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the Thinking unthinkable
T I I I his month85 yearsagothe veryfirst issueof TheMotor Ship As in elsewhere this edition. a was published. fact celebrated a t l l c h a m p i o n f t h e d i e s e e n g i n eh e j o u r n ah a s b e e np a r to f t h e o n a s s u c c e s s t o r yo f t h i s f o r m o f p r o p u l s i ow h i c h , s w e h a v e will of the timescale 20 yearsbeforesuchconcepts m a j o r i t y i l lh a v e w t w b e n e e d e d i l le n s u r e h a t t h e b b e e np e r f e c t e d y t h e t i m e t h e v e s s e lw o u l de n t e r servlce. of Of coursea degree cautionis neededhere as we haveall too oftenseen a rangeof teethingprobproven whenapplied technology lemswith relatively - p o d s ,G r i mw h e e l s t w o , i to the marinendustry s t s s t r o k em e d i u m p e e de n g i n e s p r i n g o m i n d ,a n d problems adhesion insulation de Chantiers I'Atlantique's most recently tanker. on its latestLNG t n S o t h e W a l l e n i uW i l h e l m s ec o n c e pv e s s e lm a ys e e mt o b e s o m e s thinking behind but in speculative dreamor an exercise highly futuristic a t h e f a n c i f u il d e a si s a v e r ys e r i o u s n d i m p o r t a n itn t e n t - t o m a k e take a longhardlookatthe nearfuture and designers today'splanners p c h t o d e t e r m i n e o ws o m eo f t h e e m e r g i n g r o b l e m s a n b e s o l v e da n d Afterall' shouldbe directed. research and wherefundamental practical when can the onlybythinking unthinkable we copewiththe unpredicted it haDoens. a l i a r g u e d n r e c e n tm o n t h s , o o k ss e t t o c o n t i n u e s t h e m a i nm e a n so f propelling future. shipsfor the foreseeable to who are beginning lookfurther Yetthere are some in the industry a r e a h e a d t o w h e no i l i s e i t h e rn o l o n g e a v a i l a b l o r t o o v a l u a b l e n d then? Whatwill happen to expensive be usedas a fuelsource. u h s , O n es u c hg r o u po f t h i n k e r sa t W a l l e n i uW i l h e l m s e n ,a sd r a w n p proposals an advanced in forthe year2025, as reported ro-ro vessel for on centresprimarily alternative thinking somedetailin this issue.Their , p r o p u l s i o c o n c e p t s a n g i n gr o m s a i l st o s o l a rp a n e l s f u e l c e l l sa n d n f r a w a v ep o w e r .E a c hi s s e e n a s a m e a n so f g e n e r a t i n g n d / o r s t o r i n g or propulsion to withoutrecourse oil,the dieselengine anyother energy sucn system. admits,muchof the think' readily Per As navalarchitect Brinchmann do in ing is provisional that manyof the technologies not as yet existin a he that Nevertheless, believes practical theoretical. form and are merely

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Publishedmonthly by BUSINESS HIGHBURY H A D I V I S I OO FH I G H B U R YO U S E N PLC COIV]IVUNICATIONS H i g h b u rB u s i n e s s y l\4edia House,AzaleaDrive, Kent,BR88HU.UK Swanley, +447322660070 Tel: +44132261631"I/6763!5 Fax: com www.motorship Business O 2005Highbury rssN 00272001 ofHighbury is Highbury Businessa subsidiary PLC, House Communications Number Registered RegisteredEngland. in Office: Publishing The 4189911Registered lslington, Station Road, House, Highbury 1-3 London 1SE N1

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2

The Motot Ship April2005

Sem*#pffi*ity Seatruckts d*ubfietrrish
I I rish Seafreightferry oDerator SeatruckFerries has ordered I two new ro+o freight ferries I from Soain'sAstilleros de Huelva. Whenthey enterservice in 2OO7 theywill be ableto move 130,000 freighttrailersper annumon Seatruck's Warrenpoint Heysham route, present morethandoubling capacity. generalmanager Seatruck's AlistairEagles says, "Thisis fantastic newsfor all of our freight customers. havebeenrunning We at full capacity sometime now for and cannotsatisfydemandfor our efficient,no-frills freightservice.Withthe supportof our parent group,Clipper GroupLtd,we can makethis maiorinvestment Artist impression of the new ro-ro freight ferries ordered by Seatruck ferries from Spanish shipbuilder Astilleros de Huelva whichwill movemoretrailers faster and more reliably this on key route." Thetwo newvesselswill replace currentferries the and Moondance, Riverdance provide twicewhichcurrently a dailyservicecarrying units 55 each persailingand around The 58,000 units annually. new to ferrieswill be purposebuilt be the maximum sizefor Heysham and and Warrenpoint, att42 metreslongwill eachcarry in excessof 120 standard trailers. Thevesselswill havea service the speedof 22 knots,reducing currentcrossing time from nine hours just 6.5 hours. to Thiswill permita muchlaterevening sailingtime, with an earlierstart for and provide a morning deliveries, greaterreservein case of bad weather.
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I

Aker sigffist*l f*r third Freed*m-class
Artist impression of the Freedomclass cruiseship, three of which have now been ordered bv RCCLfrom Aker Finnvards (RCCL) class, Freedomof the Seas,will Caribbean Cruises Poyal I \and AkerYards havesigneda be delivered April2006 andthe in Lolfor the orderof a thirdshio in secondship will be readyfor delivthe Freedom class,the world's ery in spring 2007. largest cruiseship.Thecontract Thisthird vesselis scheduled value is at the same levelas the second vesselin this class ordered last autumnandthe Lol wasvaliduntilthe endof March. The agreement subjectto is to be deliveredearly2008. These newshios are some 15%cent largerin spaceand passenger

FPS* $aewssbuildsNigeri*n
& l\aewoo Shipbuilding Marine t t has lJ Engineeilng(osME) won a $978 millionorderto buildthe world'slargestFPSO. order The was placedby Star DeepWater Petroleum, Chevron a Texaco subsidiaryin Nigeria, Nigerian and National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). FPSO destined for The is dollarAgbami field the multi-billion project Nigeria. development in premier shipyard, Nigeria's free zonearoundits Snakelsland yard, while planningsignifacant to investment enablethe facility of to carryout full integration FPSO topsidesin Nigeria. It is expected that 300,000 or man-hours, 40% of the total man-hours will be spent in that constructing vessel,will be the

capacity than the earlierVoyager class vessels. conditions, including RCCL The new 158,000 gt Freedom certain class vesselswill be 339 metres and AkerYardsboardapproval. longand 38.6 metreswide and AkerFinnyards, whichis a part will stand 18 deckshigh.The of AkerYards,has two of these shipswillcarry3,600 guests, record breaking cruiseships underconstruction its yard in at some 500 morethan its predecessorsin the Voyager-series, and 1,400 crewmembers.

Turku. Thefirstcruiseshioin this

to companies, allocated Nigerian representing majorshift in exea oil cutionof majorNigerian and in especially the NigerDock,has obtainedapproval gas contracts, of for the establishment an export deeooffshore.

wwwmotorship.com

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in \-f Singapore, partnership Huisman SpecialLifting with (Huisman), has Equipment million contract a secured $15O Petroleum fronrSapuraCrest and Malaysia, design to Berhad, DP2 a construct self-propelled pipelay vessel. lift heavy derrick the Thecontractrequires construcengineering, complete and tion,outfitting commissioningof a 8,000 tonnenew-built DP hull intoa self propelled, 2 pipelay vesselwith heavylift and for accommodation 330 persons, 3,00O with a Huisman equipped tonne heaw lift craneand S-Lay system. Pipelay to Thevessel is expected be in delivered fourthquarter2006 the and,uponcompletion, newbuilding,Sapura3000, will be in deployed offshoreMalaysia.

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HHIwins boxshipbonanza
has Heavy Industries I I yundai tI lwonordersforcontainer from shipsworth$1.1 billion in and lran. shipowners Kuwait Co ArabShipping in United eight6,80OTEU Kuwait ordered by vesselsto be delivered 2008 whilelslamic November Lines of Republic lranShipping ships, two ordered 6,SOOTEU by alsofor delivery 2008. The will vessels measure 6,800TEU 40m in width, 306m in length, and 24.5m in depthandwillbe fitted with a 46,890kWdiesel enginefor a servicespeedof 25.5 knots. Thisdeal comesafter reports that the three largestKorean had shipbuilders won long-term East fromthe Middle contracts for a combined $l0billionto build 44 LNGcarriers.

{:il}fl}il:i=#'f* $t#tu*# &ffiffi ffiffiffitrffiwffiffi E-f'iffi
The ConocoPhillips Prism/Pyramid tank design reduces sloshing loads or lessthanthoseexperienced designed on a traditionally 138,000m'ship. an ABShas alsoissued AIP from ABB for a novelconcept (ABB) a liquefor Global Lummus gas, floating petroleum gas and liquefied fied natural production unit (NicheLNG storageand offloading and The FPSO). conceptis the offshoreapplication process, proprF a of marinisation the NicheLNGSM basedLNGliquefaction etarydualturbo-expander Global. by developed ABBLummus scheme FPSO, to is layout similar a typical Theequipment purpose-built FPSO for the however concept this new whichincor onboard facilities for allows processing removal of porateboth the gas feed pre-treatment ofthe gas and LPG mercur!,etc, dehydration CO2, LNGand LPGhave and extraction) LNGliquefaction. storageat difthus requiring differentcompositions LNGmust be storedat ferenttemperatures. can low extremely temperatures t162oC)while LPG be storedat a muchhigheror warmertemperature (-40oc).

ABShas society /n lassification I In Approved PrinciPle \r, recently (AlP) two newconceptsfor the LNG An industry. AIPhas beenissued

for to ConocoPhillips its newProprietary tank Prism/Pyramid conThe ceptfor largeLNGcarriers. design'skeyfeatureis the tank's free shapewhichreduces unique the surfaceareathus reducing periodin loadsand resonance highimpactsloshing the tank. tests on the for contracted model ConocoPhillips withthe Marine tank Prism/Pyramid design in Institute(Marintek), Norway. Research Technology and shipmotionresponses sloshing Thecritical with NorthAtlantic werecalculated imoactconditions conditions. environment Specifics the tank testingand motionresponsof designfor an LNGvesselin es involved four-tank a vesseldesigns Historically the rangeof 235,000m3. wave for this sizehavehad five or six tanks. lrregular filling withthreedifferent weresimulated conditions The shipheadings. levels the tanksandvarious for tests and pressure test resultsof the comparison and showedthe designwas acceptable the loadson tank Prism/Pyramid wereequalto the ConocoPhillips

4

The Motor Ship April2OO5

WARTSILAos a registeredtrademark

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Mari Caterpillar ne wins for shiporder MaK cruise
healthspa. on-board advanced T h e M 4 3 C e n g i n es a t i s f i e st h e a I M Og u i d e l i n e s n dt h e e n g i n e ' sN O x e m i s s i o ni s w e l l b e l o wr e g u l a t o r y T requirements. he engines are e q u i p p e dw i t h F l e x i b l eC a m s h a f t part innovaTechnology, of Caterpillar's techt\\e emiss\s$s reducttsn ACERT@ n o l o g y I n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o nF l e x i b l e . , will Camshaft Technology reducesoot particle to the visible emissions below satisfying industry's the limit,thereby highestenvironmental standards. I n a d d i t i o n ,t h e e n g i n e s a r e with safetyfeaturessuch as equipped a slowturningdevice,a systemwhich t e n a b l e se n g i n e e r so c h e c kf o r t h e presence wateror fuel in the cylinder of temperature beforestart, a splash-oil to alarm systemdesigned monitoring p r e v e n t e a r i n g e i z u r e sa n o i l m i s t s , b with individual disand locator detector play,andthe DICARE enginemonitoring program, whichallowsusersto monitor IDA Cruises has chosen C a t e r p i l l a rM a r i n e P o w e r Systems equipthe first two to of its nextgeneration club of cruiseshipswith MaK M 43 C engines. The contract representsa signifiM f c a n t m i l e s t o n eo r C a t e r p i l l a r a r i n e . The M 43 C series has beensuccessf u l i n t h e r o - r oa n d r o p a xa n d f r e i g h t but segments, this is the first time the M 4 3 C w i l l p o w e ra c r u i s es h i p a n d demonstrates successofthe upratthe ed MaK M 43 C engine(see TheMotol 2004). The two vesShip, November s e l s a r e o n o r d e ra t t h e M e y e rW e r f t and Germany, shipyardin Papenburg, for in are scheduled delivery 2007 and 2009. T h e t w o 6 8 , 5 0 0 g r o s st o n c r u i s e s h i p s w i l l h a v ea n o v e r a l l e n g t ho f 2 4 9 m a n d a b e a mo f 3 2 . 2 m , a n d w i l l o b e t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n f s h i p sb u i l t t a n d o p e r a t e da c c o r d i n g o t h e A I D A " c l u b "c o n c e p t . a c hw i l l h a v ea p a s E s e n g e r c a p a c i t yo f 2 , 0 3 0 , ( u p t o i 2 , 5 0 0 ) a c c o m m o d a t e dn 1 , 0 1 5 cabins. a l l t h e e n g i n e o m p o n e n t sT h e c o m c . pletesystemoperateson-line that so t h e c u r r e n td a t a c a n b e c a l l e du p a t anytime.

