QUICK REVIEW

N.KALYANA CHAKRAVARTHY

May 1, 2012

 IVRS: Interactive Voice response System.  SMS: Short Messaging Service  PAN means Permanent Account Number.  In India so far 15 times the Lok Sabha elections are conducted. 15 th one is 2009.  The midterm elections were conducted for 5 times so far. (1971, 1980, 1991, 1998, 1999).  The Madam Tussauds Museum is located in London. The wax models of historical and Royal figures, film stars, sport stars etc are displayed.  Green Cars are those cars that run with CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LPG (liquefied Petroleum Gas) and with electric engine.  Highest number of air ports are present in USA (15079).  Sir Robert Cheese Brow (1837 – 1933) is the inventor of Vaseline Petroleum gelly.

 The life expectancy is lowest in Swaziland (32 years). Here more than 61 percent of the people die of AIDS every year.  Gulzarilal Nanda was the first interim PM of India after the death of the Jawaharlal Nehru (1st PM) in the year 1964. Gulazari Lal Nanda is also the interim PM after the death of Lal Bahadur Sastri in the year 1966.  Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel was the first Home Minster of India. P.Chidambaram is the current HM.  So far India had 7 deputy PM‟s (As of March 2011).  First Dy. PM was Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel (1947-50). 7th was LK Advani (200204).  The position of Deputy PM was not mentioned in the Constitution.  Maulana Abdul Kalam was the first Education Minister for the independent India. November 11, the birth anniversary of Maulana was declared as „National Education Day‟.  During National Emergency the term of Lok Sabha and assemblies is extended by 1 year.  So far National Emergency was imposed for 3 times.

 National Emergency was imposed for the 1st time in 1962 because of war with China, second time in 1971 because of war with Pakistan. Third time in 1975 because of internal disturbances. (44th Constitutional amendment replaced the “Internal Disturbances” with “Armed Rebellion”).  Golaknath vs. the state of Punjab (1967) case judgment was delivered by the CJI K.Subba Rao. Supreme Court said Fundamental Rights cannot be amended.  Keshavananda Bharati Vs state of Kerala (1973) case judgment was delivered by the CJI SM Sikri. Supreme Court said Judicial Review is a basic feature of the Constitution.  86th Amendment of 2002 changed the subject matter of Article 45 and also made elementary education a fundamental right under Article 21 A. (This came into effect on April 1, 2010).  Morarji Desai (4th PM) is the 1st PM of India who do not belong to Congress. He is the only Indian to receive both Bharat Ratna and Nishaan-e-Pakistan.  Morarji Desai is the first Indian Prime Minister to resign from the office.  In Radar system, Radio waves are used to locate the existence of an object.

 As on January 12, 2012, the four Chief Ministers are the members of the State Legislative Council (Upper House). They are Nitish Kumar (Bihar), Mayawati (UP), Sadananda Gowda (Karnataka) and Prithviraj Chouhan (Maharashtra).  “Smiling Buddha” is the code name of the India‟s 1st nuclear programme conducted in 1974 in Pokhran (Rajasthan).  “Operation Shakti” is the name of Pokhran-II conducted by India May 11 and May 13, 1998.  Morarji Desai was the 1st Chairman of Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) and Verappa Moily the Union Law minister is the latest chairman of ARC.  Legislative Assembly strength should not be more than 500 and not less than 60 members.  Legislative council strength should not be less than 40 and not more than 1/3 rd of the strength of assembly.  Lion was the National animal of India up to 1972.  Since 1972, National animal is Tiger.

 NATIONAL SYMBOLS: National Animal .Tiger National Tree – Banyan. National bird – Peacock National Flower – Lotus National Fruit – Mango National River – Ganga National Aquatic animal – Dolphin. .

 Tenure of CAG is 6 years or till he attains the age of 65 years whichever is earlier. Elected members of Rajya Sabha and the elected members of State Assemblies including that of Delhi and Pondicherry.  Article 153. There shall be a Governor for each state.  Tenure of Chairman and members of UPSC is 6 years or till he attains the age of 65 years whichever is earlier.  The President of India is elected by the elected members of Lok Sabha. Air Force and Navy) is 3 years or till the age of 62 years whichever is earlier.  The Governor of a state nominates 1 Anglo-Indian to Assembly and 1/6th members to legislative council. The President nominates 2 Anglo-Indians to Lok sabha and 12 members to Rajya Sabha.  Article 52.  The tenure of a service Chief (Army. .  Tenure of Chairman and members of State Public Service Commission or JPSC is 6 years or till he attains the age of 62 years whichever is earlier. There shall be a President.

 The right of suffrage (Voting) for Lok sabha and assemblies is mentioned under Article 326 of the Indian Constitution. In the original Constitution the minimum age to vote was 21 and through 61st amendment in the year 1989 it was reduced to 18 years. E and K are the fat soluble vitamins. D.  B and C dissolve in water and are not stored. This is modeled on US Presidents Air Force One.  Vitamins B and C are water soluble.  B-Complex and C Vitamins are water soluble and A.  Air Force One (Rajdoot. .  Articles 15.  Yuri Gagarin (USSR) was the first Cosmonaut to go into space in the year 1961 in a space craft called Vostok-1. Remaining articles under Fundamental rights are applicable to citizens and aliens equally. They are not needed every day in diet. The Governor is appointed by the President. E and K are stored in liver. 16 and 19 belong only to citizens. Rajhans & Rajkamal) fleet. Hence needed in daily diet. D. Indian President traveled on Rajdoot to Assam.  Excess A.

 Rakesh Sharma was the first Indian to go into space in the year 1984. . They travelled through Apollo-11(Eagle) landed on sea of Tranquility on Moon. She travelled through Vostok-6. He went in a space craft called Soyuz T-11.  The Sankranti festival is the festival of the Sun god who is regarded as the symbol of divinity and wisdom.  The Sankranti marks the Sun‟s transition from Dhanur rasi (Sagittarius) to Makara rasi (Capricorn). 2003. India's 1st meteorological satellite METSAT renamed as Kalpana-1.  Kalpana Chawla died in the crash of space shuttle Columbia STS-107 on February 1. Lohri (Punjab). This also means that the Suns is on its northwards journey or Uttarayan bringing it closer to the northern hemisphere. 1969. Bhogali Bihu (Assam).  The Sankranti festival is called Pongal in Tamil Nadu. Valentina Tereshkova (USSR) is the first woman to go into space in the year 1963.  Neil Armstrong (US) along with Edwin Aldrin was the first to land on Moon on July 20.

 Mahatma Gandhi was the President of INC only once in the year 1924 during Belgaum session.  Parliament means Lok Sabha.  The Rajya Sabha is also called Upper House or Council of states. It was developed into Banaras Hindu University by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya.  Central Hindu College at Banaras was founded by Dr Annie Besant in the year 1898. . Mavalankar was the first speaker and M Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was the first deputy Speaker of Lok sabha.  Annie Besant was the first woman President of INC in 1917 during Calcutta session.  State Legislature means Legislative Assembly. First Lok Sabha was constituted in May 1952.  Sarojini Naidu was the first Indian woman President of INC in 1925 during Kanpur session. Legislative Council and the Governor.  The Lok Sabha is also called lower house or House of people. Rajya Sabha and the President.

Later it is moved to Adyar (Chennai).  First woman Governor in India Sarojini Naidu for the state of UP in the year 1949. She was the Minister for Local self Government and Health in the congress ministry of UP from 1937 to 1939. Justice Sinha of Allahabad High Court delivered judgment against Indira Gandhi in the year 1975 for the malpractices of 1971 elections. .  INC was founded by A O Hume in Bombay in the year 1885. WC Bennerjee was the first President of INC.  Vijaya lakshmi Pandit was the first Indian elected as the President of the 8 th United Nations General Assembly in 1953.  Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit was the first woman cabinet Minister in India. The petition was filed by Raj Narain.  Theosophical society was founded in New York in the year 1975 by Madam Elena Blavatsky. She was the first Indian woman ambassador to erstwhile USSR from 1947 to 1949.  In 1901 Kadambini Ganguly became the first woman to address INC during Calcutta session.

