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Reviewing The Rules of Drishti

By Gauranga Das Introduction Maharishi Parasara elaborately describes the rules for Drishti or aspects, which play a very important role in assessing the results of different houses, planets and Lagna. He is describing three categories of aspects in chapters 9 and 28 of Brihat Parasara Hora Shastra, still the majority of Jyotish nowadays seem to be unfamiliar with the calculation and usage of these aspects. The three categories of aspects are Rasi Drishti (sign aspects), Graha Drishti (planetary aspects) and Sputa Drishti (aspects by degree), which is actually the subtle form of Graha Drishti. These three have specific methods of calculation and find different use according to their nature in Rasi and divisional charts. First let us define, what the term Drishti or aspect means! The original Sanskrit term Drishti means glance. The planets and the houses represent animate and inanimate objects respectively in the natives chart. Both may cast their glances to certain other places in the chart and thereby extend their influences there. Of course the Drishti of a planet, even if very strong, will not cause such influence as the occupation of the same sign by the planet, still it has considerable effects in many cases. In the following sections I will explain the rules for the three types of Drishti.

Rasi Drishti
Now we may put the question: Why do Jupiter, Mars and Saturn have special aspects and why on the given houses? Firstly, only these are the three planets that are outside the Suns orbit, so the rest of the planets will be able to cast their aspects only as the Sun does. Now lets see the reason for each planet to cast full aspects on certain houses. Mars has full Drishti on the 4. and 8. house form himself. The son of Mars is called Mrityu, and he is rising at the beginning of the portion of the day (or night) ruled by Mars (see BPHS 3.69.) Mrityu means death, and Mars tends to cause danger to life or unnatural death. Thus the houses ruling life and longevity are aspected by him. The 8th house signifies longevity, while the 4th house indicates the heart, which holds the conscious soul, which leaves the body at the time of death as the heart also stops beating. Jupiter casts full aspect on the 5. and 9. house, which direct pious activities of previous life (poorva-punya) and religiousness (dharma) or fortune (bhagya) respectively. Jupiter, being Brihaspati, the teacher of the demigods, is the giver of these things. Saturn casts full aspect on the 3. and 10. house, because they are Upachaya, the houses of growth. Saturn is eunuch and is very old, so he is devoid of the ability to grow, therefore he always desire so. He cannot influence the 6th and 11th houses, which are also Upachaya, because they are controlled by God, as we have stated before. As for the aspects of Rahu and Ketu, they are the head and the body of the demon Rahu respectively. Rahu wanted to take the position of the demigods and drink the nectar of immortality, but Vishnu in the form of Mohini Murti severed his head from his body. Therefore Rahu has the similar aspects to Jupiter, the Guru of demigods, as he has the 1

desire to spoil what Jupiter gives. So the aspect of Jupiter on the 5th and 9th houses indicates poorva-punya while the aspect of Rahu on the same indicates poorva-paapa, or sinful activities in previous birth. Rahu also has an aspect on the 2nd house from his position, which is actually the 12th, as Rahu is retrograde. The 12th house indicates the dharma inherited from our gotra, or dynasty, which Rahu did not want to follow. He was born in the dynasty of Asuras (demons), but he wanted to be in the positions of Suras (demigods). Ketu, on the other hand, being the severed body of Rahu does not have a head and eyes, hece he cannot glance. He will not be able to cast any Graha Drishti, only Rasi Drishti. Of course, there would be a malefic influence on the 3., 6. and 11. houses from Ketu, but this is actually caused by Rahu, which is always opposite Ketu. Usually while judging Graha Drishti, only the full aspects are taken into consideration, and from the above it is evident that mutual full Graha Drishti is relatively rare between two planets.

Sputa Drishti
We have seen in the above that Graha Drishti may be full or of 1/4, 1/2 or 3/4 strength. But in the 28th chapter of BPHS Maharishi Parasara also describes further rules to determine the strength of the aspect in a more subtle way depending on the angular distance between the aspecting planet and the aspected body, which as in Graha Drishti may be another planet, a house cusp or one of the Lagna's as well. The values of sputa Drishti may be one Rupa, or full aspect or less than that. The aspectual values which are less than one Rupa are usually expressed in Virupas or Kalas, where 1 Rupa=60 Virupa. The first step is to find the angular distance counting from the aspecting planet forwards zodiacally to the aspected body. The exact degrees of both should be known for this. Lets call this difference D. Obviously D will always be between 0 and 360 If D<30 or D>300, then the Sphuta Drishti is always zero. For the rest of the values there are different rules of calculation depending on the value of D as follows (S means the value of Srhuta Drishti expressed in Virupas): 1. If 30<D<60, then S=(D/2-15 2. If 60<D<90, then S=D-45 3. If 90<D<120, then S=90-D/2 4. If 120<D<150, then S=150-D 5. If 150<D<180, then S=2D-300 6. If 180<D<300, then S=150-D/2 The above rules are valid for Sun, Moon, Mercury and Venus. Here again we will have special rules for the outer planets. Rules for Saturn aspecting: 1. If 30<D<60, then S=2D-60 2. If 60<D<90, then S=120-D 3. If 90<D<120, then S=90-D/2 4. If 120<D<150, then S=150-D 5. If 150<D<180, then S=2D-300 2

6. If 180<D<240, then S=150-D/2 7. If 240<D<270, then S=D-210 8. If 270<D<300, then S=600-2D Rules for Mars: 1. If 30<D<60, then S=D/2-15 2. If 60<D<90, then S=D+D/2-75 3. If 90<D<150, then S=150-D 4. If 150<D<180, then S=2D-300 5. If D=180, then S=60 6. If 180<D<210, then S=150-D/2 7. If 210<D<240, then S=270-D 8. If 180<D<300, then S=(150-D/2 Rules for Jupiter: 1. If 30<D<60, then S=D/2-15 2. If 60<D<90, then S=D-45 3. If 90<D<120, then S=D/2 4. If 120<D<150, then S=180-D 5. If 150<D<180, then S=2D-300 6. If 180<D<210, then S=150-D/2 7. If 210<D<240, then S=D-150 8. If 240<D<270, then S=300-D 9. If 180<D<300, then S=150-D/2 So as we have seen, it is very cumbersome to calculate the Sphuta Drishti of all the planets on all the house cusps, other planets and special ascendants. Therefore in practical readings Rasi and Graha Drishti is used mostly. Of course the usage of Sphuta Drishti for fine-tuning the strength of the aspect is not prohibited.

How to use Drishti?

Maharishi Parasara recommends taking into consideration both Rasi and Graha Drishti for judging the results of the horoscope. But he gives pre-eminence to Rasi Drishti, as this is always full and mutual aspect, and it will indicate the real influences on the given house, which will manifest in reality. On the other hand, the sole planetary aspect on a sign may indicate the desire, which may or may not be fulfilled. For example if there are only planetary aspects on someones 5th house, but no Rasi Drishti, then he may be very desirous of having children, but may still not have them. The other point of consideration is that Rasi Drishti may be easily applied in all the divisional charts, while it is impossible to apply Sphuta Drishti, and the applicability of Graha Drishti in divisional charts is highly disputable. Lets see an example for using Rasi and Graha Drishti in Rasi chart, and Rasi Drishti in Navamsa chart. Bill Clinton was born on 19th August 1946 at 3.47 am 6 hrs + GMT, in Hope (33N40 93W36). 3

Navamsa Lagna also has got aspect from Venus in the 10th from it, and Venus being the lord of Ghatika Lagna indicates great influence and power. Jupiter is Vargottama in Libra, and aspects the Arudha Lagna. Lord of Lagna conjuncts debilitated Moon in Scorpio, but again the aspect of Mars from won house and exalted Sun makes the Karakamsa strong, and gives political influence to the native. Mars and Sun being in the Arudha of 10th house also aspect Rahu and Ketu, making him able to overpower all obstacles and enemies.