Prop*siom demands
AIDACruisesand MeyerWerft had very f s p e c i f i cd e m a n d s o r t h e p r o p u l s i o n l s y s t e m s , n c l u d i n gi m i t so n e n g i n e i r a n o i s e ,i m p r o v e d e l i a b i l i t y n d s t r i c t guidelines emissions reduction. on withfour Eachshipwill be equipped MaK 9 M 43 C engineswith a total output of 36 MW,providing necessary the powerto operatetwo single-propeller m e l e c t r i cp r o p u l s i o n o t o r s ,t w o b o w thrusters and two stern thrusters. In produces elecaddition, installation the t r i c i t yf o r a l l o t h e r h i g h - c o n s u m p t i o n air unitson board,including conditioning, hotel/restaurantoperationand an

6

The Motor Ship April2OO5

Booming demandfor MAN nx* mediunn spe*d rnffiri *r"a$ines
AN B&Wreportsthe highest intakeof ordersfor its four-stroke medium-speed engines the company's in 101 yearshistory. ln 2OO4it received ordersfor 136 unitstotalling939 MW a 38% increase With regard the smaller to over2OO3. i s f o u r - s t r o k e e r i e s m a n u f a c t u r e dn Denmark,228 engineswere ordered with a total output of 292 MW. Meanwhile, orderbooksofthe Far the E a s t l i c e n s e e sa r e f u l l t o t h e e n d o f 2006. As a result,MANB&WDieselis a m a i n t a i n i n g w o r l dm a r k e ts h a r eo f four-stroke enginesof medium-speed 40 approximately %. A c c o r d i n g o D r S t e f a nS p i n d l e r , t E x e c u t i v e o a r dM e m b e ro f t h e M A N B ofthe B&WDieselGrouo. introduction newsmaller1,6/24,2I/3L and27/38 four-stroke enginesas well as continuof ous development provenproducts, such as the 32/40,48/60 and 5a/64 types,is paying off. A cutaway drawing of an MAN B&W 58/64 medium speed engine, of which 46 examples were ordered last year affect on the provenrobustnessof this is Thisnewdevelopment engine series. p a r t i c u l a r ld i s t i n g u i s h eb y r e d u c e d y d p o l l u t i o n a l u e sa n d l o w e rc o n s u m p v t i o n , a n d o f f e r s a n o u t p u tw h i c h i s higherthan earlierversions aroundL40/o o r d e r sf o r 5 2 e n g i n e so f t h e 3 2 / 4 0 t y p e , t o t a l l i n g1 8 1 . 7 M W .S i n c et h e introduction fthis engine, totalof o a 3,450 MW) 892 engines(aggregating havebeen orderedfrom the company worldwide. and its licensees IVIAN B&Whas profitedparticularly

5gr/84 appeal
S P r o fD r W o l f r a mL a u s c h , e n i o rV i c e of President MANB&WDiesel'sMarine " A b o v ea l l t h e D i v i s i o np o i n t so u t , e n g i n e s f t h e 5 8 / 6 4 s e r i e sa r e i n o s t r o n gd e m a n da s t h e y a r e t h e i d e a l m a i n m a c h i n e r yo r c o n t a i n e r - f e e d e r f of vessels".Orders 46 engines the for series were placedwith MAN 581264 B & Wl a s t y e a r , 3 2 o f t h e m f o r 1 , 1 0 0 I T E Uc o n t a i n ev e s s e l s . n t o t a l ,s o m e r 1 0 0 v e s s e l so f t h i s t y p e h a v eb e e n b u i l t o r a r e o n o r d e r ,9 5 % o f t h e m with the 7L58/64 engine. equipped The new versionof the successful series, intro4A/608 medium-speed ducedtwo years ago, has met tremenw d o u s m a r k e ta c c e p t a n c e i t h m a n y Basedon the 48160 ordersreceived. weresold, type,of which300 engines the the newversionincorporates latest withoutanyadverse dieseltechnology

while at the same time havinga lower n o w e i g h t .T h e u n i t s h a v eb e e no r d e r e d f r o m t h e i n c r e a s i n g u m b e r f v e s s e l particularly cruise and ro-rovessels oreredin Chinawhereit nowmaintains for m a 5 5 % s h a r eo f t h e C h i n e s e e d i u m tankers. as well as for chemical enginemarket. L a s t y e a r , M A N B & W r e c e i v e d speedfour-stroke

www.motorship.com

7

Making ballastwatersafe
h e I M O h a s i d e n t i f i e dt h e introduction of invasive marinespeciesinto newenvir o n m e n t sv i a s h i p s ' b a l l a s t water as one of the four greatest t h r e a t st o t h e w o r l d ' so c e a n s .T h e otherthreethreats are land-based the sourcesof marinepollution, overexploitationof livingmarine resources alteration/destruction and the physical of marine habitat. Despitegeneral agreementas to t h e i m p o r t a n c eo f t h e b a l l a s t w a t e r p r o b l e m ,a r r i v i h ga t a s o l u t i o n h a s proven be a difficultchallenge. Any to ballastwater treatmentsystemmust and effective, be not onlyeconomical for but also safe and practicable both shio and crew. Dinoflagellates before (left) ancl after treatment (right). After treatment shows that the cell membrane is disrupted and the organism's chlorophyll has disappeared. This f b e r o b u s ta n d w e l l p r e p a r e d o r t h e demandsof the operational challenging No marineenvironment. interference w i t h b a l l a s t o p e r a t i o np r o c e d u r ei s caused, and the system is well marineconto equipped handlereal-life flow ditionsand a varying lasting,has shownthat the systemis for effective,reliableand well prepared it marineuse. Furthermore, consumes onlya low amountof energr,whichalleviatesa majorconcernamongpotential cusromers.

be technology the oxidation advanced Could waterproblem? to answer the ballast

AOTsolution
Amongthe many attempts at devising an effective and reliableballast water treatment system is one recentlydeveloped by Alfa Lavalwhich,it claims,will

Sea ttials

Systemoperation
D u r i n g b a l l a s t i n g ,w a t e r p a s s e s to througha pre-filter removeany larger particlesand organisms. then continlt u e s t o t h e A O Tu n i t w h i c h p r o d u c e s f r e e r a d i c a l st h a t e f f e c t i v e l yb r e a k d o w n a n y o r g a n i s m sw h i c h h a v e passedthe filter.Sediment buildupin thanks is the ballastingtanks avoided to the pre-filterstage, and any backflushingwater is returnedto the ocean site. directlyat the ballasting water passes During de-ballasting, the AOTunit in orderto kill any organin isms that might have regenerated

meet the urgent needfor ballastwater treatment well before IMO regulations means that it take effect in 2009. lt consists of two cannot reprocluce distinct stages.The first is a pre-treat- and is no longer m e n t s t a g e ,w h i l et h e s e c o n di s t h e consideredviable. patentedBenradAOT(advanced oxidawhich is the heart of tion technology) t h e s y s t e m .B e n r a dA O Ti s a u n i q u e developedby BenradAB, a technology company with whomAlfa Laval Swedish agreement. has a cooperation B e n r a dA O Td i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y technolfrom traditionalUV(ultraviolet) ogy,eventhoughUVlight is one of its In UV comDonents, traditional technolog y , m i c r o - o r g a n i s ma r e e x p o s e d o t s UV rays, which in most cases strong ofthe DNA. leadsto the destruction a lower amount of a speAOTuses in cial UVlightwavelenglh combination generatehydroxylradiwith catalysts to c a l s , w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l yd e s t r o yt h e by microorganism breakingdownthe cell membrane. D e s D i t et h e a d v a n c e ds c i e n c e the system is claimedto behindAOT,

A completesystem,alreadyundergoing t f u l l - s c a l er i a l s a b o a r da W a l l e n i u s car Marinetransoceanic carrier,will be in available 2006. commercially A m o n gt h e p r o j e c t sW a l l e n i u s i M a r i n eh a s b e e n i n v o l v e dn w a s t h e Project,adminisMARTOB EU-funded whose trated by NewcastleUniversity, goal was to evaluatedifferentballast "We conwater treatment solutions. ductedtests aboardour vesselsas a part of the projectand evaluatedheat

and chemicalsolutionsfor exchanger b a l l a s tw a t e r t r e a t m e n t , " s a y s P e r president Wallenius Marine. for Croner, "Giventhe resultsI haveseenfrom the Thefilter,on the tanks duringvoyage. project,I believe AOTsoluthe the other hand, is bypassedtherebY MARTOB any discharging backflushing tion is the most potentone. A reliable avoiding economy with goodoperating water and leavingno unwantedresidu- solution side and no environmental effects." als on boardthe ship. that Croner emphasizes In particular, Onshoreefficiencystudies of this systemhaveshownitto be higherthan 99o/otor natural plankton after a storup age period.Theseresults,bacKed by full-scalestudies at sea'andcomb i n e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e l ' gtfr e a t i n g waterduringboth ballastingand debaF AOTis oreferableto chemical-based " C h e m i c as o l u t i o n s r e l a solutions. "as he somethingtobe avoided," says, else which might produce is anything side effects.Youcannot environmental I to add a problem solvea problem."

I

The Motor Ship APtil2005

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and effective a to Failure develop totallyreliable

Article based on research proiects carried out by AnclersGermundsson of Gothia Marine AB and Martin Holmgren, a naval architect student at Chalmers (V-shaped hull); Dr. Michael Parsons at the Universityof M ichigan, USA (through-flowsystem p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S N A M Ea n n u a l meeting 29 September2004) and Clemens van der Nat and Eelco van Rietbergen, naval architects (Monomaran). i t i s e s t i m a t e dt h a t s o m e w h e r en 3 t h e r e g i o no f b e t w e e n a n d 4 b i l wateris transliontonnesof ballast e f e r r e dg l o b a l l y a c hy e a r .I M O ' s the to currentrecommendation prevent I I I I

a has prompted system watertreatment ballast ship closerlookat the ballast-free concept

by o s p r e a d i n g f N A S( n o n - i n d i g e n o u s basedon an idea invented Professor University at Ulvarson Chalmers aquaticspecies)is to performballast Anders T in waterexchange the openoceandur- i n G o t h e n b u r g . h e c o n c e p ti n v o l v e s t ing the voyagebut thls createsstability m a k i n gh e l o w e rp a r to f t h e h u l lm o r e p r o b l e m s s w e l la s i n c r e a s i n p o l l u g a for solutions ballast tion at sea. lvlany havebeentriedincludwatertreatment i n g f i l t r a t i o n ,h e a t , u l t r a - v i o l elti g h t , electro-ionisaozone,de-oxygenation, but, biocides to date, tion andchemical n o n e h a s p r o v e dt o b e c o m p l e t e l y f e f f e c t i v ew i t h a r e l i a b l e , u l l - s c a l e installation. onboard andthe fact Because ofthis failure, t h a t t r e a t m e n ts y s t e m sa r e o n l yr i s k research being is solutions, reduction sufficientto slender makethe draught ly deepwith its own lightweight. a T w o h u l l sw e r es e l e c t e d n d m o d to elledusingsoftware evality, uate stabil resistance, a c a r g oc a p a c i t y n d p o t h e re c o n o m i c a r a meters. The first hull d e s i g nc a l l e d ' O p t i m a l ' was aimedat those routes such with no depthrestrictions Gulf- West.This has a as the Persian d m o u l d e d e p t h o f 3 5 m e t r e s ,a f u l l

Cross-section diagramsof the Malacca-max (left) and the Optimal (right) hull designs

seawithoutballastwaterin moderate vesselwould states,the Malacca-max not sincethe widebeamwouldnot give i t a d e e p e n o u g hd r a u g h t .F o r r o u g h balthe conditions, suggested weather for last waterrequirement both designs is 15,000 and 35,000 tonnesrespect i v e l y c o m p a r e dt o a n a v e r a g eo f to 80,000 tonnesfor a VLCC achieve draught at least of a midship 8 . 4 m e t r e sa s s t a t e d b y F M A R P O L .o r t h i sr e a s o n b o t h h u l l sa r e

o o c a r r i e d u t o n a n u m b e r f n e ws h i p c t d e s i g n o n c e p t sh a t w i l l ,p o t e n t i a l l y , l o a d d r a u g h to f 2 7 m e t r e s a n d a 5 6 t l a r g e l y l i m i n a t e h e t r a n s - o c e a n i c metre beamwhichwouldgivea cargo e of t r a n s o o r to f b a l l a s tw a t e r .T h e s es o - capacity at least 300,000 tonnes. The other design,called the ships arethe subject calledballast-free 'Malacca-max', gearedtowardsthe is three of of a numberof designprojects, routes betweenPersianGulf- FarEast in whichare discussed this article.

The ballast-free tanker can be distinguishedby the extreme V-shapeof the lower part of the hull

tanksano fittedwithballast w c theweather onditions ill f b e t h e d e c i d i n g a c t o ra s t o wateris needed. howmuchballast the not eliminating Although entirely n e e df o r b a l l a s tw a t e r ,t h e V - s h a p e d hull designsoffer the benefitof a much h s l i m m e r u l lw h e ni n b a l l a s ta n dt h u s benefitfrom a decreasein resistance f or and 25o/o of 33% for Malacca-max fuel econto leading improved Optimal, c o m y .S h i p f l o w a l c u l a t i o n s h o w e d c t h a t , i n t h e f u l l yl o a d e d o n d i t i o nt,h e O o t i m ah u l lh a dt h e s a m er e s i s t a n c e l a s t h e s t a n d a r dV L C Cw h i l e t h e r h M a l a c c a - m a xa d a n i n c r e a s e de s i s -

'

hull V-shaped
s T h e f e a s i b i l i t y t u d yt o d e s i g na V t e s h a p e db a l l a s t - f r eV L C C a n k e rh u l l i w a s i n i t i a t e d n l a t e 2 O 0 3b y S t e n a Maritimeand is Rederiand Concordia

Strait,andwhichhas a via the Malacca b e a m o f 7 9 m e t r e s ,a d e p t h o f 3 0 of metresand a draught 21 metresfor tonnes. of a payload about280,0OO t T e s t ss h o w e dt h a t , w h e r e a s h e O p t i m atl a n k e rw o u l db e a b l et o r u n

10

The Motot Ship April2005

powerplant locatedin the forwardend ofthe vessel. The Monomaran was develooed into an actualconceptdesignby a consortium consisting the DelftUniversity, of ASDand the Messrs.van der Nat and tancethat amountsto around3%. TheV-shaped designs hull havethe potentialto offer a partialsolutionto the problemof decreasing ballast the water problem although Anders Germundsson told lhe Motor Shiplhat "with further developments of the bilge h e i g h t sa n d f l a t b o t t o mw i d t h s ,I a m quitecertainthat a roughsea, ballastfree hull can be develooed." , v a n R i e t b e r g e nF o r t h i sp u r p o s e a n . existingdesignof a 4,000DWTmulti' purposeship with a servicespeed of 1 4 k n o t sw a s c h o s e na n d ,d u r i n g h e t d e v e l o p m e n t h e h u l ls h a p ea n d b u l , bous bow were optimised using MARIN's'Raoid' software. The feasibilitystudy showedthat, evenwithin a very constrained set of d e s i g np a r a m e t e r st,h e M o n o m a r a n c o n c e p tc a n b e a p p l i e dt o a c h i e v e a