 TEMPLE Trees: This is the official residence of the President of Sri Lanka.  Indira Gandhi was the first Prime Minster to get defeated in the elections. She held the Ministry of Health portfolio.  Food & Agriculture organization HQ Rome. In April 2009 he was reappointed for a term of 4 years. WTO Director-General Pascal Lamy.  Rajkumari Amrit Kaur was the first woman Cabinet Minister in India up to the year 1957. WTO head Quarters Geneva.  National environmental engineering institute was established in Nagpur in the year 1958. Switzerland. She was defeated in the 1977 election by Janata Party candidate Raj Narain.  Cape Verde is the 153rd nation in WTO (World Trade Organization). Director General Jacques Doiuf.  Leila Seth-1st woman Chief Justice of High Court(HP). .  Russia is not a member of WTO. First woman CM in India Sucheta Kripalani for the state of Uttar Pradesh (1963 – 1967).

 As per Schengen agreement one does not require any special travel documents to cross over to another European country. a restaurant or even a house.  The smallest sea island „Market Island‟ is shared by Sweden and Finland.  The citizens of Australia and New Zealand can work and live in either country without restrictions.  The Wagah border lies on the Grand Trunk road connecting Amritsar and Lahore. MNP was first introduced in Haryana in the year 2010.  India shares open border policy with Nepal. 2011 it was extended to the entire country. a boundary between the „Free World‟ and the Communist World. .  The Berlin wall that separated East and West Germany epitomized as the Iron Curtain.  The towns of Baarle-Nassau in Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in Belgium are so deeply intertwined that it is very common to find the white crosses the divide the 2 countries running through a road.  International Monitory Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or World Bank. MNP (Mobile number Portability). On January 20. both put together is called Bretton Woods twins.

 Venus is the nearest planet to the earth.  In Supreme Court there is a Chief Justice of India and 30 other judges.  Mercury is nearest to the Sun. Both were set up in the year 1945  Pluto lost the status of a planet. Once appointed retire at the age of 65. Both Submit resignation letter to the President. This is called Morning star/Evening star. . All are appointed by the President. Asteroids are present between Mars and Jupiter. International Monitory Fund and World Bank both Head quarters located in Washington. Venus and Uranus rotate from east to West.  All planets rotate up on their axis from west to East. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system.  SC and HC judges are appointed by the President.

 Chief Justice of India (CJI) .00.000/ Chief Justice of High Court – Rs. 50.000/ Vice President. 1. 1. SALARIES:  President – Rs. 10.Rs. 1.000/ Other Judges of SC.  DRDO Head quarters located in New Delhi.000/ After the death of the President Zakir Husain in 1969.000/ Other judges of High Court – Rs. Vice President VV Giri resigned. 25.  Governor – Rs. 1. 80.  Arjun is India‟s main battle tank developed by DRDO (Defense Research and Development Organization). Its original name MBT-80. 90.000/-.Rs.000/-. At that time the CJI Hidayatullah acted as the President till the completion of elections.Rs. 90. .

Chhattisgarh.  Tropic of cancer passes through Gujarat.  Among parallels only Equator is a great circle. Congo Republic. He is the scientific advisor to the Defence Minister. West Bengal.  Geosynchronous orbit (36. Rajasthan. Congo. Kenya. . became the first men to scale Mt. Jharkhand.000 km) is an earth orbit made by an artificial satellite moving west to east direction. DRDO Director General Dr V K Saraswat.  Zero was invented by Unknown Indian. Tripura and Mizoram.  Equator passes through Ecuador. (8 States).  Bhaskara-I was India‟s first earth observations satellite.  India‟s first satellite Aryabhatta (1975) and second satellite Bhaskara-I (1979) both were launched from Baikanour Comsodrome (USSR). Gabon. Colombia. Everest in 1953. Madhya Pradesh. Uganda. Somalia and Indonesia.  Edmund Hillary (New Zealand) and Tensing Norgay (Nepal) called "Tiger of the snows". Brazil.

 Governor holds office during the pleasure of the President. Governor 35 years. Governor can be reappointed.  The National Museum of Natural History was set up in the year 1772 in Madrid (Spain) is the first museum of its kind. THE MINIMUM AGE FOR CONTESTINGELECTIONS: President.  President submits resignation letter to the Vice president and the Vice President submits to the President.  The term of the President and the Vice President is 5 years. . Rajya sabha and Legislative councils 30 years. Vice President. Lok sabha and Assemblies 25 years. They can be reelected.  Lok sabha is dissolved by the President.  Governor submits the resignation to the President.  Rajya Sabha is a permanent house that cannot be dissolved.  Parliament is Summoned and Prorogued by the President.

 The blood group „AB‟ is Universal acceptor. Ionosphere and exosphere. Maximum concentration of Ozone-present in . Stratosphere.  Blood is classified into A. WBC (Leucocytes). Chairman and Members are appointed by the President. This is 800 km long.  Finance commission is mentioned in Article 280 of the Constitution.  The blood group „O‟ is Universal donor. AB and O. Platelets and Plasma. They are Troposphere. stratosphere.  Karakoram Highway connects Pakistan-occupied Kashmir with xianjing in China. The red colour of the blood is due to the presence of the iron compound called hemoglobin. B.  The atmosphere contains 5 layers.  So far 13 Finance Commissions were constituted. President lays the report before the Parliament. Mesosphere. It is constituted by the President of India every 5 years.  Blood consists of RBC (Erythrocytes). Finance commission submits the report to the President of India.

 June 5th World Environment day.  Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is commonly known as Laughing gas.  The Chairman for 13th Finance Commission was Vijay Kelkar. Afghanistan joined the group during 2007 SAARC summit in Delhi. .  RBI prints currency notes except one rupee note and other coins.  In the year 1984 Union Carbide (UC) gas leak of Methyl isocyanides many people were killed. Warren Anderson was the chairman of UC. K C Neogy was the chairman of 1st Finance Commission. In the year 2011SAARC summit will be held in Male. Maldives. 2016 -Rio de Janeiro.2008 Beijing. Later UC was taken over by DOW. 1st modern Olympics 1896 Athens. 2010 SAARC summit was held in Thimphu.  Olympics: 1st modern Olympics were held in 776 BC in Athens. Bhutan. 2012 London.  SAARC was set up in the year 1985. One rupee note printed and coins are minted by the Ministry of Finance.  July 11th World population day.

Akash and Nag missiles. Agni.  Jains used Prakrit language. The highest denomination at present in India is Rs. 10. Presently it is in Uttaranchal. This is the 1st sanctuary that is covered under project Tiger.notes.  Nag is an anti tank missile.  Agni Surface to surface Missile.  Vitamin D is called sunshine vitamin. Maximum denomination that RBI can issue notes is Rs.  Trishul Surface to Air missile.  Buddhists used Pali languages. .000/ Corbett National park is India‟s 1st national park (1935).  Integrated Guided Missile Development programme (IGMDP) comprises Prithvi. Trishul.  Prithvi surface to surface missile.  Akash Surface to Air missile. 1000/.  Bengal was divided in the year 1905 and reunited in the year 1911.

 Deficiency of Vitamin C causes Scurvy. This cow milk contains highest fat (8 percent) content and rich medicinal properties. . Normally a cow milk contains 3 to 3.  Bana Bhatta lived in the court of Harshavardhana. A. D.  Harsha belongs to pushyabuti dynasty. E and K. variety) of cows.B2-Riboflavin.  Deficiency of vitamin D causes Rickets.B1-Thiamine.C-ascorbic acid  The “Punganur‟ cow is the World‟s smallest breed (type. C.  Vitamin K-essential for clotting of blood. He followed Buddhism. Deficiency of Vitamin A results in night blindness.  Total vitamins 13.5 percent fat.  Harsha Moved capital from Thaneshwar to Kanauj  Harsha was defeated by Chalukya ruler Pulakesini II.  “Jaya Deva” was the author of Gita Govind. B complex (8).  A-Retional.

 Vrihi.  Junagad Inscription (Gujarat) is the first official inscription in Sanskrit. Tandula. . Sali means Rice. It has both Hindu caves (Shiva) and Buddhist caves.  Ashoka‟s Rock Edict XIII gave importance to the policy of Dhamma.  Yava means Barley.  These Rock Edicts are the collection of 33 inscriptions.  Nasik caves – Buddhist. Jainism and Hinduism.  Ajanta caves – Buddhism.  Bactrian‟s were the first kings to issue coins bearing their names.  Taxila (Punjab) sculpture represents the nature.  Ellora caves – Buddhism. Shivate & Vaishnavite.  Nishka means Gold. Elephanta caves (Maharashtra) were built by the Chalukyas.  During Vedic period “Goghana” means a guest.

