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The Lamb For four-part choir Unaccompanied Narrow ranges for SAT Major 9th range for B. Low Es at the end of each verse provides special depth and weight. Difficult to sing due to unusual tonalities and melodic intervals Flow My Tears Range of voice part is a ninth Can be performed by one person or by a small group Accampanied by a lute, a plucked string instrument Ohime, se tanto amate For five soloists Canto (compound perfect fifth) Quinto (compound minor third) Alto/High Tenor (compound major third) Tenor (compound minor third) Bass (compound perfect fourth) Highest notes for Canto, Alto and Tenors are on the first syllable of ohime in bars 6 and 9, showing word painting as they are crying out at the tops of their voices Der Doppelganger For one male voice and piano Voice was written as “voce” – unspecified as to whether Bass, Baritone or Tenor Wide tessitura for the voice (compound minor 6th) Mainly sung in the lower registers to reflect the “dark” text. High notes show the more dramatic moments of the piece (b. 40-42) Piano part is mostly low, with bass clefs for both hands (except b. 13-14 and 23-24)
I’m Leavin’ You Vocal remains mainly in the middle range, but the overall range is a compound minor 3rd Mainly syllabic Many slides and bends in the voice, as well as half-spoken inflections Wordless ‘whoo’ vocalisations (b. 39, 41) Harmonica punctuates texture with characteristic chords (b. 43-50) Rhythm guitar plays a shuffle rhythm riff with stepwise notes above a repeated lower note Lead guitar opens the song with a typical blues introductory feature Piano comps chords throughout, improvising around the basic sequence Bass guitar plays roots of chords to shuffle rhythm Drums play shuffle rhythm, with accents on the backbeats. Tupelo Honey Vocal line influenced by soul/gospel and celtic singing styles. Mainly syllabic Range of a compound perfect 4th with high Bb (b. 37) Higher notes occasionally sung falsetto Backing vocals used in dialogue with lead vocals (verses 2, 3, 4 and coda 1) Both guitars keep up dialogue with the vocals, playing short florid passages in a high register Piano/Organ provides chordal backing throughout. Occasional the piano plays improvised fills Drums play a straight rock beat throughout with cymbals and tom-tom fills at the ends of phrases The bass plays a repetitive line with improvised variations, where bars one and three usually contain Bb descending to A. Flute plays a simple two-bar idea at the beginning end of the track. Very heavily improvised, hence the busy, cluttered texture
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b. 5 and 6. tenor and bass in 57-61 Four part writing is not used Often all voices share the same rhythm (e. Tupelo Honey Mainly homophonic. but the accompaniment improvises fills in dialogue with the vocals Instrumental section is three-part polyphony. 1. 17-20. 15-16. and in octaves at b. Soprano has the main melodic interest. 13-14.Texture o o o The Lamb Variety of different textures: Monophonic in b. 3. 5-6 and then twopart doubled in octaves in b.g. Instruments drop out at Coda 1 though allowing for the build-up during verse 4 for the ending. 1 “Ohime” between the alto and tenor is the same rhythm) Der Doppelganger Homophonic Voice has the main melodic interest The piano part is almost entirely homorhythmic I’m Leavin’ You Mostly homophonic in the verses as strong chordal accompaniment acts as a backing for the vocals Dialogue between voice and lead guitar Stop time textures in the first three bars of verses 2. quinto and bass in bars 46-51 In alto. Morrison compensates by increasing the rhythmic complexity of the guitar lines to maintain interest. When the saxophone drops out. Lute plays in 6ths with the soloist (b. se tanto amate Five parts often sing together with passages for three-voice groupings with antiphony In canto. 16) Imitation between the parts in bars 12 to 15. In the two-part the melodic interest is shared between the two parts. o o . making them related contrapuntally. Two-part harmony in b. 12) Ohime. 7-10. 11. the others providing harmonic support. Four part harmony b. Flow My Tears Essentially a melody-with-accompaniment texture but the individual movement in each parts means it could be called contrapuntal Lute plays chords occasionally and can play up to six notes at once (b. Could be described as homorhythmic or chordal as all parts have similar rhythms. 2. Textures become busier and louder as the piece progresses. 12. 3-4.