Through-flow system
T h e t h r o u g h - f l o ws y s t e m i n v o l v e s replacing traditional the ballasttanks w i t h l o n g t i t u d i n as t r u c t u r a lb a l l a s t l trunks that surroundthe cargoholds b e l o w t h e b a l l a s t d r a u g h t .T h e s e trunksare connectedo an intake t plenumnearthe bow and a discharge olenumnearthe sternand areflooded in the ballastcondition decrease to the ship's buoyancy. pressuredifferenThe tial betweenthe bow and the stern is utilisedto drivea slow flow throughthe ballast trunksto ensure that the trunks always contain'localseawater'. the At e n d o f t h e b a l l a s tv o y a g et,h e t r u n k s are isolatedand pumpeddry usingconventional ballastpumps. W h i l ei t a p p e a r s h a t t h i s c o n c e p t t is, possibly, one of the most interesting efforts to solvethe ballastwater oroblem to date, it does assumethat large v o l u m e s f w a t e ra n d t h e i re n t r a i n e d o o r g a n i s m sa r e n o t t r a n s f e r r e d r o m f one port to another. However, balthe last trunkswould,by structural necess i t y ,s t i l l c o n t a i nt r a n s v e r s er a m e s , f a n d t h e r e f o r el i k e l yt o e n t r a i na n d t r a n s p o r ta t l e a s t s o m e w a t e r ,s e d i mentsandorganisms. Because ofthis, particularattentionhas been paidto the designof the trunkingto minimize this problemby makingthe areasjust abovethe bottom shell platingas open as oossible. C F Ds t u d i e s c o n f i r m e dt h a t a d e q u a t e p r e s s u r ew o u l db e a v a i l a b l e b e t w e e nt h e f o r w a r d p l e n u mr e g i o n and the aft plenumregionto ensurea

Threelongitudinal funks perside
b a l l a s tt r u n k v o l u m et u r n o v e r f a t o leastonceeverytwo hourswhichwould meet the environmental intent of the ballast-free ship designconcept.The maindrawback was the addedfuel cost dueto the increased esistance nd r a the degradation the propulsion of efficiency. Parsons Dr. claimsthat refinem e n t s o f t h e d e t a i l e dh y d r o d y n a m i c designcan removemost ofthe power penalty. Typical forward plenum arrangement for the through-flow system

ballast-free lternative. second a A r e s e a r c h h a s ew i l l c o m m e n c e a t e r o l t h i s y e a rt o d e v e l o p h e i d e a f u r t h e r t and will incoroorate extensive an model test programme evaluate to hullshape -andhydrodynamic performance.

Conclusions
W h e na s k e df o r a n o o i n i o no n t h e s e various concepts,Capt. Graham Greensmith, Senior Specialist Lloyds in Register'sExternal Affairs Department told lhe Motor Ship"l am not awareof anydesignthat completely does away with the needfor ballast,whichis not t o s a y t h a t t h e r e a r e n o d e s i g n sl i k e t h a t n o wo r w i l l n o t b e i n t h e f u t u r e . Manyof the so-called ballast-free ship designsuse a 'continuous flow' of ball a s t t h r o u g h h e s h i pw h i l s t t on routeso that the w a t e ri n t h e t a n k s i s v i r t u a l l yh e s a m ea s t the waterthe ship is in r a t h e rt h a n t h e b a l l a s ti t loadedat the last port. The name 'ballastfree' for t h e s e i d e a s i s t h e r e f o r ea l i t t l e m i s l e a d i n ga s t h e s h i p s s t i l l h a v e , ballasttanks whicheventually haveto be discharged into someone's waters alongwith any organisms that may be in the ballast." All three ballast-free systemshave t h e i r m e r i t sb u t w h e t h e ra n yw i l l s e e the lightof day remainsto be seen and w i l l d e p e n d t o a l a r g ee x t e n t ,o n t h e , successof the ballast watertreatment svstems.I

Monomaran
T h e m e r i to f t h e M o n o m a r a nd e ai s i t h a t i t g e n e r a t e sa r e l a t i v e l y a r g e l draughtat lightdisplacement througha r e c e s sa t t h e b o t t o ms h e l l p l a t i n go f t h e v e s s e l .A l t h o u g h h i s h u l l s h a p e t has the disadvantages a largerwetof ted area and a largerbeamcompared t o a c o n v e n t i o n ah u l l , t h e n e g a t i v e l effects are minimised throughthe application f air lubrication o w h i c hc a n b e m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g ht h e p r e s e n c e f o t h e t w o l o w e rh u l l s . The design also c o m b i n e st h e air lubrication with the engine Monomaranhull the advantage that the CO2 emissions showing the are minimised absorption the sea- innovative bilge by in water.Forpropulsion, poddedpropuF keel design a sor is proposed with a diesel-electric e x h a u s t g a s s e sw h i c h h a s

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Driveline and GhassisTechnology

gearsfor Mainreduction 'Lockheedartin's M LCS
h e L C S i s c o n c e i v e da s a "small,fast, ship", affordable c a p a b l eo f o p e r a t i n ga t l o w s o e e d sf o r l i t t o r a lm i s s i o n operations,ransitat economical t speeds,and high-speed sprints,which may be necessaryto avoid/prosecute a small boat or submarine threat,conduct interceptoperationsoverthe horiz o n , o r f o r i n s e r t i o no r e x t r a c t i o n mtsstons, Lockheed artinreceived conM a tract for the first ship, LCS1, in December 2004. LCSl will be builtat t h e M a r i n e t t e M a r i n e s h i p y a r di n W i s c o n s i n n d i s s c h e d u l e do r c o m a f m i s s i o n i n ig 2 O O 7 . l t i l la l s ob u i l d n w LCS 3, to commissionin 2008. General Dynamics receive will ordersin 2OO7 the buildof LCS2 2006 and for a n d L C S4 , w h i c h a r e s c h e d u l e d o r f c o m m i s s i o n i nig 2 0 0 8 a n d 2 0 0 9 . I n n addition, orderswill be placed nine for (secondgeneration) Flight1 LCSships during2008 and 20O9, for ship commissioning duringthe period2010 to 291-2.OverIhe long term, the overall numberof ships currentlyprojected for the U.S.NaWtotals57 forthe class. L o c k h e e d a r t i n ' s L C Si s b e i n g M designedby Gibbsand Coxas a highspeednavalcombatant. Theship has a steel hull with aluminiumsuperstructure and will be powered two Rollsby RoyceMT3O36MW gas turbinesand

MAAG designed is supplying main has and the gearsfor the LCS(Littoral reduction Combat Ship) that Lockheed Martinis developing the US Navy for
two lsotta Fraschini diesel enginesdrivingfour large,acoustically-optimised waterjets.The ship's maxiRolls-Royce m u m s p e e d i s 4 5 k n o t s .T h e o v e r a l l l e n g t hi s 1 1 5 . 5 m w i t h a m a x i m u m beamof 13.1m and a draughtof 3.7m. m M A A Gh a s b e e n s u p p l y i n g a i n r e d u c t i o ng e a r i n g t o n a v a l f o r c e s aroundthe worldfor manyyears. "We are extremelypleasedto be bringing our CODAG technology this unique to a n d s p e c i a la p p l i c a t i o n o r t h e U S f Navy," MAAG Gear AG President ThomasDeegsaid. "We are also excite d a b o u tw o r k i n gw i t h G Ew h i c h h a s gear technologyrecognized among as the best in the world." MAAG GearAGis the leadingsuppligear syscustomised ei for combined . t e m s f o r m a r i n ea p p l i c a t i o n s T h e companywasfoundedin 1913 by Dr. h . c . M a x M a a g ,a n d t o d a y i s a s u b s i d i a r y o f F L S ,t h e l a r g e s tD a n i s h industrialGroup.The productsrange from marinegear systems,mill gears f o r t h e c e m e n ti n d u s t r y , i g h s p e e d h turbo gearsfor the oil and gas industry gearsfor windturbines. to the epicyclic Recentother irnportantnavalcont r a c t s i n c l u d et h e g e a r sf o r t h e n e w corvettesfor the GermanNavy(ClassK 130) as well as for the F 310 program frigatesforthe Norwegian Navyand for class Destroyers of the Iatest AEGIS the SouthKoreanNavy(KDXlll).I

geadng Gomplex
g MAAG's ainreduction ear will be m custom designedto powerthe ship's four waterjets from either the diesel e n g i n e s ,g a s t u r b i n e s ,o r b o t h , , i n CODAG mode.Transfer modes between will be automatically via controlled the MAAG suppliedintegratedcontrol syst e m i n c o m b i n a t i o n i t ht h e s h i p ' s w main propulsion controland monitoring g s y s t e m .T h e m a i n r e d u c t i o n e a r i n g provide uiet, q s u p p l i e db y M A A G i l l w reliable perationn this demanding o i a p p l i c a t i o n s i t h a s f o r o t h e rw o r l d a navtes. G e n e r a lE l e c t r i c ' s a r i n eE n g i n e M Gear business,located in Lynn, Massachusetts,acting as a subcontractorto MAAG, manufacture will critical rotatingcomponents the main for gear,and will be responsible reduction for final assembly and testing..

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13

Tailor-mad
I

customers

isi AG,part of the MANgroup, Renk for and of gearing transmissions coi Twomostimpressivd vessels. naval offeredby thei rangeof applications after beencommissioned successfd
togetherwith the gear set, was schedlast monthunder Coast Guard uledto be examined by full loadconditions the Philadelphia- Maritime SecuritY a b a s e d U S c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u t h o r i t y Cutters. NAVESEA. T h e R e n kg e a r s y s t e mc o m P r i s e s gear units of reduction two three-stage a type BUS86,/75 providing most flexF ble operationat cruisingspeed and a maximumspeedof uP to 60 knots on douThe high-precision both water-jets. gearing, whichavoidsaxial ble-helical c o n s t r a i n i n gf o r c e s , g u a r a n t e e s extremelylow noise and vibrationsvalues. Constructionof the first of class, at Northrop Grumman's Pascagoula facility (artist's impression below), was started last Left. The first Renk gearbox for the new US from one travel modeto the other thus over efficiency guaranteeing maximum a wide rangeof shiPsPeeds. The six newSEScatamarans Patrol boats,of the Skloldclass,will be built shipat in carbon-fibre the Norwegian yardof UmoeMandal.

John Barnes Editor

he new gear systems are impressive examPles of and versatility Renk'scapacity in the designand manufacturgearunits,as exemplified er of marine by the company'ssuccessin equipping systemsaboard almost450 propulsion corvettesand frigatesof destroyers, 30 differentnavies.

US CoastGuardcutters
progresswith production Meanwhile, ing on scheduleand after successful gear unit systesting, the first CODAG Dieseland Gas)intendtem (Combined ed for th new US Coast Guardcutters, w a s c o m m i s s i o n e dt o N o r t h r o P GrummanShip Systemsat aboutthe units' sametime as the Norwegian the gear system described Unlike e a r l i e r ,t h i s u n i t i s a r a t h e rh e a v y ' weightsystem(110 tonnes)but is said to be the most modernCODAG-installaRenkgear unit typesAS tion combining 2/250 andAS 198F.

The lightestunit Yet

September,keel laying is schedw, T h e C O G A G - a r r a n g e m e n th i c h t gearingso c o m b i n e s w o g a s t u r b i n e so t 2 ' L O O uled for this The lowestspecificweight with delivf a r a c h i e v e dw o r l d w i d eh a s b e e n kW and 4,200 kW PowerresPectively' month semF ery during the into is integrated two carbon-fibre c l a i m e db y R e n kf o r a h i g h - c a p a c i t y second quarter w g m a r i n ep r o p u l s i o n e a rw i t h C O G A G - h u l l s .P o w e r i l l c o m ef r o m a P r a t t& of 2OO7 gas turbines com- WhitneyST18M and ST40M gas turarrangement(two a g e a ru n i t ) .T h i s b i n e i n e a c h h u l l d r i v i n g w a t e rj e t b i n e da s i n p u tt o o n e throughthe Renkgears. propulsion systemnas ultra-compact vertically Theturbinesare arranged to been designed be used aboardthe to the gear set. n e w S E S c a t a m a r a n so f t h e R o y a l and flange-connected The inputspeedof the smallergas turNaW. Norwegian bine is 20,0000 rPm- a new recordfor o A f t e r s u c c e s s f u lc o m P l e t i o n f a via a marinegear unit - and is reduced s e r i e so f t e s t r u n s , t h e f i r s t o f s i x planetary intermediate m a r i n eg e a r s e t s h a s b e e n c o m m i s - an integrated s i o n e df o r t h e U S c u s t o m e rP r a t t & WhitneyPowerSystems,of Hartford' modAn Connecticut. entire propulsion of ule, consisting the two gas turbines t g e a r u n i t o f m i n i m u md i m e n s i o n s o the paralleloffset gear 8,000 rpm in SSS-clutches train.Self-synchronising a l l o wa f u l l y - a u t o m a t i c h a n g e - o v e r

L4

The Motor ShiPAPril2005

geafing for overseas pletesuccessfu )om I tests
a leading manufacturer nmercial shipsand , eXorTtFlesthe wide of company, haverecently rl test runs
The US CoastGuardhas adopted a p r o p u l s i o n o n c e p t o r i t s n e wl a r g e c f size MaritimeSecurity Cutters(formerly National Security Cutters) that is based o n R e n k ' se x c e l l e n e x o e r i e n c e i t h t w propulsion the veryfirst CODAG system installed worldwide, the newfrigateF in ! 2 4 o f t h e G e r m a nN a v y ' sS a c h s e n T h e C O D A G y s t e mi s c o n f i g u r e d s w i t h o n e c e n t r a lg a s t u r b i n ea n d t w o dieselengineslocatedin between the c p p r o p e l l e r s n dt h e i n s t a l l e d o t a l a t powerof 37,000 kWgivesthe cutters v e r y e f f i c i e n to p e r a t i o n s i n c et h e s propulsion nitcan be adapted ery u v precisely eachoperational to mode. In addition, systemexcelswiththe i n t h e p a r t i a ll o a dr a n g e , e w h i l eo n e i d i e s e l e n g i n e i s a c t i n go n b o t h p r o pellers, whichis expected represent to aroundTOo/o operatingtime. a of the As consequence, maintenance the intervals for the dieselenginesbecomesign i f i c a n t l ye x t e n d e d ,t h u s s a v i n g maintenance ostsandincreasing c availability. All gear stagesof this system featuredouble-helical teeth whichare b e i n gp r o d u c e d s i n gt h e h i g h - p r e c i u sion grinding technology developed by R e n k . h i st e c h n i q u e a s b e c o m e T h a practiceat the commonmanufacturing company such sophisticated for heavydutygears.I

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*[

The Hinged Ship - another FUELSAVING
We can modifia
tL)

OPTION

(Patent us643r0eeBl) no.

