 730-790 C (1345-1455 F); P22 usually 680-720 C (1255-1330 F) and the weld metal. BS 2633 explains that the PWHT temperature is a compromise and in general is applied at the lowest temperature for the higher alloy material, although for optimum creep properties the highest temperature allowed for the lower alloy material should be used. Hence a temperature around 720-730 C (1330-1345 F), for 1-3 hours, has been reported for P91 to P22 joints. This is sufficient to temper the P92 HAZ without over-tempering the P22, and is also a satisfactory temperature for welds using either 2CrMo or 9CrMo consumables. However, it is too low for satisfactory tempering if the weld metal is a P91/P92 type, for which 746 C (1375 F) has been reported for P91 to P22 joints; >2 hours or ~ hour for small bore pipe <10mm (<0.4in) wall thickness. PWHT is of course necessary for stress relief and to give the weldment satisfactory ductility and toughness. However, there is a tendency for PWHT (and long term service at operating temperature) to promote carbon migration around fusion boundaries towards the higher chromium alloy. Consequently a weakened carbon-depleted zone develops in the adjacent material with lower chromium, which may be located in the weld metal or base material, depending on weld metal composition. If this process is not too severe, ultimate failure is expected in the lower alloy base material (eg P22 type IV zone). It seems that the weld metal composition preferred by different authorities is influenced by their assessment of these issues. 9.3 P92 to austenitic or higher alloy steels There is no significant diversity of opinion with respect to these combinations. Based on many years experience with dissimilar welds between ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, nickel base consumables are used because they provide the required metallurgical compatibility, long term creep strength and ductility. Although there is a steep composition gradient at the P92 fusion boundary, carbon migration here is much slower with nickel base alloys and PWHT can be carried out without problems. In joints with austenitic stainless steels, the effect of PWHT on the stainless steel should be considered. If this must be avoided, the P92 will need to be buttered and given a PWHT to temper the HAZ before the joint is filled, unless elimination of PWHT itself is acceptable. The use of 309 consumables with moderate ferrite content is indicated in AWS D10.8 for welding ferritic/martensitic steels to austenitic stainless steels where the joint service temperature is below 315 C (600 F). Above this temperature, excessive carbon migration, microstructural instability and the high expansion coefficient relative to the low alloy material leads to unsatisfactory performance. The appropriate Metrode consumables, which correspond to the generic 2CrMo, 5CrMo, 9CrMo, 309, and nickel base descriptions used in this section are listed in Table 11.

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Table 11

Metrode consumables for dissimilar joints involving P92 Product

Chromet 2 2CrMo ER90S-B3 SA2CrMo LA121 Cormet 2 [1] Sub Arc Sub Arc Flux FCW MMA TIG/MIG FCW MMA TIG/MIG FCW MMA TIG/MIG Sub Arc Flux MMA MMA TIG/MIG Sub Arc Flux

Alloy Group 2CrMo


E9018-B3 ER90S-G ER90S-B3 EB3 E91T1-B3 E8015-B6 ER80S-B6 E81T1-B6M E8015-B8 ER80S-B8 E81T1-B8M E309-16 ER309 ENiCrFe-3 ENiCrFe-2 ERNiCr-3 -

E CrMo2B CrMo2Si CrMo2 SA FB 155 AC E CrMo5 B CrMo5 E CrMo9 B CrMo9 309S94 SA AF2 DC E Ni6182 E Ni6092 S Ni6082 SA FB 2


Chromet 5 5CrMo Cormet 5 Chromet 9 9CrMo Cormet 9

309 [2]

Thermet 309CF 309S94 SSB

Nickel base

Nimrod 182KS [3] Nimrod AKS [4] 20.70.Nb NiCr


[1] Cormet 2 FCW has been shown to have creep performance exceeding that of P22 parent steels as a result of controlled micro alloying. [2] These 309 types have controlled ferrite and moderate ferrite content and are usually preferred to the low carbon 309L types for elevated temperature service. [3] Nimrod 182KS with a high manganese content is most frequently specified, particularly for welds between P92 and austenitic stainless steels. [4] Nimrod AKS which has a lower manganese content and lower thermal expansion coefficient than Nimrod 182KS maybe preferred for welds between P92 and P22 or nickel base alloys.


