ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS

Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee
Advanced Legal Studies Institute
P.O.Box 3013, Islamabad
Revised edition published
by the Federal Law House,
Head Office:Mian Plaza, Chandni Chowk,
Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tel. No. (051) 4843011, 4571229
Branch: 7, Turner Road, Near High Court
Lahore, Pakistan. Tel. No. 0322-4843011
First Published: 2013
©2013 by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may
be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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Such permission must also be obtained before any
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ISBN
Printed in Pakistan
by
Haji Hanif & Sons
Lahore, Pakistan.
TABIE OI CONTENTS
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF
LEGAL MAXIMS 13
Ch. 1 Introduction 15
1.1 Tlo Torms Qā‘idah and As
.
l in IsIamic Iav . 15
1.2 Mollods in Us
.
ūl al-Fiqh Allribulod lo llo }u-
risls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.1 Tlo Mollod of llo H
.
anafīs or llo Mollod
of llo }urisls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.2 Tlo Mollod of llo Majorily SclooIs or llo
Mollod of llo MulakaIIimūn . . . . . . 17
1.2.3 Mollod Tlal Combinos llo Tvo Irovious
Mollods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.4 Tlo Mollod of Takhrīj ‘Alā al-Us
.
ūl . . . 17
1.2.5 Tlo Mollod of Us
.
ūl Tlrougl llo Maqās
.
id 18
1.2.6 Mollod of llo AlI H
.
adīll` . . . . . . . 18
1.3 Our AnaIysis of llo CIassificalion of Mollods 18
1.3.1 GonoraI AnaIysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.3.2 AnaIysis RoIovanl for Qawā‘id Fiqhiyyah 2O
Ch. 2 Essential Terminology and the Nature of
Rules in Islamic Law 23
2.1 Tlo MuIlipIo Moanings of llo Torm H
.
ukm . 24
2.2 RuIos, IrincipIos, ‘Illah, H
.
ikmah and RalionaIo 27
2.2.1 Tlo Naluro of a RuIo . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2.2 IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2.3 Tlo RuIo and ils RalionaIo . . . . . . . 3O
2.3 Irosumplions, Iroposilions and IogaI Max-
ims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1
2 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
2.3.1 Irosumplions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3.1.1 IogisIalivo Irosumplions . . . . 33
2.3.1.2 Irosumplions of GonoraI AppIica-
biIily . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3.1.3 Irosumplion of Iav . . . . . . 34
2.3.1.4 Irosumplion of Iacl . . . . . . 34
2.3.2 Maxims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.3 Iroposilions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.4 Bāb, D
.
awābit
.
, Qawāid and Naz
.
ariyyah . . . . 35
2.4.1 Tlo Bāb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.4.2 D
.
awābit
.
, Qawāid and Naz
.
ariyyah . . . . 36
Ch. 3 Understanding the Development of
Qawā‘id Fiqhiyyah as a Discipline 39
3.1 Tlo Boginning al Kufa . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2 Tlo Soparalion of llo RuIos . . . . . . . . . 41
3.3 SampIo Qawā‘id Us
.
ūliyyah . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4 Qawā‘id Fiqhiyyah Aflor aI-Dabbūsī . . . . . 45
3.5 Qawā‘id Fiqhiyyah in Moro Roconl Timos . . 47
Ch. 4 The Interpretation of Facts and the Func-
tion of the Qawāid Fiqhiyyah 49
4.1 Inlorproling llo Iacls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.2 Tlo Iunclions Tlal IrincipIos Iorform in Is-
Iamic Iav . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Ch. 5 Analysis of What has BeenStudiedso far
and the Methodology Followed in This
Book 55
5.1 Quoslioning Somo Dofinilions . . . . . . . . 55
5.2 Wlal Wo Cannol Sludy in Tlis Subjocl . . . 56
5.3 Tlo OvorIap Will Us
.