Introduction Flute solo Bar 1-4 Verse 1 Bar 5-12 Chorus Bar 13-20 Verse 2 Varied Bar 5-12 melody of verse 1 Chorus Bar 13-20 Instrumental 3-part Bar 21-36 texture Verse 3 Same as Bar 5-12 verse 2 Chorus Bar 13-20 “Coda 1” – Bar 37-44 Middle 8 Verse 4 Same as Bar 5-12 verse 1 Chorus Bar 13-20 “Coda 2” Chorus Bar 45-52 Coda Flute solo Bar 53-56 returns . instrumentation and melodic material. an introduction and a coda. but is made through changes in texture. where each stanza had four lines Through-composed as each stanza has different music Music is unified by piano playing an ostinato Stanza 1 Bar 1-24 Stanza 2 Bar 25-42 Stanza 3 Bar 43-63 I’m Leavin’ You Six choruses of 12-bar-blues. Contrast is difficult to achieve due to similar chord sequences. but it could be suggested that it has 3 sections Section 1 Bars 1-19 Section 2 Bars 20-38 Section 3 Bars 39-67 Der Doppelganger Based on a three-stanza poem. se tanto amate Through-composed. and each stanza has been given the same melodic material (despite textural changes) so the overall structure is strophic Verse 1 Bar 1-10 Verse 2 Bar 11-20 Flow My Tears Tripartite structure. strophic Introduction Guitar break Bar 1-2 Verse 1 Bar 3-14 Verse 2 Stop time at Bar 15-26 opening Verse 3 Stop time at Bar 27-38 opening Verse 4 (Guitar Wordless Bar 39-50 Solo) vocals and harmonica Verse 5 Stop time at Bar 15-26 opening Verse 6 Stop time at Bar 27-38 opening Coda Fades out Bar 51end Tupelo Honey Strophic verse/chorus form. Section A Stanzas 1-2 Bar 1-8 Section B Stanzas 3-4 Bar 9 -16 Section C Stanza 5 Bar 17-14 (repeated) Ohime.Structure The Lamb Based on a two-stanza poem. with irregular internal phrase structures.
7-8) with Tierce de Picardie Section B opens in the relative major (C major) Phrygian cadence (IVb-V) (b. with no contrast of keys . 51) between canto and bass (b.Tonality The Lamb Both verses open in G Major.51) I’m Leavin’ You G major throughout Some modal inflections in the use of blue notes in both voice and instrumental parts No modulations Tupelo Honey In Bb major throughout. 23-24) with Tierce de Picardie Ohime. but it is tonally ambiguous as this melody is harmonised in E Minor at the end of each verse Second bar of both verses is bitonal as the soprano is G major but the alto (playing the inversion) is in E flat major Bars three and four of both verses contrast G Major and Eb Major Bars five and six are the same but the alto is playing the inversion so when the Soprano is in G Major the alto is in Eb Major and vice versa The last four bars of each verse are in E minor Aeolian No key signature is used Flow My Tears The key is A Minor with some Aeolian modal inflections Perfect cadence (b. 47) and back again to B minor (b.4347) Sudden. unexplained modulation to D# minor (b. 50) Perfect cadence in D Major (b.2) False relations between quinto and bass (b. 15-16) Perfect cadence (b.18-19) with Tierce de Picardie Der Doppelganger Written in B minor to reflect sinister text No major-key passages Chromatic ascending pattern in piano (b.49. se tanto amate Non-functional tonality Written in G Dorian but with Ebs (b.6) and F#s (b.
Harmony The Lamb Harmonic intervals in the two-part writing do not imply chords as they are simply the result of playing the melody’s inversion at the same time as the original melody False relations (b. 14-15) Chords are decorated by improvised added 7ths and 9ths Tupelo Honey Diatonic harmony throughout Limited range of chords used in two sequences Bb. 7 beat 2) Dominant pedal (b. 17-18) Ohime. 13) Neapolitan chord (unexpected C major chord) (b. Bb. Modal harmony with the D in the B minor chord not being a D# Flow My Tears Very typical of the early baroque period Most chords are in root position or first inversion Phrygian cadences (IVb – V) throughout the piece (b. 50-51) Dissonance created often to give a sorrowful effect (unprepared “Ohime” b. quinto and bass b. 2) between F in alto and F# in soprano. Dm/A. 59) Tonic pedal to close the piece gives a strong sense of finality (b. giving an ambiguous tonality – major or minor? Slow harmonic rhythm (one chord per bar) shows stillness and desolation Internal dominant pedal in F# in the piano (b. Bm7. se tanto amate Harmony mainly consists of root position triads (between all parts b. 2 sung by the canto and quinto parts does not fit the chord of G. F#dim/A. F. Em7. Em. 44-47) and first inversion triads (between canto. Bb. 12-14) False relation between the A and the A# (b. Bm. Eb. 7-8) 4-3 suspension in the lute (b. Am9. Eb. 60-63) o o o o o o o I’m Leavin’ You Standard 12-bar-blues in G Bars 3-6 G7 Bars 7-8 C9 Bars 9-10 G7 Bar 11 D7 Bar 12 C9 Bar 13 G7 Bar 14 Db-D9 (chromatic approach to the dominant) Use of dominant in the last bar forms a perfect cadence (b. and they do not resolve by step) Der Doppelganger Functional harmony First chord is a bare 5th. Dm/A. 2 False relations between G in lute and G# in voice (b. 1-40) Dominant pedal chord V7c (b. and A in soprano and Ab in alto Chords from bar 7 onwards are built on triads and seventh chords: Em. o o . 5) Perfect cadence with Tierce di Picardie (b.