. Mahavira was associated with triratnas (Right Knowledge.  Buddhist Councils:  1st – Rajagriha (483 BC)  2nd – Vaisali (383)  3rd – Pataliputrs (250 BC)  4th – Kashmir (1 AD).  3rd Buddhist council was held during Ashoka period.  Jatakas are part of Suttapitika and they explain the stories of previous birth of Buddha.  Vinaya Pitika  Sutta Pitika  Abhidamma Pitika. Right faith and Right Action)  Tripitikas – Buddhist literature compiled in Pali language.

It was built by Jajati Keshari in 11 AD. .  Mahajanapadas and capital:  Kashi .  Swapnavasavadatta was written by Bhasa.  Linga raja temple is present in Bhubaneswar. Vasavadatta was the prince of Avanti. It was built during Gupta period. During 4th council Buddhism was divided into Hinayana and Mahayana.Kausambi.Varanasi  Anga .  Dasavatara temple is present in Deogarh in UP. It represents the Nagara style of architecture.Champa  Vajji -Vaisali  Vasta .  Avesta was the oldest Iranian texts.  Ashoka Pillar or Allahabad inscription at Allahabad provided the information of Samudra Gupta.

 The battle of Hydespes was fought on the river Jhelum between Alexander and Porus and Porus was defeated.  Firoz-shah-Tuglaq set up a separate department to maintain slaves. He crossed Hindukush Mountains and Indus River in the year 326 BC. Naga.  Haryanka. .  Bronze dancing girl was found at Mohenjo-Daro.  Mohammad-Bin-Tuglaq introduced token copper currency. Bimbisara (founder of Haryanka dynasty) was the contemporary of Buddha.  Bimbisara. Rishaba means bull. Ajatasatru and Udayin are the 3 important kings belong to Haryanka dynasty.  Alexander was the king of Macedonia.  Terracotta was used for making Harappa seals.  Selucas Nicator was the contemporary of Chandra Gupta Maurya.  Rishaba was the first Jain Thirthankara. Nanda. Maurya and Sunga are the sequence of dynasties that ruled Magadha.

.  Mahavira died at Pavapuri in 468 BC.  Mahavira preached in Magadhi.  Liver is the largest gland in the human body. Marathas were defeated.  The Third Battle of Panipat took place in1761.  Mahavira was the 24th Thirthankara. Animals have 3 or more jivas.  Taj Mahal was finest Mughal architecture in Marble. Parshva was the 23rd Jain Thirthankara.  Jaipala (Shaka king) was the 1st ruler to face the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni.  Rahim was the court poet of Akbar.  Babur tomb is present in Kabul (Afghanistan).  Bengal Gazette was the first major news paper started in India in 1780. The teachings of Jainism were recorded at a council conducted at Pataliputra in 5 AD. Fought between Marathas and Afghans led by Ahmad shah Durrani also called Ahmad Shah Abdali. According to Jainism plants and trees have 2 jivas.

 Lord Macaulay introduced English education in India. Satara (Maharashtra) was the 1st to be annexed in the year 1848. Rajagopala Chari. *********  Insulin was discovered by Fredrick Banting and Charles Best of Canada in the year 1921.  Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the 1st Governor-General of Pakistan. Lord Canning was the Governor-General of India when 1857 revolt broke out.  First Indian Governor-General was C.  Sir Clement Atlee was the PM of England when India got the independence. .  Lord Mountbatten was appointed as the 1st Governor-General of free India.  Doctrine of Lapse was introduced by Lord Dalhousie.  Portugal was the first country to establish trade relations with India.  Mount Batten Plan or June 3rd plan is envisaged the partition of India into India and Pakistan.  Lord Canning was the last Governor-General and the first Viceroy of India.

 Solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is in between the Sun and the Earth. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the Pancreas that regulates sugar levels in the body.  The Attorney-General cannot vote but has right to speak and take part in the proceedings of Parliament without being a member.  Dadabhai Naoroji (Grand Old Man of India) was the first Indian to be elected to the British House of commons in the year 1892. The term was first used by Thomas Macaulay in 1828.  The Advocate-General cannot vote but has right to speak and take part in the proceeding of state legislature without being a member. Article 370 of Indian Constitution provides for the special status for Jammu and Kashmir.  Fourth estate refers to “Press”.  Lunar eclipse occurs when the earth is between Sun and Moon.  As per the estimations of UN World Population India will be the most populous country by the year 2050. .  Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India which has a separate Constitution which came into force in 1957.

.  Kamini is India‟s first neutron reactor.  38th parallel is the boundary between North Korea and South Korea.  Apsara is India‟s first nuclear research reactor. Kalpak am near Chennai.  The Joint session of the Parliament is summoned by the President. India‟s first fast Breeder Test Reactor located at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research.  As per 2001 census Kerala registered lowest decadal population growth rate and highest was Nagaland.  Pipavav (Gujarat) is the first private port in India.  49th parallel is the boundary between USA and Canada.  In India there are 12 major ports.  The Joint session of the parliament is presided over by the Speaker. 6 on east coast and 6 on west coast.

 Para dip-Orissa  Haldia – Kolkata  Kolkata in West Bengal. Kandla-Gujarat  Mumbai-Maharashtra  Nhava Sheva-Maha  New Mangalore-Karnataka  Mormugao-Goa  Kochi-Kerala  Tuticorin-Tamil Nadu  Chennai-TN  Vishakhapatnam-AP. .  Calcutta is riverine port.  Mumbai is the biggest port.  Kandla is a free port.

 Shatapatha Brahmana is associated with Yajur Veda. .  Red Shirts or Khudai Khidmmatgar movement was led by Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan.  Gopatha is associated with Atharva Veda. Also called Frontier Gandhi.  Aiteraya Brahmana is associated with Rig-Veda.  Jaiminiya is associated with Sama Veda. This is popularly called Surat Split.  Rashbehari Ghosh was the president of INC in 1907.  Labour party was in power in England when India got independence. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port.  Lord Curzon was the viceroy of India when Bengal was partitioned in the year 1905.  In the year 1907 INC split into moderates and extremists.  Hunter commission was appointed to look into the tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh of 1919.

Jawaharlal Nehru was the second to launch the same.  Direct action was launched by Muslim league in the year 1946 to achieve Pakistan. Same year capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. .  Carbohydrates are the compounds consisting of Carbon. Hydrogen and Oxygen.  In Carnatic region French and British East India Company clashed for the first time.  Enzymes are made up of Proteins. Servant‟s of India society was launched by Gopala Krishna Gokale in the year 1905.  During Tripuri session (1939) S C Bose defeated Pattabhi sitaramaiah (Gandhi‟s nominee). Hindu-Muslim riots took place in Calcutta.  Lord Harding II was the viceroy of India when Bengal was reunited in the year 1911. Abdul Kalam Azad withdrew nomination.  Vinobha Bhave was the first person to start individual Satyagraha in the year 1940.  Iron was unknown to the people of Indus Valley civilization.

Substrate is a substance up on which enzyme acts.  Deficiency of calcium leads to Rickets. AB and O by K. B.  Deficiency of Vitamin A leads to Xerophthalmia/dry eye and Night Blindness.  Deficiency of Iodine causes “goiter”.  Blood Group “AB” carries no antibody.  Human blood was classified into A. If it is XY the sex is male. .  There are 23 pairs of chromosomes and total 46 present in a human body cell. where as “O” carries antibody “Anti-A and Anti-B”. A carries antibody “Anti-B” and “B” group carries “Anti-A”. Enzyme is a catalyst. This pair is called sex chromosomes and others are called autosomes. Landsteiner. It promotes action without direct involvement.  If the pair contains identical chromosomes XX then the sex is female. This is the enlargement of thyroid.  Deficiency of iron leads to Anemia.  Deficiency of protein leads to Kwashiorkor. Out of these 23 pairs one pair determines the sex.  Deficiency of sodium leads to Hyponatremia.