ūl al-Fiqh . . . . . . . . 58
5.4 Tlo MollodoIogy of Tlis Book . . . . . . . 6O
5.5 Advanlagos for Iuluro Rosoarcl: IogaI Con-
copls and Associalod Tloorios . . . . . . . . 62
©Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo
Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 3
II LEGAL MAXIMS AND LEGAL CON-
CEPTS 65
Ch. 6 The Sharī‘ah as a Single Bāb 67
6.1 Siyāsah Shar‘iyyah: Tlo IogaI and SociaI IoIi-
cios of llo Sharī‘ah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.1.1 Tlo Basic Torms of Tlis Topic . . . . . 68
6.1.2 Tlo DovoIopmonl of llo Iivo IrincipIos
and Aroa of Oporalion . . . . . . . . . 7O
6.1.3 Tlo Conlonl of llo IoIicios . . . . . . . 72
6.1.4 Convorling IoIicios inlo Nov Iav . . . 74
6.2 Tlo RoIo of Inlonlions . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.2.1 Inlonlions and llo Horoaflor . . . . . . 76
6.2.2 Inlonlions and llo Iav . . . . . . . . . 77
6.2.2.1 Acls of Worslip . . . . . . . . 78
6.2.2.2 Marriago, Divorco and Emancipa-
lion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.2.2.3 Conlracls in GonoraI . . . . . . 81
6.2.2.4 CriminaI Iav and Torls . . . . 83
6.3 Iooking al llo Consoquoncos . . . . . . . . 86
6.4 TriviaIilios lo bo OvorIookod . . . . . . . . . 9O
6.5 Tlings Occurring IsuaIIy lo bo Assignod llo
IsuaI RuIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
6.6 In llo Caso of Subslilulion, llo Subslilulion
Nood Nol bo CompIolo . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.7 Wlon a Iarl lo bo Considorod llo WloIo . 94
6.8 Wlona Iarl of llo WloIo las a Soparalo H
.
ukm 95
6.9 A Conlinuing Acl May bo Assignod llo RuIo
of llo IniliaI Slalo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Ch. 7 The Bāb of Ibāh
.
ah (Permissibility) 99
7.1 Tlo Govorning IrincipIo of Tlis Bāb . . . . 99
7.2 IiabiIily of Human Boings in GonoraI: Tlo
Covonanl Will llo Croalor . . . . . . . . . . 1O1
7.2.1 Tlo Naluro of llo Covonanl: Tlo ObIiga-
lions and llo Domand for Iorformanco 1O2
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4 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
7.2.2 Casos in Wlicl Iorformanco is nol Ro-
quirod and is Suspondod or Exlinguislod
AIlogollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1O5
7.2.2.1 Tlo Minor . . . . . . . . . . . 1O6
7.2.2.2 Insanily and Idiocy . . . . . . 1O6
7.2.2.3 SIoop and Iils of Iainling . . . . 1O6
7.2.2.4 IorgolfuInoss and Mislako . . . 1O7
7.2.2.5 Monslrualion and SIavory . . . 1O8
7.2.2.6 Tlo IiabiIily of Non-MusIims . 1O8
7.2.3 Hov Doos llo Covonanl DoaI Will llo
Aroa of ‘Ibāh
.
ah (IormissibiIily) Nol Cov-
orod So Iar: al-h
.
ujaj al-‘aqliyyah . . . . . 1O9
7.3 Tlings Tlal Musl AIvays bo Mubāh
.
. . . . 11O
7.4 Tlings Tlal Musl AIvays bo Irolibilod . . 112
7.5 Tlings Tlal May IossibIy bo Iormillod, bul
nol NocossariIy: Indorslanding llo Main
IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.6 ConcIusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Ch. 8 Presumption of Continuity (Istis
.
h
.
āb al-
H
.
āl) 119
8.1 Tlo Moaning of Istis
.
h
.
āb . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
8.1.1 Typos of Istis
.
h
.
āb and Tloir IogaI VaIidily 12O
8.2 Doubl and Corlainly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
8.3 Istis
.
hāb al-h
.