5,650 teu container ship up to 459m long, 6lm wide with a centre hinge, as the drawing below shows'

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Trorrr{rre.pr\rrc\p\es olrraxa\ancHrlec\rrre, t\rerrrtxlrrrrr.ccr,s\reattorce qta"shr.rg\etr-gtkr-\3csrts atl /4La1rd 3/4 Lfron(\ onel '27+f'tttip'"bodies, with a hinge between, will have a bending moment smaller than a ship of length L. The new end. Two ship's shear force is'never greater than tie ship with length.L, because ihe bending moment at the hinge is zero. The huge container ships-can be solved by turning the hinge a few degrees. hoiging bending -omenion We can now design the new ship with 7.5 Llength and 1.5-| beam to have a centre hinge with.th.. t3P: $epth "l4ltgt: "container ship ftorr' 24.2m to 28.8m so i[ could be 1'65 Llong-and _1:65q thi.k r.rr, *oai4ittg the depth tf a 5,650 TEU A wide.This reduces tYrewette'd surface,/container to 6O.5Vo. stabilizer can be used to reduce rolling to less than 1' and using the recess air cushion method, as per my first patent, reduces skin resistance by 45Va. The next patent will be for a surface drive system, saving up to 50% of the cost of the m9i1 engine. This new ship carries up to 1g,9'34TEU, and needs 99,200 hp to u.hi.u" a 25 [ndt service speed, but with 1.645 times better fuel efficiency than tlie Maersk Line s 352,6m ships - regarded as the best container ship ever built.

Contacr: Bill Huang, S/f7 No I Alley 3 Lane l42Tailin Road Section 2 Taisan Hsiang Taipei Hsien Tiiwan Tel/fax:886 2 2296 3245 Email: b87201044@ntu.edu.tw are of Only a aery krnited nunxber kcences aaailable,so contactus now

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Westfaliasigns up to fuel commitment standard
has Mineraloil Systems nowbittenthe bulletand, Westfalia Separator joinedthe initiative develop international grudgingly, an to rather on standard fuelseparation
Patrik Wheater Contributor
Institute(SlS)and separator Standards plans Alfa Lavalrevealed manufacturer j o i n t l y d e v e l o pa s y s t e mt o a l l o w to equipmentbuyersto analysethe sepaof ration oerformance differentfuel oil separators(see lhe Motor Ship, June 2OO4). Formanyyears nowthere has been , a d e m a n df r o m e n g i n eb u i l d e r s s h i p societiesfor ownersand classification c r e l i a b l ep e r f o r m a n c e r i t e r i af o r t h e abilityto removeabrasive separator's fuel oils. oarticlesfrom marineresidual reprois Presentlythere no recognised exactly duciblemethodfor measuring capacity and between the relationship performance. separation Separator units are usuallyratedon own maximumrecthe manufacturer's (MRC) tables and capacity ommended to these coulddifferfrom one company another. i T h i s m e a n st h a t t h e e n d - u s e r s with one hundred unable determine to p e r c e n t c o n v i c t i o nh a t t h e o p t i m u m t fines has amountof harmfulcatalytic actuallybeen removedfrom the heavy f u e l o i l p r i o r t o i n j e c t i o ni n t o t h e engine.The maximumISO8217 stanb f i n a l i s e d E Ns t a n d a r d , u t i t p o i n t s C o u t t h a t a s c e r t i f i e df l o w r a t e i s t h e (oil, resultof an optimisedsimulation p a r t i c l e s v i s c o s i t i e sa n d t h a t t h i s , ) to value cannotdirectlybe comparecl of mineraloil the optimumcapacities by recommended the manuseparators "CFRdoes not necessarily facturers. for showthe optimumcapacity a realisoil," saidthe company. fuel tic heavy The CEN Workshop has now from five receivedcertificates (CFR) LR, societies(DNV, CCS, classification the Russian ABSand GL)and expects a o M a r i t i m eR e g i s t e r f S h i p p i n g n d ClassNKto followsuit soon.TheJapan a t M a r i n eE q u i p m e nA s s o c i a t i o n n d C h e v r o n T e x a ch a v e a l s o r e c e n t l y o joined Westfaliaas new participants, A a n d a C E NW o r k s h o p g r e e m e n it s to exoected be finalisedthis summer it with plansto quicklyadvance into a full ISOstandard. P r o j e c t m a n a g e r ,t h e S w e d i s h GustafEdstrom, Institute's Standards "As the workshopparticicomments, pants represent separamarketleading t o r m a n u f a c t u r e r sd i e s e l e n g i n e , s m a n u f a c t u r e r sc l a s s i f i c a t i o n o c i ,

he German-basecompany d w i l l n o w p a r t i c i p a t ei n t h e EuropeanCommittee for Standardisation (CEN) whichwas set up to develop Workshop a m e t h o df o r t e s t i n gt h e s e p a r a t i o n performanceof centrifugalseparators f o r m a r i n er e s i d u a f u e l o i l . T h et u r n l c a r o u n df o l l o w si n c r e a s i n g u s t o m e r demand. Westfalia's Christian Bruns, D e v e l o p m e n a n d D e s i g n- S y s t e m t Technology, says, "Thereasonfor our participation that more and moreof is of our customers,in consequence an number publications of and increasing e n f o r c e d a r k e tc a m p a i g n sa s k f o r m , as certifiedflow rates (CFR) part of a this certificate.Following type approval marketpressure planthe determiwe nationof CFRfor our machinesaccordtest procedure ing to the standardised wantto have on whichwe consequently a creative influence." However, Westfaliastill considers nothcertifiedflow ratesto represent v i n g m o r et h a n " a r e f e r e n c e a l u ef o r whichhavebeentested in an machines s ootimized imulation an additional - no more,no lessl" tool

standard An international
The initiativeto create an international p s t a n d a r df o r f u e l s e p a r a t i o n e r f o r M a r c hl a s t i m a n c ew a s a n n o u n c e dn y e a rw h e n c o l l a b o r a t o r s e t N o r s k e D Veritas(DNV),MANB&W,BP Marine, C a r n i v a C o r p o r a t i o nt,h e S w e d i s h l

a d a r da l l o w a b l e ' c af ti n e s 'i n b u n k e r e d e t i e s ,o i l c o m p a n i e s n d s h i p P i n g fuel is 80ppm, althoughengine lines, a CWA (CEN WorkshoP endorsedby these parties Agreement) b u i l d e r s s t i p u l a t e a m a x i m u mo f significance." will havea substantial for 15ppm;thus the necessity the fuel "Theonboardeffect is that the ship process. separation will operator andengineer havea more to realisticview of what performance

soon? An ISOstandard

This will agreesthat the comparability expectfrom their equipment. Westfalia planning, thus betweendifferent separatorsshould facilitatemaintenance breakcosts and preventing i n d e e d b e c h a n g e df o r t h e b e t t e r reducing fuel cleaning,"adds downsfor inferior throughthe CFRand intendsto certify i t s s e p a r a t o r s a c c o r d i n gt o t h e I Edstrom.

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n c o n j u n c t i o w i t ht h e o r g a n i s e r s ' n V L e a O i n g o i c e sP r o g r a m m er,h e M o t o rS h i pi s o r g a n i s i n a o n e - d a y g t e c h n i c ac o n f e r e n c a t t h e e v e n t . l e

PROSRARNN4EPRESENTATIONS OF
DESIGN SESSION - SHIPANDSYSTEM 1 An advancedcar carrier concept - 2O years into the future WalleniusWilhelmsen Cryogenics and the dieselengine- technology for the future AndyPriscott, CryogenicTreatmentServices to technology variAdopting ultra low temperature d o u s a s p e c t s f m a r i n e i e s e le n g i n e e r i n-gt h e o

d T o b e h e l do n t h e o p e n i n g a y ,J u n e of 7th, it willexamine number themes a F t h e b r o a dt i t l e o f D e s i g n o r under Performance. is Theconference to be held in the H a R a i n b o w o t e lA r e n a , d j a c e ntto t h e t e x h i b i t i o n e n t r ew h e r e h e N o r c main p l a c ee n a b l i n g , t S h i p p i ne v e n w i l l t a k e g

A proposed designfor a ro-rocar carrierfor the and whatare the advany e a r2 0 2 5 , c o v e r i n gt s d e s i g na n d o p e r a t i o n a l theoryand the practice, i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c T .h i sc o n c e p t h l p h a s s o m e t a g e st h a t c a n b e g a i n e dw i t h t h i s a d v a n c e d s including fact that it willderive approacn. the novelfeatures fromwind,waveand solarpower. its propulsion failures An analysisof machinery Norbert G. Erles, Head of Department Damage6 anischerLloyd Repairs, Germ o t S e l e c t e d x a m p l e s f s i g n i f i c a nd i e s e le n g i n e e or damagecausedby faulty manufacturing operawith a focus on the classification tional reasons pointof view.Descriptions the relevanttempoof measures repairs andcounter raryor permanent following repairspecificacarriedout successfully by Germanischer Lloyd. tionselaborated/approved DEBATE SESSION _ LNGPROPUTSION 3 the currently A debatefeaturing four alternatives n t . a v a i l a b lfe r t h e p r o p u l s i oo f L N G a n k e r sT h e o arguments eachoptionwill be put forwardby for

Marine coatings for improvedperformance p r e - r e g i s t e r e d ProfessorColinD Anderson, d e l e g a t e sw h o w i l l b e , v International Paint Ltd to f o r t h e e x h i b i t i o n , e a s i l y i s i tt h i s to during Howmarinecoatingsare beingdeveloped offer of majorshowcase the industry p e r f o r m a n c eo r b o t h t h e o w n e ra n d f , improved s u b s e q u e n ta y s .I n a d d i t i o na l l d e l e d gatesto TheMotorShip's conference vessel,and the environment. Newmaterials and will to methods be examined. will receive automatic admission the Nor-Shipping e-day onferencthe on c e following day. We havealready linedup an impress s i v el i s t o f c o m p a n i e a n d s p e a k e r s rudderdesign:gains in propulsion The TLKSR efficiency BeckerMarine Systems T h e T w i s t e dL e a d i n gE d g ew i t h K i n g i S u p p o r tR u d d e r s a n o v e ld e s i g nn o w beingfitted to manyof the largestcon-

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p n a improve- i n d i v i d u a lr o t a g o n i s t sn dt h e n c h a l l e n g eid a tainerships,andwhichdelivers l o e w m e n t s i n p r o p u l s i o n f f i c i e n c y h i l e g e n e r a d i s c u s s i o n f t h e p r o s a n d c o n so f t h e various solutions, significantly savingweight. SESSION MACHINERY 2. Sophisticated propellersfol the world's o s c o v e r i n a n u m b e r f d i s c i p l i n ea n d g f y r a n g i n gr o m c o n t e m p o r a rd e s i g n s to and solutions some longterm views on whatthe futuremaybring a D e t a i l so f t h e p r o g r a m m e s c o n while firmedso far,are givenopposite, potential shouldeithercomdelegates p l e t et h e f o r m e l s e w h e r i n t h i s i s s u e e o o r c o n t a c tK a r e nT o l l e y n e - m a i l : e l :+ k . t o l l e y @ h i g h b u r y b i z .tc o m ;4 4 ( 0 ) !322 617246. largest cruise ferry 1. Presentation Steam-the provenperformerTba dieselelectric Barend Presentation Dual-fuel 2. Oy ThUssen, Wdrtsild Finland Presentation Thedirectdrivedieselsolution3.

Rolls Royce for The designof the propellers the cruiseferry Veritas MANB&W ColorFantasywhich the Det Norske fulfil C t 4, c l a s s i f i c a t i o"n o m f o r C l a s s1 " . T h i sp r o p e l l e r Presentation Thegas turbineoptionMPT Harsema-Mensonides, Ulstein XF5CPpro- Alexander systemis basedon Kamewa Dellers. Consultancy

18

The Motor Ship April2005

ne Record yearsof mari 85 diesel development
rsary.The v*ry AT* With this issu* Tt's* M*t*r Sfs{tr* **,|**uat"** SSth eilnive '*y #pp*sredin Apr!lLgZ* first issu*, *dit*d t** i*g*nd*{y &# *lt*Ekt*y, and wa* r*r*llr*f*iv*d *v*n if *v*r tl=* n*xt t*w vearsit f*eed an ushill

h e n t h e v e r yf i r s t i s s u e appeared,a motto was for announced the jour" T oe s t a b l i s ht h e nalsupremacyof the motor ship". R e m e m b e r t, h i s w a s a m e r e e i g h t years after what is generallyaccepted as the first deep sea motorshiP, (EAC) DanishEastAsiaticCompany's puttingto sea. Today, looking Selandia, back,it is clearthat this has beena job weli done if one takes note of the oreof sent dominance the diesel. is Whatis staggering that in onlyour i s s u e w e d e s c r i b e dE A C ' s second Afrika,lhenthe world's largestmotor ship at 13,000 dwt, whichhad goneon t r i a l s j u s t a s t h e f i r s t i s s u ew a s p u b by lished.This freighterwas powered

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a i c o n s t r u c t i o n t H y u n d aS h i p b u i l d i n g f o r G r e e k o w n e r C o s t a m a r e .T h e vesselsare to be charteredlongterm (COSCO Container Lines)in to Coscon for andthe first is planned delivChina,

Above, one of the Afrika's engines and opposite, the cover of the first ,ssue TheMotor Ship,a task which the jour nal continues do today as exemplito fied by the reportsin this issue of the bulk carrierdesignto latesthandymax enter service,and the futurethinking w c o n s h i p p r o p u l s i o n o n c e p t s h e no i l becomesscarceor too expensive. Wherewe will be 85 yearshencein technology terms of marinepropulsion i s o p e n t o s p e c u l a t i o nA s s t a t e d i n . looking to this issue,thinkingis already b e y o n dt h e u s e o f o i l , w i t h a time energybeingchampioned. renewable O t h e r s a r e l o o k i n gt o a r e v i v a lo f s n u c l e a rp o w e rf o r m e r c h a n t h i p s , the hopes of the 195Os and reviving 196Os that were dashed by environmentalconeerns. will Whatis certainis that shipping remainthe key transport mediumfor world trade and TheMotor Shrpintends to be there to continuereportinghow c this is beingachieved.

ery in February 2006. HyundaiHeavy o has also received rders two Burmeister and Wainsix-cylinder, l n d u s t r i e s producing directfrom COSCO four 12K98ME for four-strokeengines,each engines.These are destinedfor four 2,250 ihp (1,655 kW)at 115 rpm and vesselsalso to a achieved speed of 73.25 knots dur- 10,000 TEUcontainer ingthe trials. Now,85 years later, a new record f o r t h e m a r i n ed i e s e l h a s b e e n s e t . With an output of 101,645 bhp (74,760 kW)MANB&WDieselrecently b b r o k e t h e s i n g l e - e n g i n e a r r i e ro f e 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 b h p .T h e 1 2 K 9 8 M C n g i n e , w i t h a r e c o r do u t p u t o f 8 , 4 7 0 b h p ( 6 , 2 3 0 k W )p e r c y l i n d e r i,s b y f a r t h e m o s t p o w e r f u lM A NB & W - d e s i g n e d enginein production. Fiveof these 12K98MCengineswill be built by MANB&WDiesellicensee, H y u n d a iH e a v yI n d u s t r i e si n K o r e a . T h e ya r e t o b e i n s t a l l e di n f i v e u l t r a shipswhichare under largecontainer fleet. servethe Coscon these two enginessepaComparing rated by 85 years, the progressmade o i s a s t o u n d i n gE a c hc y l i n d e r f t h e . almosttwice currentengineproduces t h e i n s t a l l e dp o w e ro f t h e e n t i r e machinery the earliership!Similarly of the sizeofthe ships has increased e n o r m o u s l y i t h m a n yo f t h e c u r r e n t w containerships substanhigh-powered 100,000 dwt whilethe tially exceeding largestmotorships,albeitnot so highly powered, beingcloseto 450,000 dwt. A l l t h e c h a n g e sa n d i n n o v a t i o n s h t h a t s p a nt h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s a v e beenfaithfullyreportedin the pagesof

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E/S Orceller a concept
group has Wilhelmsen a vislon Wallenius Shipowning
friendly ocean of the future- an environmentally transport unit for 2025 that does not releaseany

or into emlssions the atmosphere the oceans
he E/S Orcelleuses renewable energysourcesand fuel cells to generate the energy t t r e q u i r e do p o w e r h e v e s s e l . I t s h i g h l ya d v a n c e d e s i g np r o v i d e s d t o p t i m u mc a r g oc a p a c i t y o t r a n s p o r t the cars and othergoodsaround world moreefficiently. o Sustainablehipping epends n s d and the use of newtechnologies on the f utilisation f energy rom renewable o s o u r c e s . W a l l e n i u sW i l h e l m s e n believes that the futureof the shipping i n d u s t r yl i e s i n u s i n g t h e e n e r g y a a s o u r c e s l r e a d y v a i l a b l e t s e aa solar,windand waveenergy. Evenso, the company well aware is required enable to that the technologies this concept vesseltobecome reality a in the next 20 yeats needto be developeo, v H o w e v e ri,t h a s o b s e r v e d a r i o u s e m e r g i n ge c h n o l o g i e t h a t e n a b l e t s from renewsmallershipsto use energy a a a b l es o u r c e s n d i s k e e p i n g c l o s e t w a t c ho n e m e r g i n gr e n d st h a t m a y t b e c o m ea p p l i c a b l eo l a r g e rv e s s e l s sometime the future.Renewable in energysourceshavethe potentiato provide n l a a b u n d a ns u p p l y f t o energy ithminiw 6.5O0vehicles. Henceit can transoort u w i l l b e c a p a b l eo f t r a n s p o r t i n g p t o 1 0 , 0 0 0 c a r s o n e i g h tc a r g od e c k s , t t h r e e o f w h i c hw i l l b e a d j u s t a b l eo a c c o m m o d a t ec a r g o o f d i f f e r e n t heightsandweights. t t C o m p a r e do t o d a y ' sv e s s e l s , h e h u s e o f a p e n t a m a r a n u l la n d r e n e w the vesable energy will helpoptimise s e l ' s c a r g o c a p a c i t ya n d g i v e i t a m a x i m u m d e a d w e i g h to f 1 3 , 0 0 0 t o n n e s . T h i si s s a i dt o b e a r o u n d 3,000 tonnesmorethanthe equivalent conventional vesselthanksto the use o f a l u m i n i u m n dt h e r m o p l a s t ic o m a c positesin its construction the elimiand nationof ballastwater. C o n c e p t u aw o r k o n t h e d e s i g n l b e g a ni n 2 0 0 4 a n d i s o n g o i n ga n d a Wallenius Wilhelmsen envisages servicedate of 2025 for the desiEn.

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No ballast water
According lMO,ballastwateris one to of the four majorthreatsto the world's oceans.fhe E/S Orcellewill remove h t h i s t h r e a tb y e l i m i n a t i ntg e n e e df o r ballastwaterthanksto its pentamaran of hulldesign andthe elimination a traa d i t i o n a ls t e r n p r o p e l l e r n d r u d d e r requiring immersion.

m a l e n v i r o n m e n - No emissions sail with zeroemisfhe E/S Orcellewill t a l i m p a c ta n d a t by relatively cost. low sions.lt is to be powered renewable s e n e r g y o u r c e si n c l u d i n g o l a r ,w i n d s to be used in combiand waveenergy, nationwith a fuel cell systempowered The E/S Orcellewill have an optimum for Someofthe hydrogen c a r g oc a p a c i t y f 8 5 , 0 0 0 m ' o f c a r g o by hydrogen. o generated board on d e c k a r e a .w h i c hi s u o t o 5 0 % m o r e the fuel cellswill be The by the solar,wind and waveenergy. c t t h a n t o d a y ' sm o d e r n a r c a r r i e r s h a t

vessel A moreversatile

20

The Motor Ship April2OO5

hence for two decades
ven fuel cell system on boardto generThe production and storate electricity. (at high pressure or low age of itself are temperature) the hydrogen c u r r e n t l y b s t a c l e s h a t n e e dt o b e o t t v o v e r c o m e o d e v e l o D i a b l ef u e l c e l l for technology ships. Wilhelmsen believes that Wallenius will futuretechnologies be ableto transform solar,wind and waveenergyinto for hydrogen immediateuse or storage technologies on board.By developing of that will enablethe production hydrog e n a t s e a , t h e r ew i l l b e a s i g n i f i c a n t in and storageof reduction the handling t h i s e n e r g y o u r c eo n b o a r d .l n a d d i s maywell solve tion, newtechnologies enabling storageproblem, the hydrogen the solidmaterials replace fluid. to
ltti, olil . t

only by-products the productionof of electricity from fuel cellswill be water and heat.

Bearing little resemblance to a conventionalcar carrier, the design can in fact accommodatearound 1-0,000cars

Solarenergy
Solarenergy be acquired photowill by i v o l t a i cp a n e l sl o c a t e d n t h e v e s s e l ' s sails.Whennot in use for wind orooulsion,the sails maybe tilted,laiddown for or in otherwaysdirected maximum Thisenergy will solarenergy collection. into electricity for then be transformed immediate use, or for storage.

system Electricpropulsion
fr" t
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The wave energygeneratedby the vertical movementof the fins may be Sailsand solar panels, here seen The E/S Orcellewill havetwo variable podsspeed360' electricpropulsion o n e a t e a c h e n d o f t h e m a i n h u l l- t o c o m D l e m e n h e v e s s e l ' ss a i l a n d f i n tt propulsion systems. powersupply Electric and hydraulic t w i l l b e r e q u i r e do e r e c t .u n f u r la n d rotatethe sails and to operatethe two aft rudders.Thesewill providesteering p c a p a b i l i t i ew h e nt h e e l e c t r i c r o p u l s sionsystemis not in use,for example, whenthe vesselis undersail.I

Windenergy
W i n de n e r g y i l l m a i n l y e u t i l i s e do r w b f propulsion three sails directly through composite constructed lightweight of and material. Capable foldingupward of outward, rigidsails can rotateabout the the masthead find the best position to to extractwind energythroughthe creationof dragor lift , or a combination of the two.

into mechanical energy for deployed, are a transformed i m m e d i a t e s e i n t h e m e c h a n i c a l key element u propulsion the fins. In addition, enerof gy from the movement the fins could of b e h a r n e s s e d o g e n e r a t eh y d r a u l i c t energythat mightbe used eitherimmesysdiatelyor stored.Otherpromising t e m s f o r m e c h a n i c ae n e r g y t o r a g e , l s are such as flywheels, also underdevelopment.

Wave energy

into Waveenergymay be transformed 50% used v a r i o u s y p e so f e n e r g y y c o m b i n i n g Approximately of the energy t b propulsion the E/S Orcellewill be of ot the relativemovements the waves, for generated fuel cellswhichcombine by the fins andthe vessel.The E/S Orcelle elements,hydrois designed havea total of 12 fins in to two commonchemical gen and oxygen, generateelectricity. to all, enabling vesselto harness the and waveenergyinto hydrogen, This is then used by the electricmotors transform systems. l . in the pod andfin propulsion e l e c t r i c i t o r m e c h a n i c ae n e r g yT h e y electricunitsthat are Thefuel cellswill alsogenerate fins are also propulsion drivenby waveenergyor the electricity o o r m e c h a n i c ae n e r g ya v a i l a b l e n l ooaro. i t y f o r o t h e r e n e r g yc o n s u m e r so n board. Thevesselwill havea hydrogen-dri-

Energy carriers

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2L

fromTTStakes A newwinchbollard the strainout of moorinS
speedwhenthe mooringlines become t i g h t , a n d o p e r a t o r sd o n o t s t a n d i n direct line of the mooringline.As it is a the singleitem of equipment, TTSWB systemalso takes up less spacethan c o n v e n t i o n a l o o r i n g w i n c h ea n d a m s capstan,althougha completemooring w i n c h i s a l s o a s i n g l ei t e m o f e q u i p ment but takes up morespacethan the TTSWB. The TTSWB can replacethe differi e n t s t e e l b o l l a r d s n d i s a v a i l a b l en a hydro-electric electricversions.For and the electricalversion,there is a frequencyconverterwith controlunit, and for the hydraulic version,the system is prepared connection the vessel's to for e x i s t i n gr i n g l i n e s y s t e mo r T T Sc a n PowerUnit(HPU). supplythe Hydraulic d c a p s t a no r w a r p i n g r u m ,t h e r o p e m u s t b e m o v e df r o m t h e c a o s t a no r sincethe warping drum to the bollard, c a p s t a na n d w a r p i n gd r u m s a r e n o t designed retainthe mooringrope.To to rope, maintain tensionon the mooring a thinnerrope,which is attachedto a deck fitting, is used to hold the mooring rope while it is movedonto the boll a r d . W i t h t h e T T SW B s y s t e m , t h e is complete mooring operation carried out on a singlesystem. O p t i m a la n d s a f e c o n t r o ld u r i n g b t m o o r i n gi s a c h i e v e d y a l l o w i n g h e mooringoperatorto moveand operate the portablefoot pedalfrom a position offeringthe best view and communicat i o n . T T SW B h a s a s t e p - l e s ss p e e d controlwith high light line speed,and of automaticreduction line speedwhen the load increases. The mooringoperat o r d o e s n o t s t a n d i n d i r e c t l i n ew i t h rope(this is an important the mooring s a f e t y m e a s u r ei f t h e m o o r i n gr o p e shouldfail). TTSWB is equippedwith stop and an an integrated emergency easycontrollable safe brakewhile fail w t h e d r u m sa r e e q u i p p e d i t h v u l c a n i s e d r u b b e rt o p r e v e n tt h e m o o r i n g ropesliding. The comoactWB has self lubricated bearingsand water resistant design a w h i c hl e a d st o l o w m a i n t e n a n c e n d low noise operation. Thereis also an e s integrated mergency top.T make installationas easy as possible,TTS provides base socketfor weldingto a the vessel's main deck structureand with a full two-comthe WB is delivered paintsystem.I ponentepoxy/acrylic

Paul Van Dvck DeputvEditor

o h e M a r i n eC r a n eD i v i s i o n f TTSMarine, whichis Norway's located in Bergen,has deveF oped a newwinchbollard(TTS WB)mooringsystem,whichwill make mooringoperationseasier and safer systems than the more conventional c u r r e n t l ya v a i l a b l e .A c o n v e n t i o n a l mooringsystem utilises either a mooring winchor a fixed bollardand warping d r u m o r c a p s t a n ,a l l o f w h i c h c a n b e This replaced the TTSWinchBollard. by b o l l a r di s e a s i e rt o o p e r a t e ,i s m o r e f l e x i b l e ,a n d a l s o s a f e rt h a n m o s t o f the existing-systems. rope TheTTSWB can hold mooring as a normal bollard,but can also tighte n . a n dr e l e a s et h e m o o r i n gl i n e i n a two controlled and safe way.Normally peopleare neededto handlethe moori n g o p e r a t i o n ,w h e n f i x i n g a r o p e arounda bollard,but with the new TTS WB,this is reducedto a one man operThis is due safety. ation,with enhanced r e d u c i n gt h e t o t h e T T SW B s y s t e m

Basic features
The strengthof the system lies in its lllustration showing simplicityand is basedon a one-man crew member o p e r a t i o nc o m p a r e dw i t h t w o m e n l controlling mooring o f t e n r e q u i r e do n c o n v e n t i o n as y s t e m s . l t e l i m i n a t e st h e n e e d t o u s e operations using portable foot pedal stoppers.Whenusinga conventional

22

The Motor Ship April 2005

Debutfor Diamond d o u b l e - h u l lb u l k e r ed
practical requireA European to basedon operators' approach design,
Asian production, ments and tradingneeds,coupledwith cost-effective handymax breedof double-hull has resultedin a competitively-priced
DavidTinsley,China
h e c l a s s , t h e D i a m o n d5 3 , r e c e n t l ym a d e i t s s e r v i c e d e b u t ,w i t h t h e h a n d o v e r y b Chengxi Shipyardof the 53,000dwt Spar Lyra,the first of 21 such vessels firmly contractedto date from yardsin Chinaand Vietnam(see TheMotor Ship,March2005). Therobust,versatile newclassis the resultof a joint designendeavour the by GraigGroupand Danish Cardiff-based C t e c h n i c a lc o n s u l t a n c y a r l B r o . A s e n d o r s e db y t h e l e v e l o f s a l e s a n d optionsachieved far, the projectiniso tiators set out to ensurethat a full doucouldbe builtat no ble hullconfiguration overa standard singlesidecost penalty skindesignof comparable capacity. Despitethe absenceof any mandat t o r y r e q u i r e m e n f o r n e w b u l k e r st o i n c o r p o r a t e o u b l eh u l l s ,w h i c hh a d d s e e m e dl i k e l yw h e nd e s i g nw o r k h a d 5 b e e n i m p l e m e n t e dt,h e D i a m o n d 3 to continues attractintereston account ofthe long-term operational and safety benefitsof the double-skin.

The parties involved the developin m e n t p r o g r a m m e e r e d u b b e dt h e w 'Diamond group',and the resultcould be fairly describedas a testamentto the industry'scapacity productive for co-ooeration. Thefact that Bergen-domiciled Spar S h i p p i n g t, h e c o n t r a c t u ao w n e ro f l eightofthe 12 Diamonds entrusted to yard at Jiangyin,has fixed the Chengxi all eight vessels on three-year

Profile and main deck plan for the Diamond 53 design

t i m e c h a r t e r so p r o m i n e n t a m e si n t n p t h e b u l kt r a d e si s a n e a r l y , r o m i s i n g indicatorof chartererreceptivity the to newtype. A total grain-equivalent cargovoli u m e o f 6 5 , 7 0 0 m 3i s p r o v i d e d n f i v e holds, plumbedby high-stooled Tsuji deck cranes of 36-tonne capacity.A core advantage ofthe doublehull from a a c a r g ow o r k i n g n d h o l d c l e a n i n g n d is maintenance standDoints that the strengthmembersfor the side struca ture lie withinthe doubleskin, leaving completely flush surfaceto the cargo holds. Bycomparison, conventional a side handymax bulkerwith a single-skin shell has the side frames exoosedin the holds,tendingto prolongfull dischargeof granular and mineralcargoes task. and increasing cleaning the T h eD i a m o n d 3 h a s a v e r yb r o a d 5 c a r g oc a r r y i n g m b i t ,e n c o m p a s s i n g a includthe gamutof bulkcommodities a i n gc o a l ,g r a i n ,o r e ,c e m e n t , l u m i n a ,

The first two Diamond53s, emphasising the bluff bows of the design

A co-operative design
Thegeared,wide-hatched bulkertype was preparedafter extensive discuss i o n sw i t h o w n e r sa n d c h a r t e r e r s n o a operationarequirements nd after l with Det NorskeVeritas on consultation issues. structuralahd regulatory

24

The Motor Ship April 2005

b a u x i t e n d m i n e r a l a n d ,a s w e l l a s a s timber. steel products and packaged H e a v y t e e lc o i l sa r e a c o m m o n s c a r g of o r h a n d y m a x u l k e r s , n d t h e b a Diamond type givesan edgeto operators with regardto both intakeand handlingflexibility this vitalsectorof the in steel trade. Dueto increased tanktop s t r e n g t h ,a f u l I d e a d w e i g hc a r g oo f t and steelcoilscan be loaded, two tiers 1 o f 2 5 t o n n e ,s h o r t - l e n g t(h . 2 m )c o i l s c a n b e s t o w e do n t i m b e rd u n n a g e across holds. all T h i sg i v e se x t r ao p p o r t u n i t i e isn c o m p a r i s o no s t a n d a r d , i n g l e - s k i n t s types,whichare subjectto handymax strictercriteriagoverning loading, coil normally restricting heaw coilstowage t o a s i n g l et i e r ,a s a f a c t o ro f t a n k t o p D t l s t r e n g t h . e s p i t e h e a d d i t i o n as h i p g s t e e l w e i g he n t a i l e d n p r o v i d i n a n t i enhanced carrying capability heavy for n c o i l s ,a n d t h e p e n a l i s a t i o o f d e a d g r o u pp a r t n e r s w e i g h t ,t h e D i a m o n d generation the consider newhandymax

The "minimalist" bridge (left) contrasts with the accommodation (right) which is provided for a crew of 25

a s u p e r i o rd e s i g nf o r t h e s t e e l c o i l s trade.

and valvesare locatedin a fore-and-aft t u n n e ld u c t i n w a yo f t h e t o p h o p p e r y s p a c e si m m e d i a t e lb e l o wt h e m a i n d e c k ,r a t h e rt h a n b e i n go n t h e u p p e r bulker design. deck,as in traditional I n c o r p o r a t i nm a x i m u mb e a mf o r g t P a n a m a a n a lt r a n s i t s , h e D i a m o n d C e o 53 provides striking xample fthe a in size,equivalent advance handymax in deadweight that of the Panamax to category three decadesago. of

Double-hull strength
T h e h e a v yt a n k t o p s t r u c t u r ea l s o p a ff o r d sg r e a t e rl o n g - t e r m r o t e c t i o n againstthe rigoursof grabworkingof cargoes. The inherentstrengthof the p m d o u b l e - h ud le s i g n e r m i t s o r ef l e x i l c b l e a n d p r a c t i c allo a dl i m i t a t i o n r i t e o r i a , s u c ht h a t a l t e r n a t e o a d i n g f l d e n s e r a r g o e s a nb e a c c o m p l i s h e d c c withan evendistriat scantling draught b u t i o no f c a r g ot h r o u g h o utth e t h r e e holdsconcerned. is In contrast, alternate holdloading generally in onlypossible a single-skin with an uneven cargospread handymax h t y inthe alternate olds, ypicallentailt i n g u p t o 2 , 5 0 0 t o n n e sh a v i n g o b e shifted from holds1 and 5 to hold3. longWiththe aim of betterensuring mild steel term integrity, increased an w a s s t i p u l a t e da l b e i ti n a n content , d w o p t i m i s e d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t hs e l e c t i v e u s e o f h i g ht e n s i l es t e e l i n t h e u p p e r

Danishheritage
A m o n g h e t e a mt h a t h a s b r o u g h t h e t 5 C D i a m o n d 3 t o r e a l i s a t i o n , a r lB r o ' s p r o j e c t a n a g e r n d n a v a la r c h i t e c t , m a was formerly withthe Michael Schmidt, B u r m e i s t e r& W a i n S h i p y a r di n U C o p e n h a g e n . p u n t i li t s c l o s u r ei n yardhad maintained 1996, the Danish presence shipbuilding a west European b i n P a n a m a x u l k e ra n dt a n k e rd e s i g n a n d c o n s t r u c t i o nd e m o n s t r a t i n g , and in resilience innovation the face of

competition. the mostintense oriental yardachieved sucThe outstanding skin d e c ka n d w i n gt a n k s t r u c t u r e s ( H T 3 6 ) c e s sw i t hs a l e so f i t s s i n g l es i d e b a n d d o u b l e b o t t o m a n d l o w e r P a n a m a x u l k e r f a m i l y ,f r o m t h e Mkl typeof the early1970s The resultin 52,000dwt hull(HT32). arrangements relative single- t o t h e 7 5 , 0 0 0 d w t M k V so f t h e m i d to a higherlightweight skin handymax tonnage correspond- 1990s. of t, l H o w e v e r h e d o u b l e - h uPl a n a m a x ingcapacity. b T h e d o u b l e h u l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n d e s i g nd e v e l o p e d y B & Wm o r et h a n b 15 yearsago was aheadof its time in i m p l i e sn o t o n l ya d d e ds t r e n g t h u t readiness. Michael For improved safetythroughthe provision termsof market 53 the barrier against acciden- Schmidt, Diamond has provided of a secondary and to t a l w a t e r i n g r e s s . S a f e r c l o s e - u p an opportunity take circumspect i m a r k e t - a t t u n et d i n k i n gi n b u l k e r h i n s p e c t i o n f t h e f u l l h u l ls t r u c t u r e s o o evenwhenthe ship is in d e s i g na s t a g ef o r w a r d ,d r a w i n g n alsofostered, c s e r v i c e .E l e c t r i c a b l e s ,f i r e m a i n , d h y d r a u l ia n d c o m p r e s s e a i r p i p i n g c and experience someof the ideasemanatingfrom the B&Wdays.

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,tl

A very full fore end is a particular ,characteristicof the Diamond 53 design

Bulhead floodingstrength
laid Accordingly, requirements downfor single-skin bulkerswere usedto establish floodingstrengthfor the transverse to bulkheads. Edictsrelating flooding strengthofthe hull girderin single-skin vesselswere also adopted,although f l o o d i n go f t h e s i d e t a n k s a s w e l l a s the cargoholdswas considered, while a 7 O o / o - w alv e d i n gw a s e m p l o y e d , oa w c o m p a r e d i t h 8 0 %f o r s i n g l e - s k i n types. The latest versionof the IACS proposes JointRulesfor BulkCarriers only cargo hold floodingas the basis P r i n c i p a lt e c h n i c a l c h a l l e n g e s posed in the development f the o Diamond53 were associated with optim i s i n ga n e x t r e m e l yu l l h u l l f o r m t o f s e c u r el o wf u e l c o n s u m p t i o na n d i n , defining and achieving "right"comthe promisebetween required operational features,new and anticipated regulations, and vessellightweight. f o r h u l l g i r d e rs t r e n g t hc a l c u l a t i o n s regarding double-skin bulkers,together w i t h a w a v e l o a d i n go f 8 O o / o , d t h e an Diamond fulfillsthose criteria. 53 A n o t h e rn o t a b l e a s o e c t o f t h e designis the protectedpositioning of t h e h e a v y u e l o i l t a n k s b e h i n do u t e r f in cofferdams the engineroom,effectivelyextending doubleskin boundthe a r y a f t b e y o n dt h e c a r g o s e c t i o n . A total of some 2,000m" bunkercapacity in and is provided four compartments, r t t h e a r r a n g e m e n t se d u c e h e r i s k o f fuel spillagein the eventofgrounding forth a decision to mandate not double hulls."Obviously, was a critical this sitf l u a t i o n o r u s , " s a i d M i c h a eS c h m i d t , referring the impacton all the parto Excellent hold access is provided by the wide hatch openings and covers, aided by the four Tsuji36-tonne cranes or collision. Spar Lyra is poweredby a six-cylint d e r M A N B & W S 5 O M C - Cw o - s t r o k e d i e s e l ,d e l i v e r i n g , 4 8 Ok W a t 1 2 7 9 rpm, to ensurea servicespeed of 1-4 k n o t s i n l a d e nc o n d i t i o n T h e e n g i n e . w a s s u p p l i e dt o C h e n g x b y C h i n e s e i Hudong Heavy Machinery. The licensee three gensetsare basedon Daihatsu alternaorimemoversand Nishishiba tors, and are rated at 680 kW at 720 rom. G r a i gh a d e a r l i e rp l a n n e dt o a u g m e n t i t s D i a m o n do f f e r i n gw i t h a version,although 75,O00dwtPanamax to it now seems likelythat the follow-on the handymax type will be a 32,000dwt bulker.Construction may be handysize placedin Vietnam, wherefive Diamond 53s are already the booksofthe Ha on L o n ga n d N a m T r i e uy a r d s , w i t h t h e pros.pect a numberof options being of exercised beforetoo long.I

Full forward form
The hull form was devisedwith assisc t a n c ef r o m G o t h e n b u r g o n s u l t a n c y SSPA fine aft Sweden,and is relatively a n d v e r y f u l l f o r w a r d .W h i l et h e f o r e s h i pf o r m i s s u b s t a n t i a l ld i f f e r e n t y from that of the B&Wseries in its later version, the aft ship form displayssimil a r i t i e s ,a n d t a n k t e s t i n g a t S S P A ' s facilitiesverifiedgoodwake field prop-

proties involvedin the development groupagreedto erties of the Diamond type,benefiting ject. "Butthe Diamond propeller configuraefficiency and manoeuvrabili- continuewith the double-hull ty. A stern bulb promoteswaterflow to tion, simplybecause believe we that it from an operat h e p r o p e l l e ra n d a l a r g e r u d d e r is the best configuration e n h a n c e sm a n o e u v r a b i l i t y t f u l l a tional point of view and, furthermore, draught, whiledeadwood has beenfitt e d a b o v ea n d b e l o wt h e s k e g i n t h e stability. interestsof directional Whenwork was set in train on the D i a m o n d5 3 d e s i g n , t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d e r e a w a r et h a t I M O h a d w requirements double-hull for bulkerson its agenda,and December 2002 saw a to tentativeagreement look to mandatory double-hull construction. However, eventstook a twist, and the lVlOmeeting May2004 brought of t h a t a g o o dd o u b l e - h u d e s i g ni s t h e ll right solutionto the bulk carrierproblems experienced today." The strengthofthe hull girderand w t r a n s v e r s eb u l k h e a d s a s c h e c k e d "Because againstaccidental flooding. r t h e r ew e r e n o f l o o d i n g e q u i r e m e n t s w f o r d o u b l e - h u lb u l k c a r r i e r s , e h a d l g w i t h i nt h e D i a m o n d r o u p( i n c l u d i n g S p a r a n d T h e n a m a r i st ) d e c i d eo n o c , o u r o w n f l o o d i n g r i t e r i a" o b s e r v e d Schmidt.

26

The Motor Ship April2005

Mark LangdonTechnical Editor

Justa few yearsdgo,cable

layers werein great demand,
but nowmanyunitsare being converted the markethas as collapsed

Cableboombusted
he cablelayingboom appears t o b e w e l l a n d t r u l y o v e r ,a s there is now a rush to convert c a b l e - l a y e rb a c k i n t o o t h e r s types of offshorevessel. Goneare the daysin 2000 whencompanies couldn't wait for a newbuilding be delivered to and speededup the processfor acquiring ships by converting everything from offshore vessels to ro-ros. UlsteinVerft,morewidelyknownfor building offshorevessels,has moved into the conversion marketand is currently convertinglne Normand CIipper, w h i c hw a s d e l i v e r e d y t h e y a r d i n b 2001. Althoughthe vessel has been e m p l o y e db y t h e s a m e o w n e rf r o m handover until whenthe contractran out in October2004, it has been laid u p a t U l s t e i nV e r f t s i n c e e a r l yl a s t springdue to the poorcablelaying mar Normand Clipper alongside at Ulstein Verft where it is being converted into a combined construction and pipeJaying vessel ket. HenceSolstadhas now chosento convertthe vessel. T h e o w n e r h a s e n t e r e di n t o a n agreement with the Australian company C l o u g hf o r h i r i n go f t h e c o n v e r t e d NormandClipper.The conversionis w e l l u n d e rw a y ,a n d i s s c h e d u l e d o r f c o m p l e t i o n y t h e e n d o f M a y2 0 0 5 . b "We are pleasedthat Solstadhas yet a g a i nc h o s e nu s a s i t s p a r t n e rf o r a projectthat is very demanding,both t e c h n i c a l l y n d w i t h r e s p e c tt o t h e a delivery date," saysToreUlstein,president of UlsteinVerftAS. The conversion into a combined is g c o n s t r u c t i o n n d p i p e - l a y i nv e s s e l a with a largefreightcapacity. This will increaseSolstad'scapacitywithinvarious types of craneassignments, diving assignments and all types of construct i o n w o r k .T h e v e s s e li s t h e s i s t e ro f NormandCutter,whichwas converted at Ulstein Verft in 2004. "Thisconversion will be aboutas extensive the as conversion her sistervessel,and will of d e m a n da l m o s tt h e s a m e a m o u n to f working hoursas whenconstructing a largeplatformsupplyvessel.Theconversioncontractis worth aroundNOK 1 5 0 M , " a c c o r d i n g o H a r a l dM a l l e r , t UlsteinVerft'ssales manager. The conversioncontractfits in with c o n t r a c t sf o r f i v e n e w b u i l d s ,w h i c h m e a n st h e y a r d c a n u t i l i s e i t s f u l l "The p capacity. conversion roject s t r e n g t h e n sh e y a r d ' sc o m p e t i t i v e t ness,and onceagainwe can showthe m a r k e tt h a t w e c a n t a c k l e m a n yp r o jects at the sametime," says Mlller. yardwith a similarconverAnother projectis Astander, whichis consion vertingthe cable layerProvider into a I trenching and offshoresupplyvessel. I, Provider whichis ownedby a member of SwissGroup Allseas, haveall its will a c a b l el a y i n g q u i p m e n r e m o v e d n d e t the size of its accommodation increased. vesselwill also be fitted The with a new helideck, craneand all the h y d r a u l i c a n dt r e n c h i n g q u i p m e n t . s e R e - d e l i v e r iy e x p e c t e d o r M a y t h i s s f year. Allseasis no stranger Astander, to which has carriedout both repairand conversion orkfor the company, w resultingin a good relationship betweenthe two and the awardingof this contract. I

NormandCutter, which was convertedby Ulstein in 2OO4

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*l

c Epoxyr the magi ing
the fulfill roleof the idealbinder No otherresins as systems wellas coating for high-performance the epoxies
he most importantsingleProtr erty of epoxyresin is its ability from a liqto transformreadily t t o a h a r d ,r e s i l i e n s o l i d uid epoxyhas suchversaBecause coating. , t i l e q u a l i t i e s e p o x yr e s i n sa r e n o w profields,including usedin numerous floortectivecoatings,marinecoatings, glues, moulding ings, adhesives, resinor a solidepoxyresin. F o r a l l t y p e s o f c o a t i n g ,s u r f a c e preparation the most crucialconsidis e r a t i o nb e c a u s ei t s e t s t h e l i m i t s o n andthe servicelifeto be the exposure exoectecl. i b b i n d e r , u t s e l d o md e s c r i b e dn r e l a tion to the type definitionsfor epoxy products. Withoutthe curingprocess, the however, epoxycoatingwouldnot be able to perform as required. can Accelerators be addedto improve the curingpropertiesat low temperarure. A d d i n gp l a s t i c i z e r sf,l e x i b i l i s e r s , d e f o a m e r s ,r e a c t i v ed i l u e n t s ,U V a b s o r b e r s e t c . , t o t h e e p o x yb i n d e r , i m p r o v e sp h y s i c a lp r o p e r t i e st h a t and resisstrength mechanical include also tanceto thermalshock.Additives l i n c r e a s ef l e x i b i l i t y , o w e rv i s c o s i t y , etc. improvesag resistance, a a P i g m e n t s r e n o r m a l l y d d e dt o g i v ec o l o u rt o t h e c o a t i n g . o m ep i g S zinc,MIOand aluminF ments,including properties. um, also add anti-corrosive pigments are Extenders non-hiding

The epoxy formulation

a T h e e p o x yb i n d e rp r o v i d e s d h e s i o n , e rein- a n t i - c o r r o s i v p r o p e r t i e sa n d r e s i s insulating materials, compounds, a t a n c et o c h e m i c a l s n d h e a t ,a s w e l l forcedplastics,andtextiles. and physical as excellentmechanical resinsused in Thetwo main epoxy chalk do, industri- properties.Epoxies however, with maritime and conjunction light. to whenexposed ultraviolet p r o t e c t i v e o a t i n g sa r e b a s e do n c al The curingagentis also part ofthe l e i t h e ra l o w - m o l e c u l a irq u i de p o x y

of the Ghecking corrosion HMSWarrior
uringthe recentdrydocking of HMS Warrior,(the UK's a f i r s t i r o n - h u l l e d ,r m o u r e d warship), the Warrior t T P r e s e r v a t i o n r u s tr e q u e s t e d h a t SelmanMarineDesignLtd carryout an s u l t r a s o n i c u r v e yo f t h e h u l l ,f r o m to waterline keel. The survey was for historical any areas recordsand to help identify o o f c o n c e r n v e rt h e h u l l .T h e m a i n w a r e a so f c o r r o s i o n e r e o n t h e w i n d h w a n d w a t e r l i n e i t h a p a r t i c u l a r lty i n the sectionat the aft end. Previously t i n t e r n a h u l l a b o v e h e a r m o u rl e d g e , l a n d w h e r ep o s s i b l eb e l o wt h e w a t e r i e l i n e ,h a d b e e ns u r v e y e d a r l i e r n t h e yearand with the vesselafloat. T h e h u l l m a t e r i a lw a s o f c a s t o r s w r o u g h ti r o n ,f a b r i c a t e d o m e t i m e around1860 and at the time of survey had beenwaterjetblastedto a finish of SA 2 and primedwith greypaint Approaching 1-5O years old, the restored Warrio( is based at tion with a nonc o r r o sr v e c o u plant used as painting was being carried out at the same time. T h eC y g n u s r a n g eo f m u l t i p l e e c h ot h i c k ness gauges means that accuratemetal thicknessmeac surements an b e m a d ew i t h o u t h a v i n gt o first zero the gauge or removeany proas all threebackwallechoesareequal that all meato eachother,confirming are surements verifiedpriorto display. o e Problems ncountered n HMS Warriorincludedi a Veryheaw and deep surface pitting, u w h i c hw a s e a s i l yo v e r c o m e s i n gt h e Cygnus Gauge. a A largenumberof rivetswhichhad to at be avoided the plateseams a Armourplatingin excessof 100mm condihad an unknown thick.TheDlate d t i o n o n t h e b a c kf a c e p o s s i b l y u e t o that were used. the castingtechniques a p p e a r e dt o b e v e r y The casting porouswhichgavesomedifficulties in gettingmeasurements. Thiswas overprobe diameter comeby usinga larger

The gaugeused was a Cygnus Gauge conjunc- Portsmouth in Thickness Ultrasonic

were obtained and as a result readings A in a numberof locations. largerdiamprobehas more chanceof picking eter w t e c t i v ec o a t i n g s , h i c hc a n b e u p t o l 6 m m t h i c k .M i n i m a s u r f a c ep r e p a r a - up the returnedscatteredultrasound from the backwall and thereforeallows savingboth time and tion is required, t o m o n e y .E v e no n u n c o a t e d . m a t e r i a l s m e a s u r e m e n tts b e e a s i l Y a k e n o n as will readings onlybe displayed long verycorrodedmetal.I

28

The Motor Ship April 2OO5

in edient coatings
in powderform. Extenders are used in conjunction with pigments their filmfor formingpropertiesand to avoidsettlement duringstorage.Specialextenders a r e a d d e d t o t h e e p o x y b i n d e rt o improvepropertiessuch as abrasion resistance. Solventsare used in the manufacture of epoxycoatingto dissolvethe f i l m - f o r mn g c o n s t i t u e n t s . o l v e n t s i S evaporate duringdryingand therefore do not becomea oart of the curedfilm. c a t i o n .T h e m o s t i m o o r t a n to f t h e s e i n c l u d el o wv i s c o s i t y u r i n gc a n t a k e c p l a c e a t t e m p e r a t u r e sd o w n t o s t r e n g t h ,v e r y g o o d c h e m i c a lr e s i s p t a n c ea n ds u p e r i o r o r r o s i o n r o t e c c tion.I !O"C/74"F,excellent adhesion many a Article reproduced with kind permisto s u b s t r a t e s ,v e r y h i g h m e c h a n i c a l sion of Hempel

Application
A i r l e s ss p r a ye q u i p m e n t s t h e m o s t i c o m m o nt e c h n i q u eu s e d t o d a yf o r a p p l y i n g p o x yc o a t i n g si n b o t h t h e e m a r i t i m e n d i n d u s t r i as e c t o r s .l t i s a l fast, efficientand,aboveall, economic a l . T w o - c o m p o n e n ti r l e s s s p r a y a e q u i p m e n its t h e l a t e s td e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i nc o a t i n g p p l i c a t i o n .h i se l i m i a T nates mixingthe base and curingagent manually makespot lifeconsideraand tions insignificant. productshave numerEpoxy-based ous advantages duringand afterappli-

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of at Engineers the University Florida (UF)havedeveloped environmentally an

for coating hullsof ocean-going friendly of source on shipsbased an unlikely
inspiration,

by Anti-fouling shark'sskin
of at professor matedalsscienceand engineering the University Florida of Brennan, to Articleattributable Anthony
materials niversity Florida of e n g i n e e r sl e d b y A n t h o n y B r e n n a nh a v et a p p e d e l e ments of sharks' unique a s c a l e st o d e v e l o p n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y for coating hullsof ocean-going friendly t s h i p st h a t p r e v e n t s h e g r o w t ho f a n marinealgaeand mayalso aggressive to according prelimiimpedebarnacles narytests. testing and devellf more extensive opmentbear out the results,then the c s h a r k - i n s p i r ec o a t i n g o u l dr e p l a c e d c c o n v e n t i o n aa n t i f o u l i n g o a t i n g s . l coatingsprethese TBT-free Although vent marinegrowth,they also leachpoi"The s o n o u sc o p p e ri n t ot h e o c e a n . paintsarewonderful termsof in copper t k e e p i n g h e s h i p s u r f a c ec l e a n ,b u t a t h e ya r e p o i s o n o u s n dt h e y a c c u m u ratesin harbours," late at substantial m t h r e a t e n i n g a r i n el i f e ,s a i dA n t h o n y "By there are no toxBrennan. contrast, with our surface." ins associated >
a o q c) G

was a combination Submarine Hisfirst oroduct p l a s t i c , / r u b b e ro a t i n gt h a t a m i c r o - fouled by algae c (UIva), top left. of is scopereveals madeof billions tiny patterns. Each raised diamond-shaped ' s h a r k l e t ' d i a m o n d m e a s u r e s1 5 ribs sevenraised microns andcontains re t h a t , o n c l o s ee x a m i n a t i o n , s e m b l e different lengthsof raised horizontal b a r s .L a b o r a t o r t e s t s s h o wt h a t t h e y coatingpreventsa very commonand type of algae,calledUlva, detrimental b e frombecoming stablished ecause t h e a l g a e ' ss p o r e s ,w h i c hn o r m a l l Y havegreatdifficulty stick to everything, shape. to attaching the diamond "That'sa majoradvance, sincethe p r o b l e m o r a l l t y p e so f f a l g a ei s a b i g

on the surfacethat will also inhibitthe settlementof a widevarietyof the main he suchas barnacles," marine foulers, whichalso includes said.TheUFteam, a r e s e a r c hs c i e n t i s t R o n B a n e Y n d graduatestudents,hopesto numerous achieve that goal with its latestversion r I ofthe coating. nresearchecently patented, and his colleagues Brennan pattern havemadethe diamond-shaped under influthe or dynamic, changeable, current. electric enceof a low-power

l

Preventingbarnacles
T h e r i b s o n t h e s u r f a c e ss w e l l a n d shrink,in effectflexingin and out from varies. the hull surface,as the current the Thatmaybe usefulbecause moveof the mentcouldorevent accumulation silt andotherdebrison the hulls,which to is often a precursor plantand barnacle growth. Boththe originaland newerversions of the coatingsare beingtested in labs , , , i n F l o r i d aE n g l a n dH a w a i iC a l i f o r n i a oceantestwith full-scale and Australia, of ingthat beganin March.Thediversity e b l o c a t i o n ss i m p o r t a n t e c a u s e a c n i has differentspeciesof foulingplants a n d b a r n a c l e s .B r e n n a n r e c e n t l Y preliminary resultsfrom anothreceived t s er laboratory howing hat barnacle from settlecypridsare also inhibited mentbyihe newcoating. for The prospect this coatinglooks p r o m i s i n g n d t h e U Fh a s r e c e i v e d a coatfrom polymer numerous enquiries s i n g m a n u f a c t u r e rw h i l ea t l e a s to n e a has also expressed cruisecompany I keeninterest.

Germof an idea
t B r e n n a n e a l i z e dh a t s h a r k sr e m a i n r f l a r g e l y r e e o f p l a n t sa n d b a r n a c l e s theirentirelivessubdespitespending merged.That contrastswith, for examp l e , s o m e o t h e r l a r g e - b o d i em a r i n e d speciessuch as whales,whichattract m a r i n eg r o w t h .S h a r k sh a v ep l a c o i d it because submarines ships including on accumulates inlet ports usedto cool powerplants."lt can severely inhibita Ship fouled by algae (Ulva)

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t i t B r e n n a n e c i d e d o t r y m i m i c k i n g t h e i r e f f i c a c y " n d e t e r r i n gh e U l v a d soores. that surfacewith an artificialcoatingto "Thebig hurdles that remainareto s e e i f i t w o u l da l s o h a v ea n t i f o u l i n g develop textures,patternsor chemistry Drooerties.

30

The Motor Ship April2005

and effects, the and emissions theirclimatic of An analysis marine through regulations emission with compliance future industry's improvements technological
exhaustgas emishe principal CO2, sionsfrom shipsinclude C N O x S O x , O ,h y d r o c a r b o n s , , and oarticulate matter. d t F u r t h e r m o r e ,u r i n g a n k e rl o a d i n g emisleadsto additional evaDoration T s i o n s o f h y d r o c b r b o n s .h ee x h a u s t gases are emitted into the atmosphere from the ship stacks and dilutedwith process the ambient During dilution air. insidethe ship plumesthey are partly or transformed removed. chemically from international shipEmissions ping a{fectthe chemica\ composition of
^t8 "18 4' 9 1 8 ' 1 S 4 & 1 8 { 6

Fig 7. Global distribution for NOx emissions for different ship types. Global
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I t w a s c o n c l u d e df r o m a 2 0 0 3 and the climatein sevthe atmosphere of eralways:by emissions greenhouse model study that the largestsurface n g a s e s s h i p p i n gc o n t r i b u t e s o t h e t o z o n ep e r t u r b a t i o d u e t o s h i p e m i s g r e e n h o u s e f f e c t a n dt h u s t o t h e sions is found in Julyin regionsof the e t m a n - m a d e e m p e r a t u r ei n c r e a s e . Atlanticand the PacificOceansin the wherepollution Northern Hemisphere, o E m i s s i o n s f o z o n ep r e c u r s o r sl,i k e from ships,caroxides(NO*) nitrogen ( b o n m o n o x i d e C O ) ,a n d u n b u r n e d (HC)contribute the forto hydrocarbons o m a t i o no f g r o u n d - l e v e l z o n e ,w h i c h maydamagehumanhealthand vegetathe radiative tion, and whichchanges active. budgetas ozoneis radiatively efficient. is low and ozoneoroduction of Recentsatellitemeasurements OzoneMonitoring NO2from the Global ) E x p e r i m e n(tG O M Eo v e rt h e I n d i a n

o i) C H a r t o g r a p h Yn s t r u m e n t n b o a r d the ENVISAT satelliteoverthe Redsea a n d t h e I n d i a nO c e a nc l e a r l ys h o w a e n h a n c e d 0 2 o c c u r r e n c e l o n gt h e N shippingroutesfor major international the regionsstudied. andtheir of Shipemission aerosols precursors, particular in carbonaceous p a n d s u l p h u rc o n t a i n i n g a r t i c l e s ,

balanceof directlychangethe radiative O c e a n a n d f r o m t h e S C I A M A C H Y t h e e a r t h s y s t e m ,b u t t h e y a r e a l s o activeby changing ( S C a n n i n g l m a g i n g A b s o r p t i o n indirectly radiatively for s p e c t r o M e t e r f o r A t m o s p h e r i c the conditions cloudformation,by

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32

missions climate on
Dr VeronikaEyringand Horst W Kiihler JuniorResearchGroupSeaKLlM
alteringcloud propertiesand lifetimes, a n d t h u s a f f e c t i n gt h e g l o b a lw a t e r c y c l e .U n d e rc e r t a i n m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s e r o s o le m i s s i o n s r o m a f ships modifyexistingmarinestratocum u l u sc l o u d sb y a n i n c r e a s e f c l o u d o condensation nucleiand a decrease in d r o p l e ts i z e . T h e s e s o - c a l l e d h i p s tracks can be see.nin satellite images and are definedas line-shaped bright featuresin a near-infrared imagery that are spatially coincident with the effluent plumeof a ship. To accuratelyassess the impact of s h i p p i n ge m i s s i o n so n t h e a t m o s phere,detailedknowledge the emisof sion patternsand fluxesis required. cargoships, and the militaryfleet. This estimate uses information Lloyd's of MaritimeInformation Servicesbased on 89,063 ocean-going ships(43,967 Fig: 2. Transportrelated emissions of carbon dioxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOy),sulfur dioxide (SO) and particulate matter (PM7O)and the fuel consumption estimated for the year 2OOO cargoships and 45,096 non-cargo s h i p s ) o f 1 0 0 g r o s s a n d a b o v e .T h e t o t a l c a r g o f l e e t i n c l u d e d1 1 , 1 5 6 tankers,2,759 container ships,6,261 bulk carriers,196 combined carriers, and 23,595 generalcargovessels.The non-cargo fleet included 971 fish factoties, 22,1.41-fishing vessels 12,2O9 , tugs, and 9,775 otherships (egferries, passenger ships, cruise ships, research vessels,dredgers, cablelayers, etc). The total worldwide fleet fuel ( c o n s u m p t i o nc i v i l i a n n d a l l m i l i t a r y a ships) in 2001 according this work to t u r n e do u t t o b e 2 8 0 m i l l i o nt o n n e s . Compared all published to inventories based on energystatistics,this estim a t ei s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e h i g h , as indicating highuncertainties bunker in fuel statistics. global NOxemission The resulting inventoryfor tankers, containervessels, bulk carriersand the total fleet for the year2001 is shownin Fig1.

Futureregulations
Although hipping ontributes nly s c o about 16%to the total fuel consumotion of all traffic-related sources,ships significantly contribute emissionsof to p o l l u t a n t s r o m a l l t r a n s p o r tm o d e s f (Fig2), particularly because there have been no strict international emission r e g u l a t i o n si n t h e past as for road traffic and aviation. During last 50 the years, the oceangoingfleet and ships'

Emissions inventories
Several emissioninventories shipfor pinghavebeen establishedfor current conditions.An updatedinventoryfor g l o b a lf u e l b u r n e db y i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y grosstons, registered ships above1OO based on international shippingstatistics for the year 2OOt, representsan activity-based estimate includingmain propulsion and auxiliary engineequipm e n t o n b o a r db o t h c a r g oa n d n o n -

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sions haveto be expecteduntil 2050 d u e t o a l i k e l yi n c r e a s ei n e c o n o m i c growthand seabornetrade. Ship emisas sions havebeen recognized a growi n g p r o b l e mf o r b o t h s c i e n t i s t sa n d policymakers.Currently environmental they are one of the least regulated o c s o u r c e s f a n t h r o p o g e n ie m i s s i o n s reductionpotentialthrough with a higlh alternaimprovements, technological tive fuels and shio modifications. In order to protectthe atmosphere, Protection the MaritimeEnvironmental for Committeeof the lMO, responsible of regulations pollution international limfrom ships,has giveninternational its for NO,emissionsby ship engines i n 1 9 9 6 i n A n n e xV l o f t h e M a r i n e C . P o l l u t i o n o n v e n t i o nA n n e xV l w i l l come into force next month. National c o r r e g i o n a lr e g u l a t i o n s a l l f o r e v e n more stringentNOxlimits than those givenby lMO.As a result,compliance throughtechwith emissionregulations

w n o l o g i c a li m p r o v e m e n t s i l l i m p a c t and currenttechnolory. ship operators At leastfor a mid-termperiod,emiswill of sion reduction existingengines be based on effectiveemissionreducare Most pollutants tion technologies. process. formedduringthe combustion It is possibleto reduceNO"by aiming but temperatures, at lowercombustion fuel consumption this will causehigher ( i e h i g h e rC O 2e m i s s i o n s ) s w e l l a s a lt highersoot emissions. is necessary and the consumPtion to compensate s o o t - i m p a i r i n ge f f e c t s o f t h e N O * designmeaby improvement additional firingpressures. sures,suchas higher e w Consequently,henever mission are strategies discussed,it reduction to is mandatory addressthe effects on all oollutants.

C f o r c i n ga n d u n r e g u l a t e d O 2e m i s srons. s D e t a i l e d t m o s p h e r i c t u d i e so n a will help the impactof ship emissions policymakers developappropriate to reductionstrategies.Clearinformation is needed the climateimpactof difon , f e r e n ts h i p e m i s s i o n s t o a l l o wt h e with greater industryto incorporate, consideraenvironmental confidence, d e s i g na n d d e v e l o p tions intotheir mentwork. th F u r t h e r m o r e , e i m p a c to f s h i P e m i s s i o n sh a s t o b e s e e n i n c o n t e x t impactof atmospheric withthe overall other modesof transportation,anthrop o g e n i c n d n a t u r a le m i s s i o n s . h e T a sectransport capacityof the different and roadtrafshipping tors - aviation, fic - has to be considered. F u r t h e rr e s e a r c hi s n e e d e df o r a o d e t a i l e da s s e s s m e n t f h o w a n t h r o pogenic emissions imPact on climate. I

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The majorimpactsof shippingon the atmosohereare the overallradiative

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Growthin sizeof LNG'tankers
William in Conference Bilbao, Gastech At lastrnonth's at Development ABS, Ener$y VicePresident J Sember,
the discussed impactthat the growthin the siz* *f currentvesseisis having
meansthe ship's entirestructureand containto ment system needsvery carefulevaluation to determineits adequacy withstandthe addiloadsthat will be encountered. tionaldynamic LNGis designing A key aspectof transporting usingthe Conchcontainment 27 ,4OOm'capacity systank and containment ships, the membrane-type containment Thefirst membrane system. by loadsimposed the were delivered tems to withstand dynamic the PolarAlaska and Arctic Tokyo, u of d i n 1 9 6 9 a n d r e p r e s e n t e a s i g n i f i c a nj t m p i n the sloshing the cargowithinthe tanks when The hi$h pressures and the vessel is in a seaway. sizeto 71,500m'. In 1975 the Ben Franklin (120,000m'and125,000m3 EIPasoPautKayser settinga size stanweredelivered, respectively) for dardthat was maintained the next20 years growth around133,000m'. to with onlymarginal B e t w e e n1 9 9 5 a n d 2 0 0 4 t h e s i z e o f t h e from increased largestLNGcarrierhas gradually D o 1 5 3 , 0 0 0 m 3t h e c a p a c i t y f t h e C h a n t i e r s e , due to liquidsurge insidethe cargotanks may damagecargotank systemsand internaltank at addressed the unlessadequately structures designstage. tanks have on restrictions membrane Loading the been in placefor the past 20 years.However,

further in increase tank sizedemands significant appropriate to and scheduled evaluation analysis determine vesselfor Gazde France l'Atlantique c f criteriaor all loading onditions. wi f o r d e l i v e r yt h i s y e a r ,t o 2 1 - 6 , 2 O O m 3 t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l of reinforcement criticalareas,such Additional vesselsfor Qatargasll. orderof the Q-flex system,highstress areasof Japanand Europe as the insulation in shipyards Korea, Today, for are vyingfor contractsthat are considered a the tank structureand the pump tower,which to connection the of new generation very largeLNGcarrierswith servesas the cargohandling whilegas pro- hull.must be considered. up cargocapacities to 250,000m3 of The high percentage new ordersof memship for the ducersare driving demand increased n o s i z e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e f t h e e c o n o m i e so f b r a n es y s t e m sa n d p r o p o s e d e w m e m b r a n e that operatorshavea clear the scale.By increasing sizeof the standardLNG designsare evidence f and p r e f e r e n c e o r t h e o p e r a t i o n a lc o s t s a v i n g s from about145,000m'to 200,000m3 carrier system. containment even larger,it is estimatedthat there couldbe a offeredby the membrane in in building the withtheir interest costs of as much as Whencoupled reductionin transportation partialcargoes, of flexibility handling operational t5o/o. these designs it meansthat a great deal of researchhas been developing Fornavalarchitects acceptance to the reviewing desi$nfor required determineappropriate and marineengineers I in increase ship size criteriafor these configurations. the classification significant

36

The Motor Ship April 2005

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The conference will highlight how technicaldevelopments in ship designand maiine propulsion technology helpingto are achievegreaterperformance while enhancing environnrental friendliness. lmproved economic efficiency and loweremission levelsare key issuesfor ownersand operators today's in competitive marketplaceand will take centre stage in boih tfie presentations and the discussionsat the conference. Attendees will also benefitfrom the networking opportunitiesprovided.

As well as specificpresentations. will the conference insludea debate between the four protagonists in the LNQpropuls,ion The controversy. arguments in favour for eaeh will leading approach be presented, ofthe 0n t0 an gpendiscussion variousconcepts-

The conference appealto the technicaldepartmentsof will as and ship ownersand operators, weil as shipbuilders, manufacturers propulsion of systemsand marineequipment

Alternatively,please complete the form below and fax back to +44 (Ol L322 616376
pleasesend me detailsof howto register n I wouldlike to attendthe conference a delegate, as with an 'earlydiscount' booking. u I wouldlike information aboutsponsorship opportunities.

Job Title

Tel Email

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HlCHBURY Tel:. ,*PYIH.Ttr-" 01322 660070

HIGHBURY Drive, Swanley, KentBR88HU UnitedKingdom BUSINESS MediaHouse,Azalea Faxt 47322 667633 www.motorship.com

Tom Hope Manager, Development MarineBusiness and NordicArea CentralEurope

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