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Stress :

It is defined as the internal resistant offered by material of the body against the

deformation on application of an external force. It is denoted by σ (sigma). Its unit is

N/m

2

.

Other units are :

1 N/mm

2

= 10

6

N/m

2

1 kgf/cm

2

= 9.81 X 10

4

N/m

2

1 KN/m

2

= 10

3

N/m

2

1 MN/m

2

= 10

6

N/m

2

1 GN/m

2

= 10

9

N/m

2

Type of stress :

(i) Tensile stress :

It is defined as the internal resistant offered by material of the body against the increase

in length on application of an external tensile force. It is denoted by σ

t

. Its unit is N/m

2

.

C

Tensile Force

Cross-sectional Area A

t

t

P

σ · ·

(ii) Compressive stress :

It is defined as the internal resistant offered by material of the body against the decrease

in length on application of an external compressive force. It is denoted by σ

c

. Its unit is

N/m

2

.

C

Compressive Force

Cross-sectional Area A

c

c

P

σ · ·

(iii) Shear stress :

It is defined as the internal resistant offered by material of the body against the change in

shape on application of an external tangential force. It is denoted by τ (tau). Its unit is

N/m

2

.

Shear Force

Surface Area

s

s

P

A

τ · ·

Strain :

It is defined as the ratio of change in dimension ( i.e. length or width or thickness ) to

original dimension. It is denoted by ‘e’. It is an unitless quantity.

Change in dimension

Original dimension

e ·

Type of strain :

(i) Longitudinal or direct strain :

It is defined as the ratio of change in length to original length. It is denoted by ‘e

l

’. It is an

unitless quantity.

Change in length

Original length

l

l

e

l

δ

· ·

(ii) Lateral strain :

It is defined as the ratio of change in lateral dimensions ( i.e. width or thickness for

cuboid and diameter for cylinder ) to original lateral dimensions. It is denoted by ‘e

lat

’. It

is an unitless quantity.

Change in lateral dimension

Original lateral dimension

lat

b h

e or

b h

δ δ

· ·

(iii) Shear strain :

It is defined as the ratio of change in right angle. It is denoted by ‘ф’. It is an unitless

quantity.

AA BB

or

AD BC

φ

′ ′

·

(iv) Volumetric strain :

It is defined as the ratio of change in volume to original volume. It is denoted by ‘e

vol

’. It

is an unitless quantity.

Change in volume

Original volume

vol

V

e

V

δ

· ·

Elasticity :

It is the property of a material by virtue of which a body returns to its original shape or

size on removal of applied load.

Elastic limit :

It is the maximum limit of external loading upto which if a material is loaded, it will

return to its original shape or size on removal of externally applied load. If a material is

loaded beyond this limit then body will not return to its original shape or size on removal

of external load.

Hooke’s law :

With in proportional limit stress developed in a material is directly proportional to strain.

σ

α

e

E e σ ·

E

e

σ

·

where E : Modulus of elasticity or Young modulus

(N/m

2

)

Stress- strain diagram :

To study the behavior of various materials on application of load, stress-strain diagram

are drawn.

For ductile materials such as mild steel, aluminum and copper.

A : Proportional limit

B : Elastic limit

C :Upper yield point

D :Lower yield point

E : Ultimate point

F : Failure or breaking point

OA : Fig.1

This portion of curve is a straight line. It represents that if a material is loaded upto

proportional limit (point A), stress is directly proportional to strain (i.e. obey Hooke’s

law). Slope of this line represent modulus of elasticity (E).

OB :

This portion of curve represents that if a material is loaded upto elastic limit (point B), it

will return to its original shape or size on removal of applied load.

BC :

If a material is loaded beyond elastic limit then body will not return to its original shape

or size on removal of external load. The material get some permanent deformation.

Strain (deformation) will increase more rapidly than stress (applied load).

CD :

This portion of curve represents yielding of material. Yielding is started from point C and

end at point D. Increase in strain (deformation) is more rapid than that of stress (applied

load) or even stress (applied load) is decreasing but strain (deformation) is increasing

more rapidly.