Further reading
Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes The T92/P92 Book, 2000. Marshall A W and Zhang Z: COST 522 Final Report Development of Welding Consumables for Advanced Cr-Mo Creep Resistance Steels , Metrode Products Limited, September 2003. Marshall A W , Zhang Z and Holloway G B: Welding consumables for P92 and T23 creep resistance steels; Conference Proceedings: 5th International EPRI RRAC Conference on Welding & Repairing Technology for Power Plants, Point Clear, Alabama, USA, June 2002. Metrode Products Limited: Welding consumables for P91 steels for the power generation Industry. Masuyama F and Yokoyama T: NF616 Fabrication Trials in comparison with HCM12A; Conference Proceedings: The EPRI/National Power Conference - New Steels for Advanced Plant up to 620C, edited by E Metcalfe, London, UK, May 1995.

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Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

Welding Procedure No: CH92-01
Welding process (root): Consumable: Specification: Consumable: Specification: TIG (GTAW) Parent Material:

Base Material
A335 P92


Welding process (fill): -

Chromet 92

Thickness: Outside Diameter:

15-60mm 16 NB (406mm OD)

Joint Details
Joint Type: Manual/Mechanised: Butt single sided Manual Welding Position:

Joint Position

Joint Sketch
Joint for thickness < 20mm Joint for thickness > 20mm

f = 1-3mm; g = 2-4mm; = 70

f = 1-3mm; g = 2-4mm; = 70; = 20

Welding Details
Run Process Consumable Diameter mm Current A Voltage V Type of current / Polarity Wire Feed Speed m/min Heat Input kJ/mm

1 2-3 4-7 Rem


9CrWV 9CrWV Chromet 92 Chromet 92

2.4 2.4 3.2 4.0

70-110 80-140 90-130 120-170

~12 ~12 ~24 ~25



~1.2 ~ 1.2 ~ 1.0 ~ 1.2

Electrode Baking or Drying: Gas root (TIG) shielding: purge: Gas Flow Rate (TIG) Shielding: Purge: Tungsten Electrode Type/Size: Details of Back Gouging/Backing: Preheat Temperature: Interpass Temperature: Post-Weld Heat Treatment: Temperature: Time:

300-350oC/1-2h Pure Ar Pure Ar (note 1) 8-15 l/min 4-10 l/min 2% Th/2.4mm NA 200oC min (note 2) 300 C max Note 3. 760oC 10oC 1h/25mm (2 hours min) Note 4.

Notes: 1. Maintain purge for runs 1-3. 2. Preheat 150oC min for TIG. 3. Cool to ~100oC before PWHT. 4. Heating & cooling rate <100oC/h (above 300C). 5. Stringer beads, maximum weave 3 x .

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Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

Welding Procedure No: SCF92-01
Welding process (root): Consumable: Specification: TIG (GTAW) Parent Material: Thickness:

Base Material
A335 P92 15-60mm


Welding process (fill): Consumable: Specification:

Joint Details
Joint Type: Manual/Mechanised: Single side butt weld Manual

Chromet 92

Welding process (fill): Consumable: Specification:

Joint Position
Welding Position: ASME: 6G BS EN: HL045

Supercore F92 (Note 1)


Joint Sketch

Welding Sequences

f = 1-2mm; g = 3-4mm; = 75; = 10-20

Welding Details
Run Process Consumable Diameter mm Current A Voltage V Type of current / Polarity Wire Feed Speed m/min Heat Input kJ/mm

1 2-6 Fill


9CrWV Chromet 92 Supercore F92

2.4 3.2 1.2

80-120 90-110 160-190

~12 ~22 25-27

DCDC+ DC+ (Note 2)

NA NA ~6-8

~1.4 ~1.0 ~1.2

Electrode Baking or Drying: Gas root (TIG) shielding: purge: Gas Flow Rate (TIG) Shielding: Purge: Tungsten Electrode Type/Size: Details of Back Gouging/Backing: Preheat Temperature: Interpass Temperature: Post-Weld Heat Treatment: Temperature: Time:

300-350C/1-2h Argon Argon (Note 3) 8-12 l/min 4-10 l/min 2% Th / 2.4mm NA 200C min (note 4) 300C Note 5. 760C 10C 1 h/25mm (4 hours min) Note 6.