13. 5-8) Word painting in higher notes reflecting pain (voice in b. etc. se tanto amate Each voice has mainly conjunct movements Many notes are repeated to help project clearly (canto. 1) Word painting because “Happie” (b.20) is the highest note Ohime. 1-4). 23) Word painting in singing only an F# (b.). 9 is just rhythmic development of the same four notes. 7. 10-14) Lead guitar frequently uses slides and bends (b. 31) Mainly syllabic I’m Leavin’ You Consists of 1-bar phrases. most of which begin on D and descend Frequent “blue” notes (Bb. C. F) clash with underlying diatonic harmonies Complex guitar lines with use of the Blues scale (Bb. quinto and bass b. 23) and the paired semiquavers in bar 1 Melody is mainly development of the opening four-note motif (b. 25) Der Doppelganger Melodic interest is almost entirely in the voice part Piano echoes the voice (b. D. F and Db) Lots of dialogue between voice and lead guitar parts (b. alto and tenor.17 is an inversion of these four notes. F and G) Higher end of the male vocal range used highest voice note comes in at bar 37 . b. 9-10) Frequent slides and pitch bends in both voice and lead guitar Tupelo Honey Melodic line is ornate and rhythmically complex Many improvised variants on the melodic shapes Pentatonic shapes in Bb (Bb. an example of word painting because it shows sadness Occasional larger leaps between phrases (tenor b.Melody The Lamb Use of inversions of the melody (alto of bar 2 is an exact inversion of the soprano of bar 1) Melody in bar 4 is retrograde of melody in bar 3 Conjunct movements (no more than a third) for soprano. Word painting because it descends to show sadness (b. 5) Descending thirds are used often (b. fourths and fifths (b. Mainly syllabic with occasional slurred quavers Flow My Tears Almost entirely syllabic except for cadential ornamentation(b.4-5) shows stillness Triads outlined in the voice singing melodic intervals of thirds.
Rhythmic augmentation of b. tranquil ending. 21) Snare drum plays the backbeats (2 and 4) Syncopation in all parts Cross-rhythms due to complex rhythms caused by improvisation (voice and rhythm guitar b. 20. 19 which is in 3/2 time) Very inventive rhythms. 33) Tupelo Honey Simple 4/4 time Slow ballad tempo allows plenty of space for soulful decoration and improvisation Vocal line is syncopated and contains anticipations and retardations Many phrases start on the second semiquaver of a beat (b. 1). 6) give a varied vocal line to accommodate the words’ natural stresses Longer rhythms to stretch out more meaningful words (b. 5) Creates a broad sense of diversity o o Der Doppelganger Voice part closes matches the rhythm of the textStrong syllables have long notes on accented parts Weaker syllables have shorter or unaccented parts In simple triple 3/4 time I’m Leavin’ You Simple 4/4 time Shuffle rhythms Triplets (b. 1-2). 34-35 semiquavers in electric guitar against triplets in acoustic guitar) . flow) Rhythmically the bass line counterpoints the solo melody Ohime. se tanto amate Simple 4/4 time Some passages are slower than others. Flow My Tears In simple 4/4 time (except b. 19 in b.10 and of b. Slower (b. gentle effect Seven syllable lines (b. 11) and syncopation (b. 6) Bass guitar uses repeated rhythmic ideas. giving a smooth. 9 in b. 3-6) contain six quavers and a crotchet. 17-20) to give a very slow.Rhythm and Metre The Lamb No time signature Music is guided by the words Fairly slow movement. 1) Semiquaver grouping ending with scotch snap (vocal part of b. 20-30 is particularly slow) and some passages are rapid with repeated quavers (b. 1. with few rhythmic repetitions Use of tied notes (b. rests (b. dotted notes (b. particularly in bars 2 and 4 of the phrase Rhythmic complexity of solos (b. 21-36) with cross-rhythmic layering of rhythms (b. with minim chords (b. helping to meet the iambic metre of the poetry.