DE :

In this portion of curve strain hardening phenomenon takes place. Due to this

phenomenon strength of the material increases so for further deformation stress (applied

load) is increased. A material can withstand maximum stress (maximum load)

corresponding to ultimate point (i.e. point E).

EF :

In this portion of curve necking phenomenon (i.e. neck formation) takes place. Due to

this phenomenon strength of the material decreases so for further deformation, stress

(applied load) is decreased and material gets fail at point F.

For brittle materials such as glass, cast iron and concrete

Elastic constants

(i) Modulus of elasticity or Young modulus :

It is the ratio of direct stress (i.e. tensile or compressive stress) to direct or longitudinal

strain. It is denoted by ‘E’. Its unit is N / m

2

.

l l

Direct stress

E

Direct or longitudinal strain e e

t c

or

σ σ

· ·

(ii) Modulus of rigidity or Shear modulus :

It is the ratio of shear stress to shear strain. It is denoted by ‘G’. Its unit is N / m

2

.

Shear stress

G

Shear strain

τ

φ

· ·

(iii) Volumetric modulus or Bulk modulus :

It is the ratio of direct stress to Volumetric strain. It is denoted by ‘K’. Its unit is N / m

2

.

v

Direct stress

K

Volumetric strain e

σ

· ·

Poisson’s ratio :

It is defined as the negative ratio of lateral strain to longitudinal strain. It is denoted by

‘ν’. It is unitless quantity. Its value varies from 0.25 to 0.50.

ν =

Lateral strain

Longitudinal strain

=

lat

l

e

e

Relation between elastic constant :

(i) Relation between Modulus of elasticity (E) and Bulk Modulus (K) :

Consider a cube which is subjected to three mutually perpendicular direct stresses

,

x y

σ σ

and

z

σ

along x, y and z directions respectively.

Total strain in x-direction,

x

e

= longitudinal strain due to

x

σ

+ lateral strain due to

y

σ

+

lateral strain due to

z

σ

y

x z

x

e

E E E

σ

σ σ

ν ν

¸ _

¸ _

· + − + −

÷ ÷

¸ ,

¸ ,

y

x z

x

e

E E E

σ

σ σ

ν ν · − − ………………………(i)

Total strain in y-direction,

y

e

= longitudinal strain due to

y

σ

+ lateral strain due to

x

σ

+

lateral strain due to

z

σ

y

e

=

y

x z

E E E

σ

σ σ

ν ν

¸ _ ¸ _

+ − + −

÷ ÷

¸ , ¸ ,

y

x z

y

e

E E E

σ

σ σ

ν ν · − − ...........………………(ii)

Total strain in z-direction,

z

e

= longitudinal strain due to

z

σ

+ lateral strain due to

x

σ

+

lateral strain due to

y

σ

y

x z

z

e

E E E

σ

σ σ

ν ν

¸ _

¸ _

· + − + −

÷ ÷

¸ ,

¸ ,

y

x z

z

e

E E E

σ

σ σ

ν ν · − − ……………………..(iii)

Volumetric strain,

v x y z

e e e e · + +

Put values from equations (i), (ii) and (iii)

y y y

x x x z z z

v

e

E E E E E E E E E

σ σ σ

σ σ σ σ σ σ

ν ν ν ν ν ν · − − + − − + − −

2 2 2

x y z y

x z

v

e

E E E E

σ σ σ σ

σ σ

ν ν ν

+ + ¸ _

¸ _ ¸ _

· − − −

÷ ÷ ÷

¸ , ¸ ,

¸ ,

2

x y z y

x z

v

e

E E E E

σ σ σ σ

σ σ

ν

+ + ¸ _

· − + +

÷

¸ ,

2

x y z x y z

v

e

E E

σ σ σ σ σ σ

ν

+ + + + ¸ _

· −

÷

¸ ,

( ) 1 2

x y z

v

e

E

σ σ σ

ν

+ +

· −

If

x y z

σ σ σ σ · · ·

,

( )

3

1 2

v

e

E

σ

ν · − ………………………..(iv)

Since Bulk Modulus, K =

v

e

σ

,

Put value of

v

e

from equation (iv),

K =

( )

3

1 2

E

σ

σ

ν −

K =

( ) 3 1 2

E

ν −

( ) E 3K 1 2ν · −

(ii) Relation between Modulus of elasticity (E) and Modulus of rigidity

(G) :

Consider a cube which is subjected to shear stress τ.