Hydroxyl is 1 Hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms. Deficiency of Vitamin B1 leads to Beriberi. .  A bacterium contains only one chromosome.  A plant cell is differentiated from animal cell with the presence of cell wall in plant cell.  Oceansat-3 is planned for the year 2011-12.  Oxygen is a product of Photosynthesis that comes from water.  Deficiency of Vitamin D leads to Rickets.  Lactic acid is present in milk.  Mitochondrion is considered to the power house of a cell.  Virus that infects a bacterium is called bacteriophage.  Chandrayaan –I: Moon Mineralogy Map per (M3) – US supplied instrument found water and Hydroxyl emanating from Moon.  Deficiency of Vitamin B2 leads to Ariboflavinosis  Deficiency of Vitamin C leads to Scurvy.

 Large Hadron Collider (LHC). . the World‟s largest particle acceletor set a record for high energy collisions by crashing 2 proton beams into each other at 3 times more force than ever before.  Agni I. Hyper-Spectral Imager (HySI) is an Indian instrument also detected presence of water on the Moon. 2010. Collision was conducted at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) Head quarters Geneva. III tested successfully.  K-152 Nerpa (Akula-II) is a nuclear submarine inducted into the army of Russia. This will be leased to India in 2010 for a period of 10 years and is commissioned as INS Chakra. (Remember there is no Agni-IV).  Agni –III Indian long range missile of 3500 km was tested successfully in Feb. II.  Agni-V is planned for 2011.  K-15 missile is fitted to Arihant (India‟s first indigenously developed nuclear sub marine)  K-15 land version is Shourya.

 Astra is the smallest missile that is developed by DRDO. South Africa. And also called CMP6 means conference of the parties serving as the meeting of the parties to Kyoto protocol.  BASIC (Brazil. .  Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997 and came into force in 2005.  COP 17/CMP7 will be held in Durban. Mexico from November 29 to December 10. 2010. Tested at Balasore. 2011.  UN Climate Change Conference was held in Cancun. It was tested recently on March 11.  “Astra” (Beyond-Visual-Range Air to Air) missile successfully tested in Jan. 2010. 2011. This is officially called COP 16. South Africa from November 28 to December 9. Orissa. Danush (Ship based anti-surface missile) is the naval version of Prithvi. Prithvi-II was successfully launched in October 2009.  Prithvi was the first missile developed under Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. COP is Conference of the Parties. India and China) conference took place in Beijing in November 2009. It imposes targets for emission reductions up to 2012 only on developed nations.

 The PRITZKER prize is the highest honor in architecture and is regarded as equivalent to Nobel Prize.  MMTS stands for Multi Model Transport System.000 MW by 2022 through solar energy.  19th Law Commission chairman is Venkata Rama Reddy. For the year 2010 it was awarded to Japanese duo Kazuyo Seijma and Ryue Nishizawa.  India has the target of generating 20000 MW power by 2020 thru nuclear energy and 20.  1872 to 1931 caste based census was conducted. . 2010 in Abu Dhabi. Green India 2047 report is published annually by TERI (The Energy and resources Institute) since 1995.  World Future Energy Summit was held in Jan. It is also called Red Line Torpedo Barb.  “Miss Kerala” is India‟s most popular fresh water fish.  1st census in India conducted in 1872 and the 14th census in the year 2001. 2011 will be the 15th census. Government is conducting the caste based census for the 1st time in independent India during 2011.

 WIMAX (World wide interoperability for Microwave access) is a telecommunication technology that provides wireless data in various ways.  Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) convened by Obama in Washington on April 12. India and China) Summit 2010 held in Brazil and for the 2011 it will be in China.  India‟s first commercial solar power plant is Azure powers located in Punjab.  Bing.  SaaS (Software as a Service) is an application hosted on a remote server and accessed through internet. Next NSS will be South Korea in the year 2012  IED: Improvised Explosive Devise  BRIC (Brazil. Wolframalpha.  Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services through internet. . 2010. Cuil are the names of various search engines. Kosmix. Russia. Inaugurated in 2009. DHMU stands for Diesel Hydraulic Multiple Unit.

 369 parties contested in 15th Loksabha elections of 2009. Orkut.USA is the largest producer of the same.  Three Gorges dam (China) is the largest Hydro Power plant in the world.  Sulphuric Acid is the most important industrial chemical in the world.George is Madras was set up in Madras in 1812 by east India Company.  Lord Wellesley established Fort William College in Calcutta in 1800.  Satyajit ray and Latha Mangeshkar are the two persons who won both Bharat Ratna and Dada Sahib Phalke awards. Twitter.  Fort St. LinkedIn are the names of various Social networks. My Space.  Luna I of Russia was the first lunar fly. .  Indian institute of science is located in Bangalore.1st manned earth orbiter with Yuri Gagarin (1959).(1957)  Vostok I of Russia. Capacity 22.  Sputnik I of Russia was the first earth orbiting satellite. A most commonly used strong acid. Luna II was the first lunar impact. Face book.500 MW.

 PHALCON AWACS (Air borne warning and control system) delivered to India by Israel.  Rulers:  Peshwa – Pune  Gaikwads – Baroda  Bhonsle – Nagpur  Holkars – Indore  Sindhias – Gwalior.  Article 243D of the Constitution provides that a minimum of one-third of the total number of seats filled by direct elections in Panchayat Raj shall be reserved for women. The reservation for women is increased to 50% through the 110 th amendment of the Constitution . This is the radar surveillance system.  INS Vikramaditya (Air craft Carrier) will be inducted into Indian Navy by 2012. This will be delivered b Russia.

 COBALT 60 is an artificial element. It is produced by neutron activation of COBALT 59.  Justice YV Chandrachud was the longest serving CJI from February 22. Article 243T of the Constitution provides that a minimum of one-third of the total number of seats filled by direct elections in every Municipality shall be reserved for women. Its half life period is 5.  China started economic reforms in the year 1979 and India in the year 1991  The Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972. The reservation for women is increased to 50% through the 112th amendment of the Constitution. 1991.27 years. 1978 to July 11. This also granted permission to kill rogue animals. .  During photosynthesis plants cool the environment by releasing water through pores or stomata that present on the surface of leaves. 1991 to December 12.  The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini. 1985.  K N Singh was the CJI for the shortest period of time from November 25.

C R Das fought his case and Aurobindo was acquitted.  In the second battle of Tarai (1192) Mahmud ghori defeated Prithvi raj chauhan. TWO HEADS ARE BETTER THAN ONE. Cowries shells were used by the Chinese as a medium of exchange. Gir forest in Sourastra region of Gujarat is the home for Asiatic lions.  Assam was called Kamrupa.  China was the 1st country to introduce paper currency.  Alberuni (writer and scientist) and Firdausi (Poet) were present in the court of Ghazani.  In the first battle of Tarai (1191) prithvi raj chauhan defeated Mohammad Ghori.  Qutub-ud-din Aibak was the first independent Muslim ruler of India.  The Tomaras built the city of Dhillika (Delhi) in 736. .  When Aurobindo was arrested in the year 1908 by the British for being the prime suspect in bomb outrage.

This is the beginning Mughal Empire  Paper industry started in China in 1 AD. During his time vijayanagara kingdom was ruined and destroyed by Muslim rulers in the battle of tallikota or Rakshasa tangadi or Bannihatti in 1565. (1857).  At the second battle of Panipat (1556) Hemu was defeated by Akbar.  The Battle of Buxar was fought in October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company. Shuja-ud-Daula (the Nawab of Awadh) and Shah Alam II. (Persian game . and the combined armies of Mir Kasim (the Nawab of Bengal). the Mughal Emperor.  Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in first battle of Panipat in the year 1526.  Sadasiva raya was the last ruler of the Vijaya Nagara dynasty. Aibak died while playing Chowgan.  108th amendment – Meant for providing 33 percent of reservation for women in Parliament and state legislative assemblies. this is Polo). . This was introduced in Rajya Sabha and passed.  The last Mughal ruler was Bahadur shah.  During the time of Ahmad Delhi was attacked by Ahmad shah Abdali in third battle of Panipat in the year 1761.

This is a vestigial organ (No function).  Ethylene is used for ripening of fruits. 2005. ST‟s and Anglo-Indians in Parliament and state legislatures up to the year 2020.  Appendix also called vermix located near the junction of large intestine and small intestine.  Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the laughing gas.  11th five year plan (200 – 2012) is the “India‟s educational plan”. 109th amendment – Extension of reservation for SC‟s. 2010.  Right to Information act came into force on June 15.  111th amendment – Meant for providing constitutional status to cooperative societies. .  MF Hussain acquired the Qatar citizenship.  112th amendment – Increasing reservation for women in Muncipalities from the existing 33 percent to 50 percent.  Right to Education act came into force on April 1.  110th Constitutional amendment – Increasing reservation for women in Panchayati Raj bodies from the existing 33 percent to 50 percent.