Notes: 1. Shielding gas Ar-20%CO2 at 15-25 l/min. 2. Electrode stickout 15-25mm. 3. Maintain purge for at least first two runs. 4. Preheat 150C min for TIG. 5. Cool to ~100C before PWHT. 6. Heating & cooling rate <100C/h (above 300C).

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Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)

Welding Procedure No: SAW-P92-01
Welding process (root): Consumable: Specification: TIG (GTAW) Parent Material: Thickness: Outside diameter:

Base Material
A335 P92 25-75mm


Welding process (hot pass): Consumable: Specification:

Joint Details
Joint Type: Manual/Mechanised: Butt single sided Manual & mechanised

Chromet 92

Welding process (fill): Consumable: Specification:

Joint Position
Welding Position: ASME, 1G (1GR; note 6). BS EN, PA (note 6).

9CrWV + LA491 (flux)


Joint Sketch

f = 13mm; g = 2-4mm; = 70; = 20

Welding Details
Run Process Consumable Diameter mm Current A Voltage V Type of current / Polarity Travel Speed mm/min Heat Input kJ/mm

1 2-3 4-7 Rem

TIG TIG MMA SAW (note 1)

9CrWV 9CrWV Chromet 92 9CrWV

2.4 2.4 3.2 2.4

70-110 80-140 90-130 350-450

~12 ~12 ~24 ~30



NA NA NA 400-500

~ 1.0 ~ 1.2 ~ 1.2 ~ 2.0

Electrode & Flux Drying: Gas root (TIG) shielding: purge: Gas Flow Rate (TIG) Shielding: Purge: Tungsten Electrode Type/Size: Details of Back Gouging/Backing: Preheat Temperature: Interpass Temperature: Post-Weld Heat Treatment: Temperature: Time:

300-350oC/1-2h Pure Ar Pure Ar (note 2) 8-15 l/min 4-10 l/min 2% Th/2.4mm NA 200oC min (note 3) 300oC max Note 4. 760 C 10 C 1h/25mm (4 hours min) Note 5.
o o

1. SAW flux LA491. ~20mm wire extension, ~30mm flux depth. 2. Maintain purge for runs 1-3. 3. Preheat 150oC min for TIG. 4. Cool to <100oC before PWHT. 5. Heating & cooling rate <100oC/h (above 300C). 6. For rotated pipe, head to be 10 before TDC perpendicular to pipe.

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Alloy type
9%Cr steel alloyed with W, Mo, V, Nb, and N for high temperature creep resistance.

METRODE PRODUCTS LTD HANWORTH LANE, CHERTSEY SURREY, KT16 9LL Tel: +44(0)1932 566721 Fax: +44(0)1932 566168 Sales Fax: +44(0)1932 569449 Technical Fax: +44(0)1932 566199 Export Email: Internet: http//

Minimum preheat temperature 200C with maximum interpass temperature of 350C; in practice a preheatinterpass range of 200 300C is normal. To ensure full martensite transformation welds should be cooled to ~100C prior to PWHT; up to 50mm wall thickness can be cooled to room temperature whilst thick wall forgings or castings should not be cooled below ~80C prior to PWHT. ASME base material codes allow PWHT down to 730C but for weld metals PWHT is normally carried out in the range 750-770C. Optimum properties are obtained with PWHT at 760C for 4 hours. When compared with directly matching weld metal, the addition of some nickel and reduction of niobium provides a useful improvement in toughness after PWHT.

Materials to be welded
ASTM A 213 T92 (seamless tubes) A 335 P92 (seamless pipes) A 387 Gr 92 (plates) A 182 F92 (forgings) A 369 FP92 (forged & bored pipe) EN X10CrWMoVNb 9-2

These consumables are designed to weld equivalent type 92 9%Cr steels modified with tungsten, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen and a small addition boron to give improved long term creep properties. They are specifically intended for high integrity structural service at elevated temperature so the minor alloy additions responsible for its creep strength are kept above the minimum considered necessary to ensure satisfactory performance. In practice, weldments will be weakest in the softened (intercritical) HAZ region of parent material, as indicated by so-called type IV failure in transverse weld creep tests. The rupture strength of P92 is up to 30% greater than P91, and interest in its use is growing as a candidate for components such as headers, main steam piping and turbine casings, in fossil fuelled power generating plants.