āl (Irosumplion of Conlinuily) is
a Dofonsivo Irosumplion and Doos nol Eslab-
Iisl a Rigll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
8.4 MiscoIIanoous Irosumplions . . . . . . . . . 128
Ch. 9 The Bāb of ‘Ibādāt: Acts of Worship 131
Ch. 10 The Bāb of Contracts 137
1O.1 Tlo IrincipIo of Ribā and RoIalod Irosump-
lions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
1O.2 Tlo IrincipIo of ConlracluaI IiabiIily . . . 14O
1O.2.1 Tlo Iink Will llo IrincipIo of Ribā . . 141
1O.2.2 Iassago of TilIo in SaIos and Wlal can bo
IavfuIIy SoId . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
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Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 5
1O.2.3 IrincipIo of IiabiIily and Businoss Organi-
zalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
1O.3 IrincipIo for llo SoId Commodily: Ovnor-
slip and Iossossion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
1O.3.1 Tlings nol Ovnod . . . . . . . . . . . 145
1O.3.2 Tlings nol in Iossossion: SoIIing Iood Bo-
foro Iossossion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
1O.3.3 Tlo Exomplion in llo Caso of Salam . . 148
1O.4 Tlo IrincipIo of Irolibilion of Gharar: Tlo
Misundorslood IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 149
1O.5 Suspondod (Mawqūf ) Conlracls and Ralifica-
lion: Tlo Inaullorizod Agonl . . . . . . . . 15O
1O.5.1 BuiIding llo RuIos of Ralificalion . . . 152
1O.5.2 AppIying llo RuIos of Suspondod Con-
lracls and Ralificalion . . . . . . . . . . 157
1O.6 Fasād, Condilions and SlipuIalions . . . . . 159
Ch. 11 Liability in General 165
11.1 DovoIoping a Tloory of IiabiIily . . . . . . 165
11.2 GonoraI RuIo for Injurios . . . . . . . . . . . 166
11.3 Tlo Doslruclion of Iroporly and ils Compon-
salion (D
.
amān) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Ch. 12 The Bāb of Shubhah 173
12.1 Tlo Oporalion of Shubhah in Crimos . . . . 173
12.2 Expanding llo Oporalion of Shubhah lo Iam-
iIy Iav and Ollor Casos . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Ch. 13 Legal Necessity, Hardhip, Need, Prohi-
bitions and Permissions 179
13.1 Duross Affocling Human Iifo and Iimbs . 179
13.2 Nocossily as GonoraI Nood . . . . . . . . . . 183
13.3 Casos of Hardslip: Exomplions (Rukhas
.
) . . 185
13.4 Irolibilions and Iormissions . . . . . . . . 188
Ch. 14 ‘Ādah and ‘Urf 191
14.1 Tlo Difforonl Moanings of ‘Ādah . . . . . . . 191
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6 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
14.1.1 ‘Ādah as a IlysicaI or Scionlific Iacl Silua-
lion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
14.1.2 ‘Ādah as CommorciaI or Ollor Irac-
lico—Wlollor Good or Bad . . . . . . 197
14.2 Maxims DoaIing Will ‘Urf (Isago, Cuslom-
ary Iraclico) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
14.2.1 Typos of ‘Urf : Division inlo usago and
praclico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
14.2.2 IogaI Maxims Aboul ‘Urf . . . . . . . 2OO
Ch. 15 Dārs, Jurisdiction and Non-Muslims 207
15.1 Tlo Concopl of llo Dār . . . . . . . . . . . . 2O7
15.2 Tlo Dār al-Islām and ils Non-MusIim Rosi-
donls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Ch. 16 Legal Rights 217
16.1 Riglls Tlal Cannol bo Transforrod or RoIin-
quislod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
16.1.1 Iuro Riglls of AIIal . . . . . . . . . . 221
16.1.2 Wloro llo Rigll of AIIal and llo Rigll of
llo IndividuaI aro Boll InvoIvod, bul llo
Rigll of AIIal is Irodominanl . . . . . 222
16.1.3 Iuro Riglls of llo IndividuaI . . . . . . 222
16.2 Riglls Tlal Can bo Transforrod or RoIin-
quislod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
16.2.1 Wloro llo Rigll of AIIal and llo Rigll of
llo IndividuaI aro Boll InvoIvod, bul llo
Rigll of IndividuaI is Irodominanl . . 223
16.2.2 Iuro Riglls of llo IndividuaI . . . . . . 223
16.2.2.1 Riglls Iinkod lo llo ‘Ayn (ClalloI) 224
16.2.2.2 Riglls Iinkod lo llo Dayn (Do-
forrod CIaim) . . . . . . . . . 225
16.2.2.3 Iuro Riglls (H
.