 RAVI – PARUSINI .  Duncan passage is present between South Andaman & Little Andaman.  Western & Eastern Ghats are connected by Niligiri (blue) hills. Highest point on the land-Mt Everest.  Ancient names of rivers:  SUTLEJ – SATURDI.  Lowest area-shore of dead sea(Jordan)  Deepest area Mariana Trench in Pacific Ocean  Mars is called Red planet.  Annaimudi-highest peak in Western Ghats(sahyadri)  Niligiri are separated by Annamalai hills by Palghat (Kerala) pass.

VIPAS  Narmada. Tapti.  Jog falls-Highest in India present on river sharavati. This is located in Venezuela. Mahi and Luni are the west flowing rivers. . CHENAB – ASKINI  JHELUM – VITASTA  BEAS .  Highest waterfall is Angela.  Victoria Falls present between Zambia Zimbabwe.

.  Sir Thomas Roe visited in 1617 and got the permission to set up a factory at Surat.Prairie S.Down  Sahara (Largest) desert touches 11 countries in Africa.Savanna Brazil.Campos Venezuela.Pampas N.Veld Asia.  Concept of Public interest Litigation (PIL) 1st started in USA.  William Hawkins visited the court of Jahangir in 1609.  Ladakh is the coldest desert present in Himalayas. GRASS LANDS: East Africa.Llanos Argentina. America. Africa.Steppe Australia.

 Rajya Sabha members are elected by elected MLA's. In India Public Interest Litigation was introduced in the year 1985. The largest onshore discovery in India. 2010 after silence of 200 years.  Mangala is the oil field in Barmer district of Rajasthan.  Finance Commission recommends about the grants-in-aid to be given to the states. .  In Iceland an eruption started in Eyjafjallajokulla glacier The Volcano erupted on March 20. Residuary powers are borrowed from Canada. Article 134 A of the Constitution – Grant of Certificate for the appeal to the Higher court.  X board exams-CBSE cancelled from 2011. At that time P N Bhagawati was the CJI.  The International Space Station project began in 1994 with the Shuttle-Mir programme-completed by 2011.

justice VS Sirpurkar will head the panel that will have Andhra Pradesh high court former chief justice AR Dave and noted constitutional lawyer PP Rao. This carries a payload of 40 kg and can reach a height of 500 Km. ***********  India has mainly two types of satellite systems. . ASLV. This is a four staged solid fuel light launcher. IRS (Indian Remote Sensing) satellite launched by PSLV and INSAT (Indian National Satellite) launched by GSLV.  The SLV (Satellite Launch Vehicle) is also called SLV-3.  Supreme Court judge. SLV was first launched in 1979 and it was launched last time in the year 1983.  India developed 4 types of launch vehicles. PSLV and GSLV. SLV. The current status is that it is decommissioned.Article 143 of the Constitution – President can seek the advice from the Supreme Court.

Meteorology. ASLV (Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle) is a five staged solid propellant rocket system with a capacity to place 150 kg satellite into the LEO (Low Earth Orbit). This is scheduled in the year 2012.  PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) launch the IRS into the Sun Synchronous Orbits. This can put the payloads of up to five tons into the Low Earth Orbit. search and rescue needs for India.  The very latest launch vehicle is GSLV Mark – III is under development. This was first tested in 1987 and decommissioned in the year 1994. PSLV can also launch small satellites into GTO (Geostationary Transfer orbit).  INSAT satellites are useful for Telecommunications.  GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) is to launch INSAT into Geostationary Orbit. This is the highest by any country.  India‟s first satellite was Aryabhatta launched in the year 1975 from USSR. PSLV launched highest number of satellites at once.  The latest launch of GSLV-F06 with the GSAT-5P satellite was failed on December 25. . broadcasting.  Rohini satellites were built and launched indigenously. 2010.

 GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation) the concept was prepared jointly by the AAI (Airports Authority of India) and ISRO. The Oceansat -2 was launched in the year 2009. This will launch Resourcesat -2. .  From Modakurichi Assembly constituency of Tamil Nadu 1033 candidates contested in the year 1996.  In any election if a defeated candidate fails to secure more than 1/6th of the valid polled votes in the constituency will lose the security deposit.  Article 173 (a) of the Indian Constitution says that only the citizens of India are eligible to contest in the state Assembly elections. These are placed in the sun synchronous orbit.  PSLV C-16 is scheduled in 2011.  The election expenditure means the expenditure incurred by a candidate between the date of nomination and the date of announcement of the results. IRS satellites are the earth observation satellites. This is the maximum number so far.  Article 84 (a) of the Indian Constitution says that only the citizens of Indian are eligible to contest in the Parliament elections.  The election expenditure details must be submitted to the Election Commission within 30 days from the date of announcement of the results. This is meant for navigation and surveillance of air traffic management. IRS – P4 is a type of Remote sensing satellite and is also called Oceansat – 1 launched in the year 1999.

 The smallest muscle in the human body is “Stapedius”.  The biggest skeletal muscle is “Gluteus Maximus”. (The smallest bone). This is a buttock muscle. the chewing muscle. . (Map Pointing question) look at the map. This is present in thigh. This is attached to Stapes.  The longest muscle is „Sartorius”. This is present in the ear.  The strongest muscle is “Masseter”. Smallest bone in the human body is “stapes”. This runs from hip to knee.  India and Sri Lanka are separated by PALK Strait and Gulf of Mannar  DHANUSHKODI is a place near Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu form where the total solar eclipse was seen.  There are 9000 taste buds on the tongue. This is also present in the ear.  The muscle with the largest surface area is „Latissimus Dorsi” that covers the middle portion of the back.  The sweat has no odor.  The largest bone in the human body is “Femur”.  The skin is the largest organ of the human body.

 Central Information Commissioner is appointed by the President.  State Information Commissioner is appointed by the Governor  Veerappa Moily (Union Law Minister) is the Chair person for second Administrative Reforms Commission. The committee submitted 15 reports.  Nuclear Security Summit 2010 held in Washington.  DHRUV is the Light Combat Helicopter (LCH), designed and developed by the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.  The word “Budget” is not mentioned in the constitution.  Annual Financial Statement is mentioned in Article 112.  Krita, Treta, Dwapara and Kali yugas. These are the four yugas. (Remember the sequence).  Joint Session is mentioned in Article 108 of the Constitution.  Joint session is summoned by the President.  Joint session is presided over by the speaker  The Supreme Court judges are appointed by the President.

 The High Court judges are appointed by the President.  The District Court judges are appointed by the Governor.  K Santhanam former DRDO official who was associated with the Pokhran tests, has provided fresh fodder to the criticism by terming the thermonuclear test a fizzle?  Arijit Payasat a judge of Supreme Court nick named as “Sachin Tendulkar of SC judges.  Danush is the naval version of Prithvi missile.  June 5 World Environment Day.  Longest elevated national highway of 9.5 km inaugurated in Bangalore. This connects silk board junction and electronic city in Bangalore.  Palakkad district in Kerala is the 1st district in the country which if fully electrified.  LESOTHO is a land locked country is South Africa.  Swaziland is a land locked country in South Africa and towards east bordered by Mozambique.  Under Article 143 of the Constitution the President of India can consult the Supreme Court and seek its opinion.

 Apatani is a tribe in Arunachal Pradesh.  Jarawa tribe is in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  Munda tribe is in Jharkhand and Bihar.  Santhal tribe is in Jharkahnd and West Bengal.  First Municipal Corporation in India was set up in Madras in the year 1687.  Lord Rippon considered as the Father of Local self Government in India.  The Anti-defection law was 1st enacted in West Bengal in the year 1979.  In Berubari Union case of 1960 Supreme Court opined that Preamble is not a part of Constitution.  In Keshavananda Bharati case (1973) and LIC of India case (1995) Supreme Court held that the Preamble is a part of Constitution (Be very clear).  Gini Coefficient used as a measure of inequality of income  Kalapani and Susta is the dispute between India and Nepal.  The Supreme Court inquires into the disputes related to the election of the President and Vice President. The decision of the Supreme Court is final and exclusive.