Additional information
D Richardot, J C Vaillant, A Arbab, W Bendick: The T92/P92 Book Vallourec & Mannesmann Tubes, 2000.

Products available
Process MMA TIG

Product Chromet 92 9CrWV 9CrWV (wire) LA491 (flux) Supercore F92

---BS EN SA FB 255AC --


In the PWHT condition the microstructure consists of tempered martensite.

Rev 02


DS: A-20 (pg 1 of 5)

Chromet 92
Product description

MMA all-positional electrode for joining P92 creep resisting steel

Basic coated MMA electrode made on pure low carbon core wire. Moisture resistant coatings giving very low weld metal hydrogen levels. Recovery is approx 120% with respect to core wire, 65% with respect to whole electrode.

Specifications ASME IX Qualification Composition (weld metal wt %)

None applicable.
QW422 P-No 5B group 2, QW432 F-No --, QW442 A-No -C min max typ Mn Si S P Cr Ni Mo W Nb V N B Al Cu

0.08 0.40 ---0.13 1.00 0.40 0.015 0.020 0.11 0.6 0.25 0.01 0.01

8.0 -- 0.30 1.5 9.5 0.80 0.60 2.0 9 0.6 0.45 1.7

0.04 0.15 0.03 0.07 0.25 0.07 0.05 0.2 0.05

0.001 -0.005 0.03 0.003 <0.01

-0.15 <0.05

All-weld mechanical properties

PWHT 760C / 2-4h Tensile strength 0.2% Proof stress Elongation on 4d Elongation on 5d Reduction of area Impact energy Hardness


----- High Temperature ----+550C +600C +650C

+ 20C

MPa MPa % % % J HV

620 440 17 16 ---380 15.0 378

740 630 22 19 50 60 230-260


511 419 15 14 64 --5.0

422 320 19.5 18 73 --450 16.5 150

340 229 19.5 18 80 ---

Packaging data

mm length mm kg/carton pieces/carton

350 13.5 657

380/450 15.0/17.1 264/249

* 450mm is the standard length for 4.0mm, 380mm produced to order. Operating parameters DC +ve.
mm min A max A

AC (OCV 70V min)

2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0

70 110

80 140

100 180

140 240


3 hermetically sealed ring-pull metal tins per carton, with unlimited shelf life. Direct use from tin will give hydrogen <5ml/100g weld metal during 8h working shift. For electrodes that have been exposed: Redry 250 300C/1-2h to ensure H2 < 10ml/100g, 300 350C/1-2h to ensure H2 < 5ml/100g. Maximum 420C, 3 cycles, 10h total. Storage of redried electrodes at 100 200C in holding oven, or 50 150C in heated quivers: no limit, but maximum 6 weeks recommended. Fume composition (wt %)
Fe Mn Ni Cr Cu Pb F OES (mg/m )

Fume data


< 0.1


< 0.1

< 0.1



Rev 02


DS: A-20 (pg 2 of 5)

Product description Specifications ASME IX Qualification Composition (wire wt %) Solid wire, non-copper coated, for TIG and SAW welding.
None applicable.

Solid wire for TIG and SAW

QW422 P-No 5B group 2, QW432 F-No --, QW442 A-No -C min max Typ Mn Si S P Cr Ni Mo W Nb V N B Al Cu

0.08 0.40 ---8.0 -- 0.30 1.5 0.04 0.15 0.03 0.001 0.13 1.00 0.40 0.015 0.015 9.5 0.80 0.60 2.0 0.07 0.25 0.07 0.005 0.11 0.7 0.30 0.01 0.01 9 0.5 0.45 1.7 0.06 0.2 0.05 0.003
min TIG typical

-0.03 <0.01

-0.15 <0.05

All-weld mechanical properties

PWHT 760C / 2 4h Tensile strength 0.2% Proof stress Elongation on 4d Elongation on 5d Reduction of area Impact energy Hardness

----- High Temperature TIG ----+550C +600C +650C

+ 20C

MPa MPa % % % J HV (mid)

620 440 16 ----SAW

800 700 22 19 70 220 265

455 374 24.5 22.5 82 ---

387 282 20.5 19 85 --MIG

312 200 28 25.5 89 ---

Shielding Diameter, mm Current Typical parameters

Argon 2.4 DC100A, 12V


LA491 flux 2.4 DC+ 450A, 30V, 450mm/min


9CrWV is not recommended for MIG welding. Supercore F92 should be used.

Packaging data Fume data

mm 2.4

5kg tube

25kg coil

Fume composition (wt %); TIG and SAW fume is negligible:

Fe Mn Ni Cr Mo Cu OES (mg/m )


< 0.4


< 0.5

LA491 Flux
Product description Specifications Composition (weld metal wt %) Flux: 15% SiO2 + Ti O2 40% CaO + Mg O 20% AlO3 + MnO 25% CaF2 Basicity index ~2.7 (Boniszewski)
C 9CrWV Wire Deposit Mn Si S P

Sub-arc flux for use with 9CrWV solid wire

Agglomerated fluoride-basic submerged arc welding flux BS EN 760 SA FB 255 AC

Analysis deposit (typical)





0.11 0.09

0.7 0.7

0.3 0.3

0.01 0.01

0.01 0.01

9.0 8.5

0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4

1.7 1.7

0.06 0.04

0.19 0.16

0.05 0.04

0.003 0.001

Rev 02


DS: A-20 (pg 3 of 5)

LA491 Flux (continued)

All-weld mechanical properties
PWHT 760C / 2 4h Tensile strength 0.2% Proof stress Elongation on 4d Reduction of area Impact energy Hardness

Sub-arc flux for use with 9CrWV solid wire

min SAW & LA491 typical

+ 20C

MPa MPa % % J HV (mid)

620 440 16 ----

740 630 20 60 35 250

Parameters Packaging data

AC or DC+ 800A maximum 25kg sealed drums Preferred storage <60%RH, > 18C. If flux becomes damp, rebake at 300 350C / 1 2hours to restore to as-packed condition. For critical work, it is recommended to redry to ensure <5ml H2/100g.

Supercore F92
Product description Specifications ASME IX Qualification Composition (wire wt %)

All-positional flux cored wire

All-positional flux cored wire designed to weld equivalent P92 steels. Rutile flux system with an alloyed strip producing weld metal recovery of about 90%. AWS A5.29 No current national standards.

QW432 F-No -, QW442 A-No C min max Typ Mn Si S P Cr Ni Mo W Nb V N B Al Cu

0.08 0.40 ---0.13 1.20 0.40 0.015 0.020 0.11 0.8 0.30 0.01 0.017

8.5 0.30 0.30 1.5 9.5 0.80 0.60 2.0 9 0.5 0.45 1.7

0.03 0.15 0.03 0.07 0.25 0.07 0.04 0.2 0.04

0.001 -0.005 0.03 0.003 <0.01

-0.15 <0.05

All-weld mechanical properties

PWHT 760C / 4-6h Tensile strength 0.2% Proof stress Elongation on 4d Elongation on 5d Reduction of area Impact energy Hardness

--------------- High Temperature -----------+550C +600C +650C +700C

+ 20C

775 650 21 18 50 25 260

471 385 18.5 17 68 ---

400 294 25 22.5 77 ---

308 194 26.5 24.5 81 ---

215 125 25.5 23.5 86 ---

Operating parameters

Shielding gas: 80%Ar-20%CO2 (or 15 25%CO2) or 100% CO2 at 20-25l/min. Current: DC+ve ranges as below: 1.2mm (0.045in) welding position Positional amp-volt range * 140-170A, 24-26V typical stickout

160A, 25V


* Using 100%CO2 the voltage should be increased by 1-2V

Packaging data

Spools vacuum-sealed in barrier foil with cardboard carton: 15kg (33 lbs) The as-packed shelf life is virtually indefinite. Resistance to moisture absorption is high, but to maintain the high integrity of the wire surface and prevent any possibility of porosity, it is advised that part-used spools are returned to polythene wrappers. Where possible, preferred storage conditions are 60% RH max, 18C min. Fume composition (wt %), shielding gas 80%Ar-20%CO2:
Fe Mn Ni Cr

Fume data



OES (mg/m )


< 0.5



Rev 02


DS: A-20 (pg 4 of 5)