uqūq Mujarradah) 225
16.3 DoIogaling Riglls Nol Iossossod . . . . . . 228
16.4 RoIinquislod Riglls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Ch. 17 Evidence and Declarations 231
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Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 7
17.1 GonoraI Irosumplion of Voracily for AII Mus-
Iims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
17.2 RoIovanl Iacls and Inforoncos lo bo Dravn . 233
17.3 Tlo Prima Facie Iosilion and llo Burdon of
Iroof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Ch. 18 Ijtihād and Fatwās 239
18.1 Tlo Inlogrily of ijtihād . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
18.2 Tloro is no Ijtihād Wlon llo Toxl is AbsoIuloIy
CIoar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Appendices 243
A Us
.
ūl al-Karkhī With Translation 245
A.1 Inlroduclion: Imām aI-Karklī . . . . . . . . 245
A.2 IroIiminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
A.3 Tlo Iirsl IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
A.4 Tlo Socond IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
A.5 Tlo Tlird IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
A.6 Tlo Iourll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
A.7 Tlo Iifll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
A.8 Tlo Sixll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
A.9 Tlo Sovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
A.1OTlo Eiglll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
A.11Tlo Ninll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
A.12Tlo Tonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
A.13Tlo EIovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
A.14Tlo TvoIfll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
A.15Tlo Tlirloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 256
A.16Tlo Iourloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 256
A.17Tlo Iifloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
A.18Tlo Sixloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
A.19Tlo Sovonloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 259
A.2OTlo Eiglloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 259
A.21Tlo Ninoloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 26O
A.22Tlo Tvonlioll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 261
A.23Tlo Tvonlyfirsl IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 262
A.24Tlo Tvonlysocond IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 263
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8 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
A.25Tlo Tvonlyllird IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 263
A.26Tlo Tvonlyfourll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 264
A.27Tlo Tvonlyfifll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 265
A.28Tlo Tvonlysixll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 266
A.29Tlo Tvonlysovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . 267
A.3OTlo Tvonlyoiglll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 267
A.31Tlo Tvonlyninll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 269
A.32Tlo Tlirlioll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
A.33Tlo Tlirlyfirsl IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 272
A.34Tlo Tlirlysocond IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 273
A.35Tlo Tlirlyllird IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 274
A.36Tlo Tlirlyfourll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 275
A.37Tlo Tlirlyfill IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
A.38Tlo Tlirlysixll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 277
A.39Tlo Tlirlysovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 277
A.4OTlo Tlirlyoiglll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 278
A.41Tlo Tlirlyninll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 28O
B Excerpts From al-Dabbūsī’s Ta’sīs al-Naz
.
ar 281
B.1 Abū Zayd ‘Ibayd AIIāl ibn ‘Imar ‘Īsā aI-
Dabbūsī . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
B.2 Tlo Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
B.3 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Abū H
.
anīfal and llo
Tvo DiscipIos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
B.4 Disagroomonl of Abū H
.
anīfal and Abū Yūsuf
Will Mulammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
B.5 Disagroomonl of Abū H
.
anīfal and Mulam-
mad Will Abū Yūsuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
B.6 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Abū Yūsuf and
Mul
.
ammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
B.7 Disagroomonl of Our Tlroo }urisls Will Zufar 296
B.8 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Our Tlroo }urisls and
MāIik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
B.9 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Is and Ibn Abī IayIā 298
B.1O Disagroomonl Bolvoon Is and aI-Slāfi‘ī . . 299
B.11 MiscoIIanoous IrincipIos Tlal Havo Affoclod
Issuos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3O2
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Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 9
C Articles 2 to 100 from Majallat al-Ah
.
kām al-
‘Adliyyah 303
D Maxims From al-Ashbāh wa-al-Naz
.
ā’ir by
Ibn Nujaym 311
D.1 Tlo Iirsl Six IrincipIos . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
D.2 Tlo Noxl Ninoloon IrincipIos . . . . . . . . 312
E List of Legal Maxims Discussed in This Book 315
Bibliography 331
Glossary 333
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1O ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
©Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo
PREFACE
Tlo roIalionslip bolvoon llo discipIinos of us
.