In Δ BB’E,

Cos 45

0

=

EB

BB

′

′

0

EB BB cos 45

1

EB BB

2

BB

EB

2

′ ′ ·

′ ′ · ×

′

′ ·

Strain in diagonal DB,

DB

e

=

DB DB

DB

′ −

DB DE

DB

DB

e

′ −

· ( Since DB = DE )

EB

DB

DB

e

′

·

BB

2 DB

DB

e

′

·

………………………….(i)

In Δ DBC,

DB

2

= DC

2

+ BC

2

( Since ABCD is a square

⇒

DC = BC )

DB

2

= BC

2

+ BC

2

DB

2

= 2 BC

2

DB =

2

BC

Put in equation (i),

BB

2 2 BC

DB

e

′

·

×

1 BB

2 BC

DB

e

′

¸ _

·

÷

¸ ,

(Since shear strain

BB

tan

BC

φ φ

′

· · )

1

2

DB

e φ ·

1

2

DB

e

G

τ ¸ _

·

÷

¸ ,

…………………………….(ii)

Strain in diagonal DB,

DB

e

= longitudinal strain due to tensile stress τ in diagonal DB +

lateral strain due to compressive stress τ in

diagonal AC

DB

e

E E

τ τ

ν

− 1 ¸ _

· + −

÷ 1

¸ , ¸ ]

DB

e

E E

τ τ

ν · +

( ) 1

DB

e

E

τ

ν · + ……………………………….(iii)

Equating equation (ii) & (iii),

( )

1

1

2 G E

τ τ

ν

¸ _

· +

÷

¸ ,

( ) 2 1 E G ν · +

(iii) Relation between Modulus of elasticity (E), Bulk Modulus (K) and

Modulus of rigidity (G) :

We know that,

( ) 3 1 2 E K ν · −

………………………..(i)

( ) 2 1 E G ν · +

………………………..(ii)

From eq. (i),

1 2

3

E

K

ν · − ………………………..(iii)

From eq. (ii),

1

2

E

G

ν · + ………………………..(iv)

Multiplying eq. (iv) by 2,

2 2

E

G

ν · + ………………………..(v)

Adding eq. (iii) & (iv),

3

3

E E

K G

+ ·

1 1

3

3

E

K G

¸ _

+ ·

÷

¸ ,

3

3

3

G K

E

KG

+ ¸ _

·

÷

¸ ,

9

3

KG

E

G K

·

+

(i) Extension of a bar of uniform cross-sectional area :

From Hooke’s law,

E

e

σ

·

⇒

e

E

σ

·

⇒

l

l E

δ σ

·

⇒

l

l

E

σ

δ

×

·

⇒

c

P l

l

A E

δ · ×

c

l P l

l

E A E

σ

δ

×

· · ×

(ii) Extension of a bar of uniform varying cross-sectional area ( i.e. of

tapered bar ) :

Consider a cylindrical element of diameter ‘d

x

’ and length ‘dx’ at a distance ‘x’ from the

left end.

Length Change in diameter

l (d

1

– d

2

)

1

( )

1 2

d – d

l

x

( )

1 2

d – d x

l

( )

1 2

1 x

d d x

d d

l

−

· −

1

x

d d k x · −

Where

( )

1 2

d d

k

l

−

·

Elongation in the element of length ‘dx’ due to load ‘P’

x

P dx

dl

E A

×

·

×

2

4

x

P dx

dl

E d

π

×

·

×

( )

2

1

4

Pdx

dl

E d k x π

·

−

( )

2

1

4

P dx

dl

E

d k x

π

·

−

Total elongation of tapered bar of length l due to load ‘P’

0

l

l dl δ ·

∫

( )

2

0

1

4

l

P dx

l

E

d k x

δ

π

·

−

∫

( )

