Required knowledge and skills: linear functions

Overview
1. Linear function: function whose equation is linear, i.e. has the form y = mx + b , where m ≠ 0 2. Graph of a linear function: straight line a. drawing the graph when the equation is given b. setting up the equation when the graph is given (see also item 5) 3. Interpretation of the coefficient m in the equation y = mx + b a. slope of the line b. rate of change: if x increases by 1 unit, then y changes by m units c. difference quotient: m =

∆y y 2 − y1 = , where P1 ( x1 , y1 ) and P2 ( x 2 , y 2 ) are points on the ∆x x 2 − x1

line d. sign of m determines whether line is increasing or decreasing e. absolute value of m determines how steep the line is f. parallel lines have equal slopes g. slopes of perpendicular lines have product equal to –1 4. Interpretation of the coefficient b in the equation y = mx + b a. b is y-intercept b. b is function value of 0 c. b = 0 iff origin is on the line 5. Setting up the equation of a line a. if slope m and one point P ( x 0 , y 0 ) are given: y − y 0 = m( x − x 0 ) b. if two points are given 6. Linear equations: a. solving linear equations b. solving other equations leading to a linear equation c. (graphical) interpretation of the solution of a linear equation: solution of equation mx + b = 0 i. is x-intercept of the corresponding line ii. is the zero of the corresponding linear function 7. Linear inequalities a. solving linear inequalities b. graphical interpretation of linear inequalities i. solutions of mx + b > 0 form interval where corresponding line is above the horizontal axis ii. solutions of m1 x + b1 > m 2 x + b2 form interval where the line corresponding to left hand side is above the line corresponding to right hand side 8. Implicit equation of a line: ax + by + c = 0 or, equivalently, ax + by = d , (where a and b are not simultaneously 0); horizontal and vertical lines 9. Graphical interpretation of the solution of a system of two linear equations: intersection point of the lines corresponding to the equations 10. Applications and word problems involving linear functions, more specifically: setting up an equation for one or more linear functions given a description in words and using these equations to solve a 1

Make a graph showing the price of taxi rides for a distance between 0 and 10 km. Example 5. how many units of the product will be sold in 2010? sales 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 Example 9. Which of the following functions are linear? Moreover. The cost of c of producing q units of a certain good consists of two parts. The cost c of a taxi ride of x km is given by the equation c = 5 + 0. The graph below shows how many units of this product were sold in the years 2004 to 2007.problem by calculating a function value. y = x 3 B. D. A new product was launched in 2004. … Examples Example 1.8 x . y = x(3 x − 5) − 3 x 2 H. Find the intersection point of the lines 2 x + 3 y = 4 and 3 x − 2 y = 4 . Example 4. A first electricity company charges a fixed rate of 100 EUR per year and 0. but charges 0. Example 10. solving a linear equation. A second company has no fixed rate.2 EUR per kilowatt-hour of electricity consumed. F. 1) and Q (1. There is a fixed cost of 280 EUR. 2) . Example 8. Are the lines 2 x + 3 y = 4 and 3 x − 2 y = 4 perpendicular to each other? Example 6. Example 3. in case the function is linear.5) . C. If the sales continue increasing in the same way. find out whether the function is increasing or decreasing.22 EUR per 2 . solving a linear inequality. 2) and R (0. E. 4. Find the equation of the line through the origin and perpendicular to the line having equation y = 2x + 3 . Find the equation of the line through the points P ( 2. Example 7. plus a variable cost of 3 EUR per unit produced. Find the equation of the line through the point P ( 2. 1) and parallel to the line through Q (5. A. Write an equation giving the cost c in terms of the number q of units produced. y − 3 x = 5 Example 2. y =3x y =3x −5 y =− 5 y = −2(3 x − 5) y = x(3 x − 5) G. solving a system of linear equations.

5 x + 2 0. C (increasing).kilowatt-hour consumed.5 x Example 4. yearly consumption below 5000 kilowatt-hours 3 . y = −x + 3 Example 3. see graph below cost 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 km Example 10.  Example 6. E (decreasing). H (increasing) Example 2. intersection point has coordinates   13 13  Example 7. 16 000 Example 9. B (increasing). Find out for which yearly consumption of electricity the second company is cheaper than the first one. yes  20 4  . y =− Example 5. y = −0. Solutions to the examples Example 1. G (decreasing). c = 280 + 3q Example 8.