 CAG (Comptroller and Auditor General) of India is considered to be a friend, philosopher and guide to PAC (Public Accounts Committee).  Below Poverty Line (BPL) census in India conducted for the first time in 1992. In the year 2010 it was conducted for the 4th time.  National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was renamed as Mahatma Gandhi REGA since October 2, 2009. This is a central law for providing minimum 100 days of employment to the people of Below Poverty line in rural areas.  Barak Obama is the 44th president of USA.  Joe Biden is the Vice President of USA.  Domestication of animals started during Neolithic period. Dog and sheep 1st domesticated.  Wheat and Barley were the earliest cereals grown.  Bramhacharya, Gruhasthya, Vanaprastha & Sannyasa are the 4 ashramas. (Remember the sequence).  The Battle of 10 kings mentioned in Rig-Veda. This was fought over the division of RAVI water.

. Wheat – Godhuma.  Mahavira was the 24th Jain Thirthankara.  Alexander died in 323BC in Babylonia  Rishaba was the first Jain Thirthankara.  Zero was invented by unknown Indian.  The Battle of Hydaspes took place on the banks of river Jhelum between Alexander and Porus.  Tamraparni (Sri Lanka) and now it is called Tamirabarani) and  The ancient name of Burma was Suvarnabhumi.  In the ancient days the name Suvarnadweepa was used for South-east Asia.  Rishaba means bull.  Periplus of Erythrean Sea was written by unknown author. Barley – Yava.  Saka Era began in 78 AD.  Parshva was the 23rd Jain Thirthankara. (Alexander won).  The Ancient name for the Indian subcontinent is Jambudvipa. During Vedic period Rice was called Vrihi.

 1939 tripuri congress session Bose defeated Pattabhi sitaramaiah who was supported by Gandhi.  Mantle and core separated by Gutenberg Discontinuity. Mantle (SIMA) and Core(NIFE)  Crust and Mantle separated by Mohorivicic Discontinuity.  Jyoyhi Basu(CPI(M)) was the longest serving CM (1977-2000) .  The Andamans and Nicobars are separated by the Ten degree channel. Maulana Abdul Kalam withdrew his nomination.  Khadar is new Alluvium and Bangar is old alluvium.  FIFA President Joseph Sepp Blatter of Switzerland.  Golden boot is awarded to the top goal scorer in FIFA world cup international.  The Himalayans are formed from the sea called Tethys sea which is situated between the Gondwana in the south and Angaraland(Laurasia)toNorth.  The Earth is divided into3 parts Crust (SIAL). Subahsh Chandra Bose was re elected as the President of congress in 1939 and defeated Pattabhi Sitaramaiah who was supported by Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.  The 8 degree channel passes thruogh south Minicoy Island.

 Under Article 75 (3) of the Indian Constitution the Council of Ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.  Dyarchy was first introduced in provinces through GOI Act of 1919. . Kashmir and Hyderabad had signed the instrument of accession. English and French. Ahmadabad (1918)  By August 15 the rulers of all 562 states with an exception of Junagarh.  According to the Article 75(2) of the Indian Constitution the Ministers (including PM) are individually responsible to the President.  Gandhi called Tilak "The Maker of Modern India  Gopala Krishna Gokale was the mentor for both Gandhi and Jinnah.  Portuguese were the first to come to India and followed by Dutch. Mahatma Gandhi was the President of INC in the year 1924 during Belgaum session.  Gandhi Sequence: Champaran (1917).  Lokpal bill 1st introduced in the year 1968.  GOI Act of 1935 introduced Dyarchy at center and abolished in provinces.  Indian Federation is based on pattern of Canada.  Portfolio system introduced in India through the Indian Cuncils Act of 1861. Kheda (1918).

 Number of seats-Parliament&Assembles freezed up to the year 2026. Hokkaido.  The Red Fort is constructed with Sand stone.  One Gallon is equal to 54 liters. Shikoku and Kyushu. Honshu. National Water Council.  India has highest number of Oral cancer patients in the World. National Integration Council.  The one child policy in China was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in the year 1979. PM-Chairman for National Population commission.Venu Gopala Reddy. .  Agenda 21 is the -programme of action for sustainable development at local. national and global level.  “A Cabinet Secretary Looks Back” is written by B G Deshmukh a former cabinet secretary.  “Global Crisis Recession and Recovery” book is written by Y.  123 Agreement between USA and other countries with relation to nuclear cooperation. Planning Commission and National Development Council. (Sedimentary rock).  The Taj Mahal is constructed with white Marble (Metamorphic rock).  There are four main Islands in Japan.

R.  The Service Tax in India was introduced in the year 1994. The biggest clock tower in the World is present in Mecca (Saudi Arabia).2 °C/−128.  Pakistan‟s ISI (Inter Service Intelligence) is the only spy agency in the World charged with sponsoring international terrorism.5 crores). Rahman was the first Indian to receive two Oscar Awards. Telecommunications.  The minimum amount that is required to open Swiss account is 10 lakh dollors (4. At present (2011) 119 items are under the ambit of Service Tax.  Pakistan is the largest recipient of US aid. Stock Broking and General Insurance were the three areas where the Service tax was imposed first.  A.  Alexander Cunningham. .6 °F at the Russian Vostok Station in Antarctica on 21 July 1983.  The coldest natural temperature ever recorded on Earth was −89. the first Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India.  The first Indian woman to win individual medal in Olympics was Karanam Mallishwari (Weight Lifting).

 A Nano meter is equal to one billionth of a meter.  Nanotechnology is the study of matter at a miniature level called the nano scale. This is going to be decommissioned in 2013.R.  The Nanotechnology facilitates research on particles less than one billionth of a meter in diameter and thus paves way to some amazing inventions and discoveries.  Russell ‟s viper is a viviparous reptile that litters its young ones.N.  The largest University in the World is the Indira Gandhi University National Open University in New Delhi.  The Institute of Nano Science and Technology is located in Mohali. .  The Hubble telescope: This was put into space in 1990 by NASA. This uses the solar power. Rao is the Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister.  C. James Web Space Telescope will replace Hubble Telescope. The Tobacco smoke contains over four thousand (4000) chemicals according to World Health Organization. The other oviparous reptiles lay eggs. This is revolving around 564 km away from the earth. The Tobacco epidemic kills nearly 6 million people per year.

This migrates to India only in the summer. Saudi Arabia.  South Asia‟s largest jail is Tihar Jail.  Rushikulya is in Orissa. In 1980 the WHO (World Health Organization) declared that the World and all its people have won freedom from small pox. In Indian region it transpires on three beaches along the coat of Orissa. Thousands of expectant mother turtles gather at one place during nights.  The term Monsoon was first used in English in British India and the neighboring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Indian Ocean over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.  Ethiopia is the only African Nation that is independent for 2000 (Two Thousand) years.  A small Pox case was seen in last in Somalia in the year 1977.  The Princess Nora bint Abdulrahman University is the world‟s largest University for Women. located in New Delhi.  Beijing Genomics (China) is the largest DNA research centre in the world. Mithi river is a 18 km long river in Mumbai. located in Riyad.  The Pied Cuckoo‟s breeding grounds are in Africa. This is a place where the Olive Ridley Turtles lay eggs.  Arribada in Spanish means arrival of the Olive Ridley Turtles to lay their eggs. .

 Nepal is the only country in the World that boasts a triangular flag.  Silviculture: The care and cultivation of forest trees.  1 barrel is equal to 117. Colombia and other areas in South America. (This is a record).  Nitisataka was written by Bhartrihari.  There are 8 PIN code zones in India.  PPP is Public-Private-Participation: In this mode the government does not have to invest any money. .347765 liters. Apa Sherpa.  The term of UN Secretary-General is 5 years.8288 meters. maintain and share revenue with the government.  In 1893 Mahatma Gandhi was thrown out of a train in Pietermaritzburg in South Africa. First climbed in 1990 and 21st time in May 2011. Everest for 21 times.  1 bale is equal to 170 kg.  1 Fathom is equal to 1. This is the smallest monkey. native to the rainforest canopies of western Brazil. The successful bidder will construct. a Nepalese mountaineer has climbed Mt.  FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) proposals are recommended by FIPB (Foreign Investment Promotion Board).  The Pygmy marmoset also called dwarf monkey is a new World monkey. With this Gandhi launched his first Satyagraha.

Cherlapally (Hyderabad) and NOIDA (UP).  The latest coin that was banned was 25 paisa. Alipore(Kolkata).  The Reserve Bank of India has banned all the coins below 50 paisa periodically. (Since June 30. 1950. 2. 5. 2011). 1000 can be issued. These were the silver coins with the queen Victoria figure.  One Ana is equal to 1/16th of a rupee.  Coins are minted at the four Indian Government Mints at Mumbai.  The coins above 50 paisa are called rupee coins. 25 and 50 paisa was first minted in the year 1957.  In India the Nickel coins were introduced on August 15. 20.  1.  In the year 1835 the British introduced similar currency throughout India.  Under the coinage act of 1906 coins up to the denomination of Rs. Saifabad(Hyderabad). They were banned because of the cost of minting is more than the face value. In India the silver coins were used since 600 BC.  The coins up to 50 paisa are called small coins. . 10.  The 25 paisa is also called „Chavanni‟.  At present the 50 paisa coin is the lowest denomination in the country.  During the time of independence one rupee is equal to 64 paisa.

. irrigation. Sri Krishnadevaraya (1509 – 1529) had won all the wars he waged over a span of 11 years against his enemies.  Mir Mahbub Ali Pasha (1869 – 1911) the sixth Nizam centenary of his death was commemorated on August 29.  The Parliament has approved the Nalanda University Bill 2010 and the Nalanda University will be set up at an approximate cost of 1005 crore.  Sheetal Niwas is the official residence of the President of Nepal.  The Telugu cinema industry will observe September 15 as the Telugu Cinema day remembering the day in the year 1931.  The Nalanda University was ransacked and destroyed by Turkish Muslim invaders under Bakhtiyar Khalji in 1193. Bihar.  Malaria causing parasite was discovered by Sir Ronald Ross. 2011.  The Vijayanagara emperor. when Hamumappa Muniappa Reddy produced and directed the first „talkie‟ Bhakta Prahlada in Telugu.  The Nalanda University was started during Gupta period (5 BC). B H Reddy worked as an assistant to Ardeshir Irani who created the first Indian talkie titled “Alam Ara”. He contributed to infrastructure. Ammonium Nitrate is frequently used by the terror groups for making bombs. education and administrative reforms.  The original site is located at Rajgir.  Radio tag is a tag around ankle for electronic surveillance.

 Vivek Express is the longest train service in India.  RADAR means Radio Detection and Ranging.  In AADHAR car there are 12 digits. The second match that was tied in the year 1986 between Australia and India in Chennai. It travels between Dibrugarh (Assam) and Kanya Kumari (Tamil Nadu).  Computer „Mouse‟ was developed by Dr.  Kerala is the first state in the country to switch over to e-payments of VAT. astronomy. air defense. This is the first tied match in the History of test cricket.  Murrah breed cow is known as „Pride of Haryana‟.  The longest canal in the country is the Indira Sagar Canal. Radars are extensively used in air traffic control. The train travels a . When the patent was taken the name was „X Y Position Indicator For a Display System‟. Angelbart.  Test Match tied: In the year 1960 the match that was held between Australia and West Indies at Brisbane was tied.  Cellulose is a carbohydrate that cannot be digested in the human digestive system. Shakespeare‟s last play was “The Tempest” 1610. Douglas C. The length is 635 km. meteorology and many surveillance systems.

 The vivek train from costs only Rs.  The Vivek express has 18 coaches and 52 stops. Before this. 673 by 2nd class.distance of 4286 km in 82. This is a weekly train starts on every Saturday and reaches the destination on Wednesday.30 hours. World’s longest train services:  Moscow to Vladivostok – Russia – 9259 km – 178 hrs  Moscow to Beijing via Harbin (China) – 8984 km – 144 hrs  Moscow to Beijing via Ulan Bator (Mongolia) – 7826 km – 131 hrs  Guangzhou to Lhasa (China) – 4980 km – 54.5 hrs . the Himasagar express running between Jammu Tawi and Kanyakumari had the longest run covering 3715 km.

30 hrs  Kerala is the longest run daily express with 3054 km in 42.5 hrs.  Bar Council of India was set up in the year 1961. Toronto (Canada) to Vancouver (Canada) – 4466 km – 86 hrs  Shanghai to Lhasa (China) – 4373 km – 48 hrs  Sydney to Perth – 4352 km – 65 hrs  Dibrugarh to Kanyakumari – 4286 km – 82.  Longest nonstop train Trivandrum Rajdhani express with 528 km in 6.  “Dr SMS” was launched by Kerala. .5 hrs.  “Buddhist Circuit Train” is in operation since 2007. stops along several pilgrimage sites in northern India.  Howrah – Amritsar express is the train with maximum halts with 115. This is a regulating body for the legal profession governed by the Indian Advocates Act. this is an M(Mobile)-Health information system.

Lana Peters original name was Svetlana Stalina. After the death of the Stalin in 1953 she took the mother‟s last name Alliluyeva and she was called „Svetlana Alliluyeva‟. After her marring an American she became „Lana Peters‟. grown in Japan and finally reached US. „Kudzu‟ belongs to China. The meaning of Stalin is „Man of Steel”.  Alco meter: This is a breath analyzer to check drunken driving.  Mexico is the leading producer of sulpher in the World.  „Kudzu‟ is a forest creeper in USA grows very rapidly and it covered over 1. The 42nd IFFI (International Film Festival of India) has been launched in Goa on November 23.5 lakh acres in 1 ½ years.  Stalin‟s daughter.  The casting of Television first started in United Kingdom. Sindh and Nile rivers are the examples for Exotica rivers.  Exotica: These are the rivers that flow in deserts.  South America is called „Bird Continent‟.  The original name of Josef Stalin is “Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili”.  Chile is the leading producer of Nitrates in the World. 2011. .

500/3.800 2. .  The current monthly allowances given to the heroes of the war.100/1.) 10.  The New Delhi is the architectural brilliance of Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker.000/5.500/-  The Gateway of India (Mumbai) was built 100 years ago to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary prior to the Delhi Durbar.  Award  Param Vira Chakra  Asoka Chakra  Maha Vira Chakra  Kirti Chakra  Vira Chakra  Shourya Chakra Current (Rs.500/3.700/1.000/Previoulsy (Rs.000/6.000/4.400/2. On December 12.000/2.) 3. 1911 King George V announced at the Great Coronation Durbar in Delhi: “ We have decided upon the transfer of the seat of the government of India from Calcutta to the ancient capital of Delhi”.

 The MRC (Madras Regiment Centre) is the oldest regiment in Indian Army. 1924 by the Viceroy the Earl of Reading.  The Gate way was officially opened on December 4. 1758 at Chennapatnam (Chennai).  The Thilafushi. an artificial island in Maldives is nicknamed Rubbish Island.  The MRC is the only regime that was not bifurcated after Indian attaining the independence. The information held in the DNA determines how inherited features or traits are passed down from one generation to the other. Sir George Sydenham Clarke. (This is one of the most profound discoveries in 20th century). Madras troops fought in the battle of seringapatnam and battle of Assaye under Arthur Wellington. It was raised on December 4. The MRC was raised when 2 battalions were raised under Colonel Robert Clive consequent to the siege of Fort St. (For the accumulation of the garbage). The foundation stone for Gate Way of India was laid down in March 1911 by the Governor of Bombay. George by the French.  DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a molecular substance that contains basic genetic instructions responsible for the development and functioning of living organisms. .

 The first metro rail in the World started in London on January 10. This is followed by Delhi metro in 2002 and Namma Metro in Bangalore in October 2011.  The Shanghai Metro (China) is the World‟s longest metro in the World.  The Channel tunnel that links the UK and France is the longest underwater rail tunnel in the World.  In India the first underground rapid transport system started in 1984 in Kolkata.  New York‟s first underground subsystem became operational in 1904. 1863.  The first deep level Tube Train that ran on electricity became operational in 1890 in London. This owes its existence to Charles Pearson (Solicitor to the City of London Corporation).3 lakh tones every year.  New Delhi is the first city in India to begin screening for the „Silent Killer‟ Hepatitis C. London underground today known as Tube.  The Tokyo Metro is the busiest in terms of annual passengers. This measured 6 Km and ran between Paddington and Farringdon street.9 km.  The Delhi Metro is the only Metro to get Carbon Credits from the United Nations for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 6.  Rashtrapathi Bhavan: . It measures 37.  China has over taken India as the “Diabetes Capital‟ of the World.

Defense gallantry awards ceremony takes place here. .  The construction was started in the year 1912 and completed in the year 1929 and in 1931 the Viceroy of India Lord Irwin was the first occupant. queens. In these lawns the President hosts the „At Home‟ on the Indian Republic day and Independence Day.  Mughal gardens: This is 13 acre garden built in 3 levels. National Awards ceremony takes place here.  Children‟s Museum: The weighing machine gives the weight of the person on the Moon and every planet in the universe. (This is like SEBI in India).  Marble Hall: the portraits and sculptures of various kings.  Durbar Hall: Also known as Throne room. viceroys.  FSA (Financial Services Authority) is the Britain‟s financial regulator.  Initially it was called viceroy‟s House. He mixed the Indian. Mughal and European styles of architecture.  Banquet Hall: The portraits of all the Presidents of India are placed here. This was built by the British Architect Edwin Landseer Lutyens.  Ball Room: Now it is called Asoka room. In the year 1950 the name was changed to „Rashtrapathi Bhavan‟. governor generals and other important personalities are displayed.

1961 the Defence Minister Mr V K Krishna Menon.  Solar Industry: In the year 2007 to put up 1 MW solar power plant.  RAW (Research and Analysis Wing) is India‟s external intelligence agency.  T B D‟Cunha is considered to be the „Father of Goa‟s liberation movement‟.  IVRS means Interactive Voice Response System. the Director of Goa based National Centre for Antarctica and Ocean Research (NCAOR).  After taking control over Daman and Diu on December 18. 10 crore. it cost Rs. There are 2 methods to produce power through solar . Rasik Ravindra. Now it costs less than Rs. 21 crore. The first Indian expedition successfully reached the South Pole on November 22. commanding the 17th division of the Indian Army in the Goa operations (Operation Vijay) as the Military Governor of Goa. The first persons to reach South Pole successfully are Roald Amundsen‟s and Robert Scott‟s (99 years ago). This was formed in the year 1967. has designated Major-General Kenneth Candeth.  It is elementary Physics that when light falls on certain semiconducting material like silicon.  Army day – January 15  US Embassy in Iraq is the largest American diplomatic facility in the World. its energy knocks off electrons of the atoms which can be made to flow and the flow is electricity. 2010. The team was led by Dr.

 India‟s total capacity of power from all the sources is 2.  „Xoloitzcuintle‟ is a rare hairless dog. Humor.system Panel way and Mirror way.  The „Papier mache‟ is an art that is introduced in India by the Mughals. Disgust. 000 MW from the grid connected to solar plants and addition 2. Fear.  The study of Fungi is called Mycology. This is written on the rail locomotives.000 MW from non-grid.  Navarasas are the 9 basic emotions. 000 (two lakh) MW. Under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (one of the 8 mission covered under the National Action Plan for Climate Change) the target is to creation of a capacity of 20.  Queen Elizabeth II is the oldest living monarch of United Kingdom. The French is the first European country to learn this art. This is a paper art.00.  WAP stands for Wide AC Passenger. Mercy.  At present India is producing only 186 MW from the solar plants.  Cyclones are called „Willy-Willies‟ by Australians. The craftsmen of Kashmir are the first to learn this. Love. Peace. This will increase to 1300 MW by the year 2013. She surpassed the record of Queen Victoria in the year 2007. Valour and Wonder. Angry. .

(This happened in the year 2011). General budget and agriculture budget.  The paper industry that manufactures the paper for the printing of currency notes is located in Hoshangabad. Buddhists and Zoroastrians were included in the act as minorities. 1992. A power cable was laid on the sea bed.  Alexander Graham Bell made the first telephone call on March 10. Sikhs.  Indians contributed decimal system and Zero.  Minorities: This is mentioned in the National Minority Commission Act. . This term was coined during a study conducted by the U K Post Office. 1876 to Watson and requested for medical aid. The RBI is planning to set up another industry in Mysore.  Johannes Gutenberg invented the movable type for a printing press around 1439. Christians.  Nomophobia: This is an abbreviation for no-mobile-phone-phobia. Bone to Bone connection is called Ligament.  Karnataka is the first state in the country to introduce 2 budgets. Muslims.  On December 20. 1961 the commercial operation of the cross channel power link between Britain and France was inaugurated. This enabled Britain and France to draw on each other‟s electricity supplies at periods of peak demands.  Every 6th human and every 5th mobile phone on this planet is in India.

 The government has banned the export of rice in the year 2008. 1/.  For the year 2010 – 2011 (July to June) the total production of the food grains is 24. SBI is the first bank in the country to introduce „Bank on Bike” facilities. This was initiated in the Sangaraddy mandal of Medak district in Andhra Pradesh. 1030/.  For the year 2011-12 the MSP (Minimum Support Price) to the Paddy has been increased from Rs.  In August 2011 the RBI decided to withdraw Nickel 50 paisa and Rs.to Rs.  Albert Einstein is considered to be the founder of Modern Physics. This is meant for providing the banking services to the people in the rural areas. 2011 the RBI banned the usage of 25 paisa coins. 100/-. 1000/. In April 2011 the government increased the same to Rs. .from grade „A‟ type. 1080/.to Rs. 115/-.16 crore tonnes.for normal grade and from Rs. In July 2011 the government lifted the ban rice. (this does not include Basmati). he developed the theory of general relativity. This is a new record in the country. 1110/.coins from the market and to issue steel coins of the same.  From July 1.  The Minimum wage in India is Rs.

.  IGNOU (Indira Gandhi National Open University) locate in New Delhi. The Travancore University (now called University of Kerala) was set up in the year 1937. „Tokelau‟ a non-self-governing territory of New Zealand that also skipped December 30 because of the changes in the time zone alignment). is the largest university in the World. The fledgling university offered Einstein the post of Vice-Chancellor who rejected politely.  Mahatma Gandhi performed his last hunger strike on January 12.  W3C stands for World Wide Web Consortium.  On December 29. (Apart from „Samoa‟.  Nepal is the only country in the World with National Flag that is taller than wider. 2011 „Samoa‟ the South pacific Island that was 21 hours behind Sydney became 3 hours ahead.  Kalki is the 10th avatar of Lord Vishnu sitting on white horse.  Param Vir Chakra is the Indian equivalent of Pakistan‟s „Nishsn-e-Haideer‟. 1948 for the integrity of Hindus and Muslims.  „Jude‟ the apostle (disciple) of Jesus was also known as „Thaddeus‟.  “Dandaniti” means a legitimate use of violence.

500 model schools in the country during 12th five year plan.  A Giraffe sleeps only 10 minutes a day.  The Lords cricket ground in UK is named after the famous cricketer Thomas Lord. The center of the gravity present of the plane lied somewhere in the middle of the fuselage which is close to the rear wheels.  Chennai beach is the longest beach in the country.  Scotland of East: Shillong (Meghalaya) is called Scotland of East. The airplane lands first on rear wheels and not on front or nose wheels.  Uday Kumar designed the new symbol of Rupee for India. The SIT is headed by Justice B P Jeevan Reddy. In the manufacturing of tires charcoal powder is mixed to avoid more elasticity. This is considered to be the fastest computer in the World.  An Air craft is equipped with tricycle under carriage type landing gear front or nose wheels and rear wheels.  K-Computer is designed and developed by Japan. .  The government of India is planning to set up 2. This also helps in the more stiffness of the tires.  The supreme court of India constituted SIT (Special Investigation Team) to investigate on black money.

one each in December and January. Polio: The year 2000 was the target date for global eradication of set by World Health Assembly in the year 1988.  In India over 95 percent of cases occurred in UP and Bihar arguably the World‟s most difficult spots for eradication. The PPI target was the year 2005.  Of the 3 types of polio viruses type 2 was globally eradicated in the year 1999 with the last case seen in East UP and West Bihar.  India started battle against polio virus in late 1970‟s. In 1985 India became a part of the global programme. The OPV is cheaper. Pakistan. Afghanistan and Nigeria.  The preventive methods are IPV (Inactivated Polio Virus Vaccine) and OPV (Oral Poliovirus vaccine).000 crore on PPI. India.  The PPI (Pulse Polio Initiative) in India was launched in the year 1995-96 through OPV. . This is given on 2 days. India spent more than 12.  Olive Ridley Turtles: They are present in the Rushikulya roorkey caost in Ganjam district of South Odisha.  Beyond 2005 the polio virus continued in 4 countries.

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