2

0

1

4

l

P dx

l

E

d k x

δ

π

·

−

∫

( )

1

0

4 1 1

l

P

l

E k d k x

δ

π

1

·

1

−

¸ ]

( )

1 1

4 1 1

P

l

Ek d k l d

δ

π

1

· −

1

−

¸ ]

( ) ( )

1 2 1 1 2

1

4 1 1

P

l

d d d d d

E d l

l l

δ

π

1

1

1

· −

1

− − ¸ _

− 1

÷

1

¸ , ¸ ]

( ) ( ) ( )

1 2 1 1 1 2

4 1 1 Pl

l

E d d d d d d

δ

π

1

· −

1

− − −

1

¸ ]

( ) ( )

1 2 1 1 2 1

4 1 1 Pl

l

E d d d d d d

δ

π

1

· −

1

− − +

¸ ]

( )

1 2 2 1

4 1 1 Pl

l

E d d d d

δ

π

1

· −

1

−

¸ ]

( )

( )

1 2

1 2 1 2

4 d d Pl

l

E d d d d

δ

π

−

·

−

1 2

4Pl

l

Ed d

δ

π

·

(iii) Extension of a tapered bar of rectangular cross-sectional area :

Consider an element of thickness ‘t

x

’ and length ‘dx’ at a distance ‘x’ from the left end.

Length Change in thickness

l ( )

1 2

t t −

1

( )

1 2

t t

l

−

x

( )

1 2

t t x

l

−

( )

1 2

1 x

t t x

t t

l

−

· −

( )

1

x

t t k x · −

Where

( )

1 2

t t

k

l

−

·

Elongation in the element of length ‘dx’ due to load ‘P’

x

P dx

dl

E A

×

·

×

x

P dx

dl

E bt

×

·

×

( )

1

P dx

dl

E b t k x

×

·

× −

( )

1

P dx

dl

Eb t k x

·

−

Total elongation of tapered bar of length l due to load ‘P’

0

l

l dl δ ·

∫

( )

1 0

l

P dx

l

Eb t k x

δ ·

−

∫

( )

1 0

l

P dx

l

Eb t k x

δ ·

−

∫

( )

1

0

1

ln

l

P

l t k x

Eb k

δ

1

· − −

1

¸ ]

( )

1 1

ln . ln

P

l t k l t

Ebk

δ · − − − 1

¸ ]

( )

( )

1 2

1 1

1 2

ln . ln

t t P

l t l t

t t l

Eb

l

δ

1 − ¸ _

· − − −

1 ÷

−

1

¸ , ¸ ]

( )

( ) ( )

1 1 2 1

1 2

ln ln

Pl

l t t t t

Eb t t

δ 1 · − − − −

¸ ]

−

( )

( )

1 1 2 1

1 2

ln ln

Pl

l t t t t

Eb t t

δ · − − + − 1

¸ ]

−

( )

[ ]

2 1

1 2

ln ln

Pl

l t t

Eb t t

δ · − −

−

( )

[ ]

1 2

1 2

ln ln

Pl

l t t

Eb t t

δ · −

−

( )

1

1 2 2

ln

t Pl

l

Eb t t t

δ

¸ _

·

÷

−

¸ ,

Extension of a bar of uniform cross-sectional area ( circular /

rectangular / square ) due to self weight :

ω

= specific weight ( N / m

3

)

(weight per unit volume)

ω

= ρ g

Weight of portion ABCD = Specific weight

×

Volume of portion ABCD

ABCD c

W P A y ω · · × ×

Extension of strip due to weight of portion ABCD,

c

c

A y dy

dl

E A

ω ×

·

×

Since

c

Pl

dl

EA

·

ydy

dl

E

ω

·

Total extension due to self weight,

0

l

ydy

l dl

E

ω

δ · ·

∫ ∫

0

l

l ydy

E

ω

δ ·

∫

2

0

2

l

y

l

E

ω

δ

1

·

1

¸ ]

2

2

l

l

E

ω

δ · ………………………(i)