ūl al-fiqh and qawā‘id
fiqhiyyah is Iiko llo roIalionslip bolvoon llo lvo arms of llo lu-
man body, lloy cooporalo vill oacl ollor lo yioIdllo ruIos of fiqh.
Tlis vilaI roIalionslip las boon kopl concoaIod by soparaling llo
lvo discipIinos and by sovoring llo bond bolvoon llom. Working
vill ono land is possibIo, bul il roducos and considorabIy lam-
pors llo officioncy of llo syslom.
InforlunaloIy, llo discipIino of qawā‘id fiqhiyyah las boon
buriod undor a mass of misIoading dolaiI in modorn vrilings.
Many books, and ovon an oncycIopaodia or lvo, lavo boon vril-
lon. Tloso offorls aro lo bo approcialod, bul villoul rosloring llo
vilaI Iink llo undorslanding of llis discipIino is nol possibIo, and
llo uliIily of llo dolaiI viII romain quoslionabIo.
Tlo qawā‘id voro acluaIIy, and vory fruilfuIIy, usod by llo oar-
Iiosl jurisls, al a a limo vlon IsIamic Iav vas groving rapidIy.
To undorsland lloir roaI vorll llon, llo qawā‘id lavo lo bo un-
dorslood villin llal mollodoIogy. Tlis book lrios lo oxpIain llo
moaning of soIoclod qawā‘id and lloir oporalion villin llis oarIior
mollodoIogy. Too mucl dolaiI las boon avoidod. Tlo idoa is llal
onco llo roador, and llo sludonl, las graspod llo vilaI Iinks and
llo ossonliaIs of llis fioId, lo viII bo voII on lis vay lo landIo aII
llo dolaiI.
Tlo book las boon organizod around a fov basic IogaI con-
copls. Moro concopls couId lavo boon addod, bul lloso lavo boon
Iofl for Ialor vrilors. Tlo scloIars and llo rosoarclors slouId
dirocl lloir rosoarcl lovards lloso concopls and buiId lloorios
around llo concopls oxpIaining llomvill llo loIp of llo qawā‘id.
Anollor purposo is lo rovivo gonuino inlorosl in fiqh. Tlis can
bo dono by focusing on llo ossonliaIs and by romoving llo unnoc-
ossary mass llal las boon buiIl around ils concopls. Mosl vril-
ors in llis fioId lavo lad llis goaI. Wo viII ond by rocording llo
vords of ono of llo groalosl loaclors of boll fiqh and us
.
ūl al-fiqh,
llo iIIuslrious ImāmaI-Saraklsī. Tlo foIIoving is an oxcorpl from
lis book al-Mabsūt
.
. Ho compIainod llal poopIo aro nol giving
propor allonlion lo fiqh and lavo bocomo invoIvod in unnocossary
dolaiIs. Horo is vlal lo said:
11
12 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Inrr»cr
The Shaykh, the eminent and pious Imām, Shams al-A’immah Abū Bakr
Muh
.
ammad ibn Abī Sahl al-Sarakhsī, may God bless himand illuminate his
tomb, while he was imprisoned at Ūzjand, said by way of dictation:
……
Thereafter, in my own time, I saw some turning away from fiqh on the
part of scholars due to several reasons:
1. Among these is inadequate ability on the part of some, so much so
that they have felt satisfied by issues comprising prolonged disputes.
2. Among them is the neglect of proper guidance by teachers, who inflict
on them(the students) divergent issues that have no fiqh within them.
3. Added to these are prolonged discussions on the part of some of the
Mutakallimūn who have brought in philosophical concepts for elabo-
rating the legal meanings thereby mixing up alien concepts with fiqh.
Accordingly, I considered it appropriate to write a commentary on the
precis not going beyond the most relevant concepts in the elaboration of
issues being satisfied by what is most reliable in each section. To this I
added the questions raised by some of my selected companions during the
period of my imprisonment, who helped me due to their affection for me and
asked me to dictate my response. I complied with their demand.
Tlo groal Imām llon vonl on lo vrilo lis famous book in 3O voI-
umos. May AIIal bIoss lim for lis conlribulion. IoIIoving lim,
aII dolaiI las boon avoidod in llis book.
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo
IsIamabad
}uno, 2O13
©Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo