PENGETAHUAN LINGKUNGAN INDUSTRI ENERGI PANAS BUMI (GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

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Rudini Mulya Daulay Fakultas Teknik, Jurusan Teknik Industri – Universitas Mercu Buana email: rudinimenteri@gmail.com

Abstrak
Geothermal energy comes from the heat within the Earth. The word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and therme, meaning heat. People around the world use geothermal energy to produce electricity, to heat homes and buildings, and to provide hot water for a variety of uses.The Earth’s core lies almost 4,000 miles beneath the Earth’s surface. The double-layered core is made up of very hot molten iron surrounding a solid iron center. Estimates of the temperature of the core range from 5,000 to 11,000 degrees Fahrenheit (oF). This magma can reach the surface and form volcanoes, but most remains underground where it can underlie regions as large as huge mountain ranges. The magma can take from 1,000 to 1,000,000 years to cool as its heat is transferred to surrounding rocks. In areas where there is underground water, the magma can fill rock fractures and porous rocks. The water becomes heated and can circulate back to the surface to create hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles, or it can become trapped underground, forming deep geothermal reservoirs. Geothermal energy is called a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall, and the heat is continuously produced within the Earth by the slow decay of radioactive particles that occurs naturally in all rocks.

key word : Geothermal Energy, Renewable, Ring of Fire

PENDAHULUAN
Many ancient peoples, including the Romans, Chinese, and Native Americans, used hot mineral springs for bathing, cooking, and heating. Water from hot springs is now used worldwide in spas, for heating buildings, and for agricultural and industrial uses. Many people believe hot mineral springs have natural healing powers. Today, we drill wells into geothermal reservoirs deep underground and use the steam and heat to drive turbines in electric power plants. The hot water is also used directly to heat buildings, to increase the growth rate of fish in hatcheries and crops in greenhouses, to pasteurize milk, to dry foods products and lumber, and for mineral baths.

Where is Geothermal Energy Found? Geologists use many methods to find geothermal reservoirs. They study aerial photographs and geological maps. They analyze the chemistry of local water sources and the concentration of metals in the soil. They may measure variations in gravity and magnetic fields. Yet the only way they can be sure there is a geothermal reservoir is by drilling an exploratory well.
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High Temperature: Producing Electricity When geothermal reservoirs are located near the surface, we can reach them by drilling wells. Some wells are more than two miles deep. Exploratory wells are drilled to search for reservoirs. Once a reservoir has been found, production wells are drilled. Hot water and steam—at temperatures of 250oF to 700oF—are brought to the surface and used to generate electricity at power plants near the production wells. There are several different types of geothermal power plants:

Flash Steam Plants Most geothermal power plants are flash steam plants. Hot water from production wells flashes (explosively boils) into steam when it is released from the underground pressure of the reservoir. The force of the steam is used to spin the turbine generator. To conserve water and maintain the pressure in the reservoir, the steam is condensed into water and injected back into the reservoir to be reheated.

Dry Steam Plants A few geothermal reservoirs produce mostly steam and very little water. In dry steam plants, the steam from the reservoir shoots directly through a rock–catcher into the turbine generator. The rock-catcher protects the turbine from small rocks that may be carried along with the steam from the reservoir. The first geothermal power plant was a dry steam plant built at Larderello in Tuscany, Italy, in 1904. The original buildings were destroyed during World War II, but they have since been rebuilt and expanded. The Larderello field is still producing electricity today. The Geysers dry steam reservoir in northern California has been producing electricity since 1960. It is the largest known dry steam field in the world and, after 50 years, still produces enough electricity to supply a city the size of San Francisco.

Binary Cycle Power Plants Binary cycle power plants transfer the heat from geothermal hot water to other liquids to produce electricity. The geothermal water is passed through a heat exchanger in a closed pipe system, and then reinjected into the reservoir. The heat exchanger transfers the heat to a working fluid—usually isobutane or isopentane —which boils at a lower temperature than water. The vapor from the working fluid is used to turn the turbines. Binary systems can, therefore, generate electricity from reservoirs with lower temperatures. Since the system is closed, there is little heat loss and almost no water loss, and virtually no emissions.

Hybrid Power Plants In some power plants, flash and binary systems are combined to make use of both the steam and the hot water. The Puna Geothermal Venture Facility produces 30 megawatts of power, or 20 percent of the electricity needed by the big island of Hawaii.  Low Temperature: Direct Use or Heating Only in the last century have we used geothermal energy to produce electricity, but people have used it to make their lives more comfortable since the dawn of humankind.
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Hot Spring Bathing and Spas For centuries, people have used hot springs for cooking and bathing. The early Romans used geothermal water to treat eye and skin diseases and, at Pompeii, to heat buildings. Medieval wars were even fought over lands for their hot springs. Today, many hot springs are still used for bathing. And around the world, millions of people visit health spas to soak in the mineral–rich water.  Agriculture and Aquaculture Water from geothermal reservoirs is used in many places to warm greenhouses that grow flowers, vegetables, and other crops. Natural warm water can also speed the growth of fish, shellfish, reptiles, and amphibians. In Japan, aqua-farms grow eels and alligators. In the U.S., aqua-farmers grow tropical fish for pet shops. Iceland hopes to raise two million abalone, a shellfish delicacy, each year through aquaculture.  Industry The heat from geothermal water is used worldwide for dying cloth, drying fruits and vegetables, washing wool, manufacturing paper, pasteurizing milk, and drying timber products. It is also used to help extract gold and silver from ore. In Klamath Falls, OR, hot water is piped under sidewalks and roads to keep them from freezing in winter.  Heating The most widespread use of geothermal resources —after bathing—is to heat buildings. In the Paris basin in France, geothermal water from shallow wells was used to heat homes 600 years ago. More than 150,000 homes in France use geothermal heat today. Geothermal district systems pump hot water from a reservoir through a heat exchanger that transfers the heat to separate water pipes that go to many buildings. The geothermal water is then reinjected into the reservoir to be reheated. The first district heating system in the U.S. was built in 1893 in Boise, ID, where it is still in use. There are many other systems in use in the country today. Because it is clean and economical, district heating is becoming increasingly popular. In Iceland, almost 90 percent of residents use geothermal energy for heat and hot water. Once you go about twenty feet below the Earth’s surface, the temperatu re is remarkably constant year round. In temperate regions, the temperature stays about 52 degrees Fahrenheit. In tropical regions, it can range as high as 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit, while certain arctic regions stay near freezing all year. For most areas, this means that soil temperatures are usually warmer than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. Geothermal exchange systems use the Earth’s constant temperatures to heat and cool buildings. These heat pumps transfer heat from the ground into buildings in winter and reverse the process in the summer. A geothermal exchange system doesn’t look like a traditional furnace or air conditioner. For one thing, most of the equipment is underground. A liquid —usually a mixture of water and antifreeze—circulates through a long loop of plastic pipe buried in the ground. This liquid absorbs heat and carries it either into or out of the building. One advantage of a geothermal exchange system is that it doesn’t have to manufacture heat. The heat is free, renewable, and readily available in the ground. The only energy this system needs is the electricity to pump the liquid through the pipes and deliver the conditioned air to the building. The pump itself is usually a small unit located inside the building.
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 Geothermal Production Geothermal energy is put to work in many places around the world. The best-known geothermal energy sources in the United States are located in western states and Hawaii. Geothermal power plants operate in California, Nevada, Utah, Hawaii, Idaho, Texas, and Montana. Today, the total installed capacity of geothermal power plants in the United States is almost 3,500 megawatts (MW). There are currently 152 projects in development in 15 states that could add over 7,000 MW to geothermal’s capacity. JENIS-JENIS SISTEM GEOTHERMAL a. Direct Dry Steam b. Separated Steam c. Double Flash Steam d. Multi Flash Steam e. Brine/Freon Binary Cycle f. Combined Cycle g. Well Head Generating Unit.