If total weight is given,

c

W A l ω · × ×

c

W

A l

ω ·

Put

c

W

A l

ω ·

in equation (i),

2

2

c

W

l

A l

l

E

δ ·

2

c

Wl

l

EA

δ ·

2

c

Wl

l

EA

δ ·

Extension of a bar of varying cross-sectional area (circular) due to self

weight :

ω

= specific weight ( N / m

3

)

(weight per unit volume)

ω

= ρ g

From properties of similar

s

∆

2

2

y

d

l

d

y

·

.

y

y d

d

l

·

Weight of portion ABC = Specific weight

×

Volume of portion ABC

2

1

3 2

y

ABC

d

W P y ω π

¸ _

· · × ×

÷

¸ ,

2

1 .

12

y d

P y

l

ω π

¸ _

· × ×

÷

¸ ,

2 3

2

12

d y

P

l

πω

·

Extension of strip due to weight of portion ABC,

2 3

2

2

12

.

4

d y

dy

l

dl

y d

E

l

πω

π

×

·

¸ _

×

÷

¸ ,

Since

c

Pl

dl

EA

·

3

ydy

dl

E

ω

·

Total extension due to self weight,

0

3

l

ydy

l dl

E

ω

δ · ·

∫ ∫

0

3

l

l ydy

E

ω

δ ·

∫

2

0

3 2

l

y

l

E

ω

δ

1

·

1

¸ ]

2

6

l

l

E

ω

δ ·

Principle of superposition :

Total elongation in a bar of varying cross-section is equal to algebraic sum of elongations

of different segments due to external load.

1 2 3

...................

n

l l l l l δ δ δ δ δ · + + + +

or

1

n

i

l l δ δ ·

∑

Strain energy :

When an external load is applied on a body, it deforms the body. Internal resistance is

developed in the material of the body against deformation due to external load. Work

done by this internal resistance against deformation is stored in the molecules of that

body, known as strain energy. It is denoted by ‘U’ and its unit is joule.

Resilience :

It is defined as the strain energy stored in the material of a body with in elastic limit per

unit volume, is known as resilience.

Proof resilience :

It is defined as the maximum strain energy stored in the material of the body upto elastic

limit, is known as proof resilience.

Modulus of resilience :

It is defined as the maximum strain energy stored in the material of the body upto elastic

limit per unit volume, is known as modulus of resilience.

(i) Gradually applied load :

Load is applied such that it starts from zero and increases slowly until bar is fully loaded.

Strain energy = Area of shaded portion

1

.

2

U P l δ ·

1 .

.

2

l

U P

E

σ

· Since

.l

l

E

σ

δ ·

1 .

. .

2

c

l

U A

E

σ

σ · Since

c

P

A

σ ·

( )

2

.

2

c

U A l

E

σ

·

2

2

U

E

σ

· × Volume

2

2

U V

E

σ

· ×

Resilience =

Strain energy

Volume

=

U

V

=

2

2

V

E

V

σ

×

=

2

2E

σ

Proof resilience =

2

2

e

U V

E

σ

· × Where

e

σ

= elastic limit stress

Modulus of resilience =

2

2

e

E

σ

(ii) Suddenly applied load :

Load is applied suddenly and it remains constant during the process of deformation.

Strain energy = Area of shaded portion

. U P l δ ·

2

.

.

2

su su

l

V P

E E

σ σ

× ·

. .

.

2

su c

A l

Pl

σ

·

2

su

c

P

A

σ

¸ _

·

÷

¸ ,

2

su

σ σ · ×

(iii) Impact load :

Consider a rod of cross-sectional area ‘A’ and length ‘l’, fixed at one end and has a collar

at other end. A weight ‘W’ is dropped on the collar from height ‘h’. Due to this impact

load extension in the rod is l δ and tensile stress

i

σ

.

Potential energy of weight W = Strain energy

2

( )

2

i

W h l V

E

σ

δ + · ×

2

.

( ) .

2

i i

c

l

W h A l

E E

σ σ

+ · ×

2

.

.

2

i i

c

l

Wh W A l

E E

σ σ

+ · ×

2

2 2 . .

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