Gambar 3. Direct Dry Steam Cycle a. Siklus Uap Kering (Direct Dry Steam Cycle) Pembangkit listrik geothermal dengan tipe dry steam mengambil uap dari bawah tanah.Uap tersebut dialirkan ke dalam sistem pemipaan secara langsung dari bawah tanah ke turbin di suatu pembangkit.PLTP sistem dry steam mengambil sumber uap panas dari bawah permukaan.Sistem ini dipakai jika fluida yang dikeluarkan melalui sumur produksi berupa fasa uap. Uap tersebut yang langsung dimanfaatkan untuk memutar turbin dan kemudian turbin akan mengubah energi panas bumi menjadi energi gerak yang akan memutar generator untuk menghasilkan energi listrik.

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b. Siklus Uap Hasil Pemisahan (Separated Steam Cycle) Apabila fluida panas bumi keluar dari kepala sumur sebagai campuran fluida dua fasa (fasa uap dan fasa cair) maka terlebih dahulu dilakukan proses pemisahan pada fluida. Hal ini dimungkinkan dengan melewatkan fluida ke dalam separator, sehingga fasa uap akan terpisahkan dari fasa cairnya. Fraksi uap yang dihasilkan dari separator inilah yang kemudian dialirkan ke turbin.Oleh karena uap yang digunakan adalah hasil pemisahan maka, sistem konversi energi ini dinamakan Siklus uap hasil pemisahan.

Gambar 4. Separated Steam Cycle c. Siklus Uap Hasil Pemisahan dan Penguapan (Double Flash Steam) pada sistem ini Flash Steam merupakan PLTP yang paling umum digunakan. Pembangkit jenis ini memanfaatkan reservoir panas bumi yang berisi air dengan temperatur lebih besar dari 82°C.Air yang sangat panas ini dialirkan ke atas melalui pipa sumur produksi dengan tekanannya sendiri. Karena mengalir keatas, tekanannya menurun dan beberapa bagian dari air menjadi uap. Uap ini kemudian dipisahkan dari air dan dialirkan untuk memutar turbin. Sisa air dan uap yang terkondensasi kemudian disuntikkan kembali melalui sumur injeksi kedalam reservoir, yang memungkinkan sumber energi ini berkesinambungan dan terbaru.

Gambar 5. Double Flash Steam

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d. Siklus Uap Hasil Pemisahan dan Penguapan dengan Dua Turbin Terpisah (Flashing Multi Flash Steam) Sistem siklus konversi energi ini mirip dengan sistem double flash, bedanya adalah kedua turbin yang berbeda tekanan disusun secara terpisah (Gambar 4.5), Uap dengan tekanan dan temperatur tinggi yang mengandung air dipisahkan di separator agar diperoleh uap kering yang digunakan untuk menggerakkan high pressure turbin. Turbin akan mengubah energi panas bumi menjadi energi gerak yang akan memutar generator sehingga dihasilkan energi listrik. Air hasil pemisahan dari separator temperatur dan tekanannya akan lebih rendah dari kondisi fluida di kepala sumur. e. Binary Cycle Pembangkit listrik geothermal tipe binary cycle bekerja dengan memanfaatkan air panas yang bersuhu 107°— 182°C.Panas yang dimiliki air digunakan untuk mendidihkan suatu cairan tertentu yang biasanya terbuat dari bahan organik dengan titik didih rendah. PLTP sistem Binary Cycle dioperasikan dengan air pada temperatur lebih rendah yaitu antara 107°182°C. Pembangkit ini menggunakan panas dari air panas untuk mendidihkan fluida kerja yang biasanya senyawa organik (misalnya iso-butana) yang mempunyai titik didih rendah.

Gambar 6. Binary Cycle f. Combined Cycle Untuk meningkatkan efesiensi pemanfaatan energy panas bumi di beberapa industry mulai digunkan system pembangkit listrik dengan siklus kombinasi.Fluida panas bumi dari sumur dipisahkan fasa-fasanya dalam separator.Uap dari separator dialirkan ke PLTP (turbin ke I), dan setelah itu sebelum fluida di injeksikan ke dalam reservoir, fluida digunakan untuk memanaskan fluida organic yang mempunyai titik didih rendah.Uap dari fluida organic tersebut kemudian digunkan untuk menggerakkan turbin (turbin ke II). g. Well Head Generating Unit Ada dua jenis ―Well Head Generating Unit, yaitu : 1. Back Pressure turbine atau turbine tanpa kondensor (Atmospheric exhaust). Turbin ini tidak dilengkapi dengan kondensor. Uap dari sumur atau uap dari separator dialirkan langsung ke turbin dan setelah digunkan untuk membangkitkan listrik langsung dilepas ke atmosfer.

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2. Turbin yang dilengkapi dengan kondensor (condensing unit). Turbin ini dilengkapi dengan kondensor. Uap keluaran dari turbin di ubah menjadi kondensat di dalam kondensor.  Geothermal Economics Geothermal power plants can produce electricity as cheaply as many conventional power plants. Operating and maintenance costs from one to three cents per kWh at a geothermal power plant, while the electric power generated sells for three to five cents per kWh. In comparison, new coal-fired and natural gas plants produce electricity at about four cents per kWh. Initial construction costs for geothermal power plants are high because geothermal wells and power plants must be constructed at the same time. But the cost of producing electricity over time is lower because the price and availability of the fuel is stable and predictable. The fuel does not have to be imported or transported to the power plant. The power plant literally sits on top of its fuel source.  Geothermal Energy and the Environment Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that does little damage to the environment. Geothermal steam and hot water do contain naturally occurring traces of hydrogen sulfide (a gas that smells like rotten eggs) and other gases and chemicals that can be harmful in high concentrations.

Geothermal power plants use scrubber systems to clean the air of hydrogen sulfide and the other gases. Sometimes the gases are converted into marketable products, such as liquid fertilizer. Geothermal power plants do not burn fuel to generate electricity, so their emission levels are very low. They release less than one percent of the carbon dioxide emitted by comparable fossil fuel plants.

Emissions of sulfur compounds from vehicles and fossil fuel plants also contribute to acid rain. Geothermal power plants, on the other hand, emit only one to three percent of the sulfur compounds that coal and oil-fired power plants do. Well-designed binary cycle power plants have no emissions at all. Geothermal power plants are compatible with many environments. They have been built in deserts, in the middle of crops, and in mountain forests. Development is often allowed on federal lands because it does not significantly harm the environment. Geothermal features in national parks, such as geysers and fumaroles in Yellowstone and Lassen Volcanic National Parks, are protected by law, so geothermal reservoirs are not tapped in these areas.  Geothermal Reserves The Earth has no shortage of geothermal activity, but not all geothermal resources are easy or economical to use. Geothermal energy comprises four percent of the total U.S. domestic energy reserves, an amount exceeded only by coal (83 percent) and biomass (five percent).

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Because energy sources are considered energy reserves only when they are economical to develop, the amount of geothermal reserves will increase as the price of other fuels increases. Improvements in technology will make it easier to capture geothermal resources. This will also bring costs down and increase geothermal reserves. In 2008, there were geothermal power plants in 19 countries, generating 60,435 megawatts of electricity. Direct uses of geothermal reservoirs amount to over 10,000 megawatts of thermal energy in 24 countries. An additional 22 countries have new geothermal electricity projects in development.

 Future Geothermal Resources Today, geothermal power plants use hydrothermal resources ( hydro = water, therme = heat). Three other kinds of geothermal resources—hot dry rock, magma, and geopressured— are often called near-future geothermal resources. Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy are studying ways to develop these resources for electricity production. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Resources underlie much of the world’s surface. The U.S. is especially rich in these resources. Some scientists believe the resource base of hot dry rock in the U.S. far exceeds worldwide fossil fuel resources. Using hot dry rock resources to produce electricity requires drilling holes deep into the rock, pumping in cold water at high pressure tracture the rock, and then accessing the heated water and steam from an adjacent well. The water can be used repeatedly, and there are no emissions into the air. This process has been successfully demonstrated by research projects in the United States, Japan, and Europe. Magma Geothermal Energy has been called the ultimate energy source. A magma power plant would use a process similar to hot dry rock —water would be injected directly into the magma, cooling and hardening the rock around the well. The resulting steam would be pumped out through a pipe in the well.

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PEMBAHASAN

Energi Panas Bumi (Geothermal Energy) Energi panas bumi, adalah energi panas yang tersimpan dalam batuan di bawah permukaan bumi dan fluida yang terkandung didalamnya. Energi panas bumi telah dimanfaatkan untuk pembangkit listrik di Italy sejak tahun 1913 dan di New Zealand sejak tahun 1958. Pemanfaatan energi panas bumi untuk sektor non‐listrik (direct use) telah berlangsung di Iceland sekitar 70 tahun. Meningkatnya kebutuhan akan energi serta meningkatnya harga minyak, khususnya pada tahun 1973 dan 1979, telah memacu negara‐negara lain, termasuk Amerika Serikat, untuk mengurangi ketergantungan mereka pada minyak dengan cara memanfaatkan energi panas bumi. Saat ini energi panas bumi telah dimanfaatkan untuk pembangkit listrik di 24 Negara, termasuk Indonesia. Disamping itu fluida panas bumi juga dimanfaatkan untuk sektor non‐listrik di 72 negara, antara lain untuk pemanasan ruangan, pemanasan air, pemanasan rumah kaca, pengeringan hasil produk pertanian, pemanasan tanah, pengeringan kayu, kertas dll.

1. Energi Panas Bumi di Indonesia Di Indonesia usaha pencarian sumber energi panasbumi pertama kali dilakukan di daerah Kawah Kamojang pada tahun 1918. Pada tahun 1926 hingga tahun 1929 lima sumur eksplorasi dibor dimana sampai saat ini salah satu dari sumur tersebut, yaitu sumur KMJ ‐3 masih memproduksikan uap panas kering atau dry steam. Pecahnya perang dunia dan perang kemerdekaan Indonesia. mungkin merupakan salah satu alasan dihentikannya kegiatan eksplorasi di daerah tersebut. Kegiatan eksplorasi panasbumi di Indonesia baru dilakukan secara luas pada tahun 1972. Direktorat Vulkanologi dan Pertamina, dengan bantuan Pemerintah Perancis dan New Zealand melakukan survey pendahuluan di seluruh wilayah Indonesia.

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Dari hasil survey Dilaporkan bahwa di Indonesia terdapat 217 prospek panasbumi, yaitu di sepanjang jalur vulkanik mulai dari bagian Barat Sumatera, terus ke Pulau Jawa, Bali, Nusatenggara dan kemudian membelok ke arah utara melalui Maluku dan Sulawesi. Survey yang dilakukan selanjutnya telah berhasil menemukan beberapa daerah prospek baru sehingga jumlahnya meningkat menjadi 256 prospek, yaitu 84 prospek di Sumatera, 76 prospek di Jawa, 51 prospek di Sulawesi, 21 prospek di Nusatenggara, 3 prospek di Irian, 15 prospek di Maluku dan 5 prospek di Kalimantan. Sistim panas bumi di Indonesia umumnya
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merupakan sistim hidrothermal yang mempunyai temperatur tinggi (>225 C), hanya beberapa diantaranya yang mempunyai temperatur sedang (150‐225 C).
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Tumbukan antara lempeng India ‐Australia di sebelah selatan dan lempeng Eurasia di sebelah utara mengasilkan zona penunjaman (subduksi) di kedalaman 160 ‐210 km di bawah Pulau Jawa‐Nusatenggara dan di kedalaman sekitar 100 km (Rocks et. al, 1982) di bawah Pulau Sumatera. Hal ini menyebabkan proses magmatisasi di bawah Pulau Sumatera lebih dangkal dibandingkan dengan di bawah Pulau Jawa atau Nusatenggara. Karena perbedaan kedalaman jenis magma yang dihasilkannya berbeda. Pada kedalaman yang lebih besar jenis magma yang dihasilkan akan lebih bersifat basa dan lebih cair dengan kandungan gas magmatik yang lebih tinggi sehingga menghasilkan erupsi gunung api yang lebih kuat yang pada akhirnya akan menghasilkan endapan vulkanik yang lebih tebal dan terhampar luas. Oleh karena itu, reservoir panas bumi di Pulau Jawa umumnya lebih dalam dan menempati batuan volkanik, sedangkan reservoir panas bumi di Sumatera terdapat di dalam batuan sedimen dan ditemukan pada kedalaman yang lebih dangkal. Sistim panas bumi di Pulau Sumatera umumnya berkaitan dengan kegiatan gunung api andesitisriolitis yang disebabkan oleh sumber magma yang bersifat lebih asam dan lebih kental, sedangkan di Pulau Jawa, Nusatenggara dan Sulawesi umumnya berasosiasi dengan kegiatan vulkanik bersifat andesitis‐basaltis dengan sumber magma yang lebih cair. Karakteristik geologi untuk daerah panas bumi di ujung utara Pulau Sulawesi memperlihatkan kesamaan karakteristik dengan di Pulau Jawa.

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2. Sistem Hidrothermal Sistim panas bumi di Indonesia umumnya merupakan sistim hidrothermal yang mempunyai
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temperatur tinggi (>225 C), hanya beberapa diantaranya yang mempunyai temperatur sedang (150‐225 C). Pada dasarnya sistim panas bumi jenis hidrothermal terbentuk sebagai hasil perpindahan panas dari suatu sumber panas ke sekelilingnya yang terjadi secara konduksi dan secara konveksi. Perpindahan panas secara konduksi terjadi melalui batuan, sedangkan perpindahan panas secara konveksi terjadi karena adanya kontak antara air dengan suatu sumber panas. Perpindahan panas secara konveksi pada dasarnya terjadi karena gaya apung (bouyancy). Air karena gaya gravitasi selalu mempunyai kecenderungan untuk bergerak kebawah, akan tetapi apabila air tersebut kontak dengan suatu sumber panas maka akan terjadi perpindahan panas sehingga temperatur air menjadi lebih tinggi dan air menjadi lebih ringan. Keadaan ini menyebabkan air yang lebih panas bergerak ke atas dan air yang lebih dingin bergerak turun ke bawah, sehingga terjadi sirkulasi air atau arus konveksi. Adanya suatu sistim hidrothermal di bawah permukaan sering kali ditunjukkan oleh adanya manifestasi panasbumi di permukaan (geothermal surface manifestation), seperti mata air panas, kubangan lumpur panas (mud pools), geyser dan manifestasi panasbumi lainnya, dimana beberapa diantaranya, yaitu mata air panas, kolam air panas sering dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat setempat untuk mandi, berendam, mencuci, masak dll. Manifestasi panasbumi di permukaan diperkirakan terjadi karena adanya perambatan panas dari bawah permukaan atau karena adanya rekahanrekahan yang memungkinkan fluida panasbumi (uap dan air panas) mengalir ke permukaan.
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Berdasarkan pada jenis fluida produksi dan jenis kandungan fluida utamanya, sistim hidrotermal dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu sistim satu fasa atau sistim dua fasa. Sistim dua fasa dapat merupakan sistem dominasi air atau sistem dominasi uap. Sistim dominasi uap merupakan sistim yang sangat jarang dijumpai dimana reservoir panas buminya mempunyai kandungan fasa uap yang lebih dominan dibandingkan dengan fasa airnya. Rekahan umumnya terisi oleh uap dan pori‐pori batuan masih menyimpan air. Reservoir air panasnya umumnya terletak jauh di kedalaman di bawah reservoir dominasi uapnya.
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Sistim panas bumi seringkali juga diklasifikasikan berdasarkan entalpi fluida yaitu sistim entalpi rendah, sedang dan tinggi. Kriteria yang digunakan sebagai dasar klasifikasi pada kenyataannya tidak berdasarkan pada harga entalphi, akan tetapi berdasarkan pada temperatur mengingat entalphi adalah fungsi dari temperatur. Pada Tabel dibawah ini ditunjukkan klasifikasi sistim panasbumi yang biasa digunakan. Sistim panas bumi di Indonesia umumnya
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merupakan sistim hidrothermal yang mempunyai temperatur tinggi (>225 C), hanya beberapa
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diantaranya yang mempunyai temperatur sedang (150225 C). Pengalaman dari lapangan‐lapangan panas bumi yang telah dikembangkan di dunia maupun di Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa sistem panas bumi bertemperatur tinggi dan sedang, sangat potensial bila diusahakan untuk pembangkit listrik. Potensi sumber daya panas bumi Indonesia sangat besar, yaitu sekitar 27500 MWe , sekitar 30‐40% potensi panas bumi dunia. Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Panasbumi (PLTP) pada prinsipnya sama seperti Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap (PLTU), hanya pada PLTU uap dibuat di permukaan menggunakan boiler, sedangkan pada PLTP uap berasal dari reservoir panasbumi. Apabila fluida di kepala sumur berupa fasa uap, maka uap tersebut dapat dialirkan langsung ke turbin, dan kemudian turbin akan mengubah energi panas bumi menjadi energi gerak yang akan memutar generator sehingga dihasilkan energi listrik.

Apabila sumberdaya panasbumi mempunyai temperatur sedang, fluida panas bumi masih dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pembangkit listrik dengan menggunakan pembangkit listrik siklus binari (binary plant). Dalam siklus pembangkit ini, fluida sekunder ((isobutane, isopentane or ammonia) dipanasi oleh fluida panasbumi melalui mesin penukar kalor atau heat exchanger. Fluida sekunder menguap pada temperatur lebih rendah dari temperatur titik didih air pada tekanan yang sama. Fluida sekunder mengalir ke turbin dan setelah dimanfaatkan dikondensasikan sebelum dipanaskan kembali oleh fluida panas bumi. Siklus tertutup dimana fluida panas bumi tidak diambil masanya, tetapi hanya panasnya saja yang diekstraksi oleh fluida kedua, sementara fluida panas bumi diinjeksikan kembali kedalam reservoir.

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3. Energi Panas Bumi Ramah Lingkungan Energi panas bumi merupakan energi yang ramah lingkungan karena fluida panas bumi setelah energi panas diubah menjadi energi listrik, fluida dikembalikan ke bawah permukaan (reservoir) melalui sumur injeksi. Penginjeksian air kedalam reservoir merupakan suatu keharusan untuk menjaga keseimbangan masa sehingga memperlambat penurunan tekanan reservoir dan mencegah terjadinya subsidence. Penginjeksian kembali fluida panas bumi setelah fluida tersebut dimanfaatkan untuk pembangkit listrik, serta adanya recharge (rembesan) air permukaan, menjadikan energi panas bumi sebagai energi yang berkelanjutan (sustainable energy).

Emisi dari pembangkit listrik panasbumi sangat rendah bila dibandingkan dengan minyak dan batubara. Karena emisinya yang rendah, energi panasbumi memiliki kesempatan untuk memanfaatkan Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) produk Kyoto Protocol. Mekanisme ini menetapkan bahwa negara maju harus mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca (GRK) sebesar 5.2% terhadap emisi tahun 1990, dapat melalui pembelian energi bersih dari negara berkembang yang proyeknya dibangun diatas tahun 2000. Energi bersih tersebut termasuk panas bumi, Lapangan panas bumi umumnya dikembangkan secara bertahap. Untuk tahap awal dimana ketidakpastian tentang karakterisasi reservoir masih cukup tinggi, dibeberapa lapangan dipilih unit pembangkit berkapasitas kecil. Unit pembangkit digunakan untuk mempelajari karakteristik reservoir dan sumur, serta kemungkinan terjadi masalah teknis lainnya. Pada prinsipnya, pengembangan lapangan panas bumi dilakukan dengan sangat hati‐ hati selalu mempertimbangkan aspek teknis, ekonomi dan lingkungan. Untuk memasok uap ke pembangkit listrik panas bumi perlu dilakukan pemboran sejumlah sumur. Untuk menekan biaya dan efisiensi pemakaian lahan, dari satu lokasi (well pad) umumnya tidak hanya dibor satu sumur, tapi beberapa sumur, yaitu dengan melakukan pemboran miring (directional drilling). Keuntungan menempatkan sumur dalam satu lokasi adalah akan menghemat pemakaian lahan, menghemat waktu untuk pemindahan menara bor (rig), menghemat biaya jalan masuk dan biaya pemipaan.

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4. Kegiatan Usaha Panas Bumi Kegiatan Usaha Panas Bumi adalah suatu kegiatan untuk menemukan sumber daya Panas Bumi sampai dengan pemanfaatannya baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Tahapan kegiatan usaha panas bumi meliputi: a) Survei Pendahuluan; b) Eksplorasi; c) Studi Kelayakan; d) Eksploitasi; dan e) Pemanfaatan. Survei Pendahuluan adalah kegiatan yang meliputi pengumpulan, analisis dan penyajian data yang berhubungan dengan informasi kondisi geologi, geofisika, dan gggeokimia untuk memperkirakan letak dan adanya sumber daya Panas Bumi serta Wilayah Kerja. Eksplorasi adalah rangkaian kegiatan yang meliputi penyelidikan geologi, geofisika, geokimia, pengeboran uji, dan pengeboran sumur eksplorasi yang bertujuan untuk mememperoleh dan menambah informasi kondisi geologi bawah permukaan guna menemukan dan mendapatkan perkiraan potensi Panas Bumi.

Studi Kelayakan adalah tahapan kegiatan usaha pertambangan Panas Bumi untuk memperoleh informasi secara rinci seluruh aspek yang berkaitan untuk menentukan termasuk penyelidikan atau studi jumlah cadangan yang dapat dieksploitasi. Eksploitasi adalah rangkaian kegiatan pada suatu wilayah kerja tertentu yang meliputi pengeboran sumur pengembangan dan sumur reinjeksi, pembangunan fasilitas lapangan dan operasi produksi sumber daya Panas Bumi. .
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Kegiatan pengusahaan sumber daya Panas Bumi dilaksanakan pada suatu Wilayah Kerja. Beberapa hal yang penting dipahami dalam melaksanakan kegiatan pengusahaan panas bumi antara lain:

     

Batas dan luas Wilayah Kerja ditetapkan oleh Pemerintah. Wilayah Kerja yang akan ditawarkan kepada Badan Usaha diumumkan secara terbuka. Menteri, Gubernur, dan Bupati/Walikota sesuai dengan kewenangan masing ‐ masing melakukan penawaran Wilayah Kerja dengan cara lelang Pengusahaan sumber daya Panas Bumi dilakukan oleh Badan Usaha setelah mendapat IUP (Izin Usaha Pertambangan) dari Menteri, Gubernur, dan Bupati/Walikota sesuai dengan kewenangan masing‐ masing. IUP adalah izin untuk melaksanakan Usaha Pertambangan Panas Bumi di suatu Wilayah Kerja Pertambangan (WKP) Panas Bumi Pemegang IUP wajib menyampaikan rencana jangka panjang Eksplorasi dan Eksploitasi kepada Menteri, Gubernur, dan Bupati/Walikota sesuai dengan kewenangan masing‐ masing yang mencakup rencana kegiatan dan rencana anggaran serta menyampaikan besarnya cadangan. Penyesuaian terhadap rencana jangka panjang Eksplorasi dan Eksploitasi dapat dilakukan dari tahun ke tahun sesuai dengan kondisi yang dihadapi.

Komponen Biaya Pengembangan Lapangan Uap (Steam Field) dan Biaya Pembangkit Listrik Biaya pengembangan lapangan uap (steam field) terdiri atas : • • • • • •

Biaya survey eksplorasi Biaya pemboran sumur (sumur eskplorasi, pengembangan, injeksi, make up) Biaya lahan, jalan, persiapan lahan dan lain‐ lain. Biaya fasilitas produksi Biaya sarana pendukung Biaya operasi dan perawatan

5. Biaya Survey Eksplorasi Biaya survey eksplorasi terdiri atas biaya survei pendahuluan dan biaya survey rinci (fase prakelayakan). Biaya survei pendahuluan adalah biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk survei geoscientifik awal yang terdiri dari survei geologi dan geokimia pada daerah‐daerah panas bumi yang paling potensial atau di sekitar manifestasi panas permukaan. Berdasarkan hasil survei ini dapat ditentukan apakah pada daerah prospek yang diteliti ter sebut cukup layak untuk dilakukan survei lebih lanjut atau tidak. Biaya survey rinci (G & G survey) adalah biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk survei geologi, geokimia dan geofisika dan pemboran dangkal yang dilakukan untuk untuk mencari gambaran daerah prospek panas bumi yang mencakup luas daerah potensial, kedalaman reservoir, perkiraan karakteristik fluida dan potensi cadangan panas buminya serta untuk mencari lokasi dan target pemboran eksplorasinya. Komponen biaya survey eksplorasi secara lebih rinci adalah sebagai berikut: Biaya lain yang merupakan komponen biaya survey eksplorasi adalah biaya untuk core hole, study mengenai resource, lingkungan dan reservoir.
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6. Biaya Pemboran Sumur Biaya pemboran sumur terdiri atas biaya untuk sewa rig, ongkos pengangkutan alat pemboran ke lokasi serta pemasangannya, biaya casing, bit, lumpur, semen bahan kimia, fasilitas kepala sumur, pengangkutan casing dari pabrik ke tempat penyediaan dan biaya analisa core. Faktor‐faktor yang mempengaruhi biaya pemboran antara lain adalah jenis sumur (tegak atau miring), lokasi sumur, kedalaman sumur, teknologi pemboran yang digunakan, diamter pipa selubung, Sumur eksplorasi pada umumnya lebih mahal dari sumur pengembangan yang disebabkan oleh :     Pemboran sumur eksplorasi memerlukan data yang paling lengkap dan seteliti mungkin dikarenakan ketidak pastian yang tinggi. Kebutuhan untuk meneliti kondisi reservoir semaksimal mungkin dengan pemboran sedalam mungkin. Di dalam pemboran sumur eksplorasi, pengukuran, logging dan coring dilakukan lebih sering dibandingkan dengan pemboran pengembangan. Hal-hal lain yang sering menyebabkan keterlambatan penyelesaian pemboran menyangkut hilang sirkulasi pada kedalaman dangkal, terjepitnya rangkaian pemboran karena runtuhnya formasi.

Biaya Lahan, Persiapan Lahan dan Jalan. Yang termasuk kedalam kelompok biaya ini adalah biaya pembelian dan pembebasan lahan, penyiapan jalan masuk ke lokasi (road), dan perataan lahan (excavation). Biaya Fasilitas Produksi. Fasilitas produksi yang diperlukan untuk mengoperasikan lapangan uap panas bumi terdiri dari separator, pemipaan, silencer, scrubber, valve, instrumentasi dan gauge. Separator hanya diperlukan untuk lapangan dengan sistim dominasi air. Pemakaian separator dapat dilakukan dengan dua cara; cara pertama yaitu dengan menempatkan separator pada setiap sumur atau dengan cara kedua yaitu dengan pemusatan separator yang letaknya tidak terlalu jauh dari lokasi pembangkit listriknya. Cara pertama mempunyai keuntungan berupa pengurangan resiko dalam mentransportasikan fluida dua fasa terutama pada topografi kasar serta mengurangi biaya penggunaan lahan dan pipa air. Biaya yang diperlukan sangat bervariasi, dengan komponen terbesar tergantung kepada panjang, jenis dan diameter pipa serta jumlah separator yang diperlukan. Hal tersebut dipengaruhi oleh besarnya kapasitas pembangkit. Biaya Operasi dan Pemeliharaan. Biaya operasi dan pemeliharaan pada proyek panas bumi dibagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu biaya operasi dan pemeliharaan lapangan uap dan pembangkit listrik. Biaya operasi dan pemeliharaan lapangan uap mencakup biaya untuk monitoring, pemeliharaan, operasi lapangan, gaji management dan pekerja, transportasi dan lain ‐lain. Biaya ini dikeluarkan untuk mempertahankan efektifitas dan efisiensi management dan operasi lapangan.

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Biaya Sarana Penunjang Biaya lain yang termasuk dalam biaya pengembangan lapangan uap adalah biaya untuk pembangunan fasilitas penunjang terdiri dari biaya pembangunan perkantoran, laboratorium, perumahan management dan karyawan, fasilitas umum, gudang, kafetaria, sarana ibadah, fasilitas peamadam kebakaran, fasilitas air bersih, bengkel, fasilitas kesehatan dan lain ‐lain. Besarnya biaya fasilitas penunjang sangat tergantung dari besar kecilnya kapasitas listrik proyek yang dibangun atau secara langsung terkait dengan jumlah tenaga kerja yang dibutuhkannya.

Biaya Pembangkit Listrik Yang termasuk kedalam biaya power plant adalah biaya penyiapan jalan masuk ke lokasi PLTP (road), pembebasan dan perataan lahan (land cost and axcavation), perencanaan rinci (detailed engineering), fasilitas pembangkit listrik (plant facilities), perakitan dan pemasangan peralatan PLTP (construction and installation) dan pekerjaan pembangunan gedung PLTP, perkantoran, laboratorium, fasilitas umum dan lain ‐lain (civil work). Biaya untuk pembangunan fasilitas penunjang terdiri dari biaya pembangunan gedung PLTP, perkantoran, perumahan management dan karyawan, fasilitas umum, gudang, kafetaria, sarana ibadah, fasilitas peamadam kebakaran, fasilitas air bersih, bengkel, fasilitas kesehatan dan lain‐lain. Besarnya biaya fasilitas penunjang sangat tergantung dari besar kecilnya kapasitas listrik proyek yang dibangun atau secara langsung terkait.

INDONESIA'S GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT

Although Indonesia is among only a handful of countries to develop geothermal energy, utilization of geothermal potential has proceeded very slowly and is currently facing difficult challenges and uncertainty. Over a span of 20 years, Indonesia developed only 787 MW of geothermal power, or 4 percent of 20,000 MW of geothermal potential. The early 1990s saw the awarding of eleven contracts for development of geothermal power plants, with a total committed capacity of 3,417 MW and original completion dates between 1998 and 2002. As a result of the 1997-1998 financial crisis, the Government suspended nine conventionally powered Independent Power Projects (IPPs) and seven geothermal projects. The government is now attempting to resuscitate the seven contracts but with little progress. Private sector development of geothermal projects differs from Independent Power Project (IPPs). While Presidential Directive (PD) 37 of 1992 forms the legal basis for IPPs, PD 45 of 1991 authorized private sector development of geothermal potential with fundamentally different terms. PD No. 45/1991 outlines two alternative paths for geothermal energy development in Indonesia. Under the first, Pertamina or its joint operation contractors develop and operate the steam field only, selling the steam to PLN or other parties for electricity generation. The second alternative allows Pertamina or its contractors to generate electricity as well as develop and operate the steam field, with the electricity produced sold to either PLN or other consumers. A Joint Operating Contract (JOC) governs the contractor’s relationship with Pertamina. PLN buys electricity on the basis of an Energy Sales Contract (ESC), which is normally denominated in dollars and obligates PLN to purchase electricity on a take-or-pay basis for a period of 30 years or more.
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 Renewable energy and primary energy consumption Indonesia possesses a variety of energy resources. While the country’s energy mix relies substantially on oil, energy planners are pushing for greater utilization of other primary sources of energy, particularly coal and "non-transportable" fuels such as geothermal and natural gas. Energy diversification needs, rising concern over environmental issues, and declining non-renewable energy resources have also prompted greater interest in geothermal and hydropower. The National Committee on Climate Change recommended conversion from coal and petroleum-based fuels to renewable energy sources to reduce emissions. The government’s general policy for energy (KUBE) also clearly advocated diversification of energy sources. The government, however, has had little success in promoting development of renewable resources over the past several years. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) statistics indicate that renewable energy utilization (hydropower, geothermal and biomass) accounts for only 3.4% of total potential reserves. Nor has the growth of electricity demand been enough to drive renewable energy development. The Government’s recent moves to increase petroleum fuel prices, which have long diminished the viability of more environmentally friendly energy sources, may stimulate further utilization of alternative including renewable, energy resources. Geothermal’s place in the country’s primary energy consumption is very low, accounting for only one percent, or about 7.7 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE), out of a total 574.6 million BOE consumed in 1999. Table 1: Renewable energy utilization (MW)
Installed Capacity 3,854.0 54.0 787.0 302.4 4,997.4

Potential Hydro (large scale) 75,674.0 Microhydro 458.8 Geothermal 19,658.0 Biomass 49,807.4 Total 145,598.2 Solar Energy 4.8 KWh/m2/day Wind energy 3-6 m/second

(%) 5.1 11.8 4.0 0.6 3.4

5.0 0.5

Geothermal energy has unique attributes, which pose challenges to its development. following factors explain Indonesia’s lagging development of its geothermal resource: 

The

Commercial development of geothermal energy requires electrical power plant development on-site. Consequently, this requirement may limit the resource to a small local market or one not well connected to a larger load center. Development requires high initial capital costs, including initial exploration and the commitment to purchase a large portion of the eventual fuel supply at start-up in the form of development wells. Long term operating costs, however, are quite low. Thus, geothermal contracts require base load status and long term price security in order.
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Several significant benefits of geothermal development are not effectively represented in the valuation of the electricity. These benefits include the long-term low cost operation, contributions to preserving the environment, and the resultant diversification of supply with an indigenous, distributed resource.

The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) provided an avenue for Indonesia’s geothermal investments to capture the broader value of geothermal power. Indonesia, due to its attractive geothermal potential and geothermal expansion opportunities, has started to prepare for investments under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and under other unilateral environmental initiatives oriented toward Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reductions. Under these concepts, companies from developed countries can invest or purchase "GHG emission reductions" from renewable energy or energy efficiency projects in developing countries as a way to offset their GHG emissions. For geothermal, the CDM can become a powerful financial incentive and increase geothermal's competitiveness with traditionally cheaper fossil-fuel fired systems. Compared to coal-fired systems, Indonesia has the potential to reduce GHG emissions by about 4.8 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2-e) per year at a cost as low as US $1/tCO2-e (depending on the project's finance mix). Recognizing that each ton of GHG emission reduction can be securitized and sold in the emerging GHG market, Indonesia has much to gain from developing geothermal CDM opportunities. Indonesia's UNFCC National Communication and recent COPrelated ―position statements‖ have begun to actively promote geothermal energy as a means to reduce GHG emissions. In an encouraging development, Unocal Geothermal Indonesia, PT PLN (Persero), and Pertamina announced the first sale of GHG emission reduction credits from Indonesia. The sale involved GHG emission reduction credits from Units 4, 5 and 6 of the Gunung Salak Geothermal Project on the Island of Java to the World Economic Forum. The credits will offset emissions associated with the WEF annual meeting, which opened at the end of January 2002 in New York, and make the WEF meeting GHG emissions neutral. The 362 MW Gunung Salak Geothermal Project emits approximately 2.6 million metric tons (mt)/year less carbon dioxide than a comparably sized coal-fired electric generating plant. The WEF sale involved 4,000 mt of carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions reductions.

a. Prices The pricing of steam and electricity is the main obstacle to the development of geothermal energy in Indonesia. The price needs to be competitive with other energy alternatives, and at the same time offer the contractor or producer an attractive rate of return. According to PLN, the cost of electricity produced by geothermal power plants varied between Rp 89.60 to Rp 451.0/KWh for PLN owned power plants, US $0.042/KWh for negotiated Energy Sales Contracts (ESCs), and as high as US $0.085/KWh for original ESC terms. The contrast between the PLNowned price and the ESC prices reflect implicit subsidies as well as the fact that ESC electricity prices have risen in Rupiah terms as the Rupiah depreciated. Contractual obligations are set in dollars, while the PLN’s Rupiah selling price is currently Rp 350 (US $0.035)/KwH. The geothermal industry argues that the price could be more competitive if up-and downstream activities could be integrated, with VAT applied only to electricity sales. A significant factor affecting geothermal’s price is the 34 percent tax rate applied to electricity sales.
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PLN is currently negotiating to bring down tariff rates on various geothermal ESCs, with the intent of lowering prices from US 6-8 cents/KwH agreed under Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) to around US 4 cents/KwH. The following shows the original price contracted under PPAs. Table 3: PLN’s ESC prices

Power Plant Selling Prices, US cents/KwH Bedugul, Bali 7.15 Cibuni, West Java 6.90 Daradjat, West Java 6.95 Dieng, West Java 9.81 Kamojang, West Java 7.03 Karaha Bodas, West Java 8.46 Patuha, West Java 7.25 Salak Units 4,5 and 6 8.46 Sibayak, North Sumatra 7.10 Wayang Windhu, West Java 8.39 (Source: PLN) Law and regulation – Insufficient legal protection Indonesia’s geothermal industry needs a new legal basis. Investors want legal and business certainty, beginning with an immediate review of existing laws and regulations related to energy and natural resources to bring them into conformity with new requirements of regional autonomy and fiscal decentralization. Previously, law No 44 of 1960 on Oil and Gas regulated the geothermal sector. But the new oil and gas law, passed on October 23, 2001, removes geothermal as an area of oil and gas regulation. Thus, the legislative changes created a gap as far as regulation of geothermal investment, a situation that prompted Parliament to call on the industry and government to develop a geothermal law. In light of geothermal’s importance as a sustainable energy source, Parliament’s Commission VIII on energy affairs formed a team to draft a bill to promote its utilization. The commission is still in the early stages of drafting the bill, and a deadline for its passage has not been set. The Commission invited various representatives from the government, nongovernmental organizations, universities and industrial experts to provide input in preparation of the bill. Among other areas, the bill will aim to resolve taxation issues deterring geothermal development. It would make geothermal exploration tax-exempt until a given geothermal resource has been developed and begun generating power. In December 2001, the Indonesia Geothermal Association (INAGA) submitted its draft geothermal law to the Commission. This version limits Pertamina's authority, provides guidelines for geothermal investment, and sets forth the basic context for and the rules governing administration of geothermal energy. It will further define local government authority over geothermal development and eliminate differences in treatment of foreign and domestic investors by allowing both to receive an operational permit. The law’s drafters hope it will open up new opportunities for the development of Indonesia’s geothermal energy. A PLN senior official, however, criticized INAGA's draft geothermal law as an inadequate legislative framework. In his view, the draft law’s philosophy and approach are counterproductive to geothermal development. Parliament is also considering developing a law for natural resources development to complement laws on energy, electricity, general mining, and the environment.
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Section V: Contractual Arrangements
At present, private companies operate most geothermal fields under a Joint Operating Contract with Pertamina that allocates 4% of net operating income to Pertamina, and an additional 34% of net operating income to the government. PD No. 45/1991 outlines two alternative paths for geothermal energy development in Indonesia. Under the first, Pertamina or its joint operation contractors develop and operate the steam field only, selling the steam to PLN or other parties for electricity generation. The second alternative allows Pertamina or its contractors to generate electricity as well as develop and operate the steam field, with the electricity produced sold to either PLN or other consumers. Joint Operation Contract (JOC) A JOC is a legal agreement between the contractors and Pertamina, representing the government. Pertamina is responsible for the management of the operation and the contractor is responsible for the production of geothermal energy from the contract area, the conversion of energy to electricity and the delivery of geothermal energy or electricity. The JOC allows operations for 42 years, including a production period of 30 years. The Build-Own-Operate contracts have, in each case, a partnership equity split of 90-10. Pertamina presently has no equity stake in any of the projects, its role being to collect compensation as the resource holder. The electricity is sold on the basis of an Energy Sales Contract, which is normally denominated in dollars and obligates PLN to purchase electricity on a take-or-pay basis for a period of 30 years or more. Many ESCs are being renegotiated. Energy Sales Contract (ESC) An ESC, an integral part of the JOC, is an agreement among the contractor and supplier of geothermal steam, Pertamina as the seller, and PLN as the purchaser of geothermal energy. Under this agreement, the production period for delivery of geothermal energy from each unit is 30 years from the date of commercial generation for each unit. The term of an ESC is 42 years. (Also see appendix 2.) New Geothermal Guidelines The very attractive incentive decrees of the mid-1990’s were replaced in 2000 with Presidential Decree No. 76. Under PD 76/2000, the GOI proposes to take all or part of the exploration activities. Tax payments, however, will be in accordance with general tax law rates, i.e., 47% instead of 34% under previous PDs. No exploration activities have taken place since the enactment of PD 76/200. The geothermal industry has been attempting since the enactment of PD 76/2000 to develop a geothermal law which would more permanently fix the conditions of taxation, regional authorities, and exploration-risk sharing. The draft law is currently still being debated. (See Section IV.)

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Section VI: Current Utilization
Indonesia utilizes 525 MW of geothermal energy from 787 MW of installed geothermal capacity. This number accounts for 2.2 percent of 35,709 MW of total installed electric capacity (of which PLN generates 20,592 MW, private power developers 1,600 MW, and captive power 13,519 MW). PLN built 380 MW of total geothermal capacity and Pertamina and its contractors built the remaining 407 MW. As a result, Indonesia saves the equivalent of some 6,300 barrels/day of oil. According the Directorate General of Oil and Gas, Indonesia produced 37.6 million tons of geothermal steam in 2000, which translates into 4,696 GwH of electricity. Table 4: Installed capacity of commercial geothermal power plants (MW)

Kamojang, West Java Sibayak Darajat, West Java Gunung Salak, West Java Wayang Windhu, West Java Dieng, Central Java Lahendong TOTAL

140 (3 units) 55 (1 unit) 165 (3 units) 20 (1 unit) 380

2 70 (1 unit) 165 (3 units) 110 (1 unit) 60 (1 unit) 407

140 (3 units) 2 (see note) 125 (2 units) 330 (6 units) 110 (1 unit) 60 (1 unit) 20 (1 unit) 787

Note: Developed and operated by Pertamina

Direct utilization Indonesia began developing geothermal direct utilization (non-electricity) more than ten years ago. Geothermal energy most commonly and traditionally heats swimming pools and provides water for hot springs. Three years ago, a group of researchers in the government-sponsored research and technology agency (BPPT) investigated methods to apply geothermal energy in the agricultural sector, particularly to sterilize the growing medium used in mushroom cultivation. The concept is still under research and development at the Kamojang geothermal field. Geothermal contracts concluded Over a span of 20 years, PLN signed 11 geothermal power sales contract with total capacity of 3,417 MW, but only three have moved forward. The planned projects were previously expected to come on stream between 1998 and 2002. Seven of the contracts were suspended after 1998, and are being restructured in accordance with Presidential Decree No. 133 of 2000 through a process of negotiation. Greater economic stability and certainty for investors in Indonesia will be required to revive the projects.
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA

DiPippo, Ronald, ―Geothermal power plants: principles, appications and case studies,‖ Elsevier Advanced Technology. The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 IGB. UK. (2006) 85–161.

Eka R.D.B, Katherin I, dan Bambang Lelono W. 2012. Optimasi Daya Listrik pada PT. Pertamina Geothermal Energy Area Kamojang, Jawa Barat. Teknik Fisika, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS). Kwambai, C. B., “Exergy analysis of Olkaria I power plant, Kenya‖ Report of United Nations University Geothermal Training Programme, Reykjavik, Iceland.(2005) YILDIRIM ÖZCAN, Nurdan.

http://darmawanarif.wordpress.com/energi-geothermal, diaskes 23 Juni 2013 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_energy. diaskes pada 23 Juni 2013 http:// www//pge.pertamina.com, diaskes pada 17 Mei 2013 http://www.scribd.com//26030342/Makalah-Geothermal, diaskes 4 Juli 2013

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