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CLASSIFICATIONS Each drug can be categorized under a broad subcategory, or categories, called classifications.

Drugs that affect the body in similar ways are listed in the same classification. Examples of some drug classifications adrenergics anesthetics antibiotics antihistamines electrolytes tranquilizers antitussives cholinergics hypnotics decongestants laxatives diuretics sedatives

hydrochloride HCL

xamide tetracycline (Richlyn)

LEGAL TERMS REFERRING TO DRUGS 1. OTC 2. Legend drug 3. Controlled substance

TERMS INDICATING DRUG ACTIONS > > > > > Indications Actions Contraindications Side Effects and Adverse Reactions Interactions

emetics vasodilators

General information associate with drugs of that classification: > Therapeutic uses > Most common side effects > Precautions to be used > Contraindications > Interactions that may occur when taken other drugs or foods > Some of the most common product names, usual dosages, and comments on administration IDENTIFYING NAMES Four terms apply to various titles of a drug: 1. Generic Name 2. Trade Name 3. Chemical Name 4. Official Name Generic Name Chemical Name Trade Name

SOURCES OF DRUGS > > > > Plants Minerals Animals Synthetic

EFFECTS OF DRUGS 1. Systemic effect 2. Local effect drug table ABSORPTION 1. ph 2. lipid (fat) solubility 3. Presence or absence of food in the stomach OTHER VARIABLES > Age > Weight > Sex >Psychological State placebo a inactive substance that resembles a medication, although no drug is present. Example: A sugar tablet or saline solution for injection may be used as a placebo in a research study program DRUG INTERACTIONS

(Drug Company) 4-dimethylaminoAchromycin V 12 aoctahydro(Lederle Labs) 12a pentahydroxyl-6-methyl-1 Sumycin 11-dioxi-2 naphthacenecarbo(Apothecon) tetracycline 4, hydrochloride 3,6,10,12,

Whenever more than one drug is taken, it is possible that the combination may alter the normal expected response of each individual drug. One drug may interact with another to increase, decrease, or cancel out the effects of the other. > Synergism > Potentiation > Antagonism > > > > > > Desirable synergism Undesirable synergism Desirable potentiation undesirable potentiation desirable antagonism undesirable antagonism

Effect from material drug administration that causes the development of physical defects in a fetus Idiosyncrasy Unique, unusual response to a drug. For example, a patient may have an idiosyncrasy to a particular tranquilizer if it causes agitation and excitement rather than tranquility Paradoxical Opposite effect from that expected Tolerance Decreased response to a drug that develops after repeated doses are given. To achieve desired effect, the drug dosage must be increased or the drug replaced. Dependence Acquired need for a drug that may produce psychological or physical symptoms of withdrawal when the drug is discontinued Hypersensitivity Immune response (allergy) to a drug may be of varying degrees

DOSAGE-amount of drug given for a particular therapeutic or desired effect Terms of various dosage levels 1. Minimum dose 2. Maximum dose 3. Loading dose 4. Maintenance dose 5. Toxic dose 6. Lethal dose 7. Therapeutic dose ROUTE 1. GI tract routes Oral (PO) Nasogastric tube (NG) Rectal (R) 2. Parenteral routes, which include any other than gastrointestinal tract Sublingual (SL) or buccal Injection routes Intravenous (IV) Intramuscular (IM) Subcutaneous (subQ) Intradermal (ID) Intracardiac, Intraspinal, Intracapsular 3. Topical (T) Dermal (D) Mucosal Inhalation UNEXPECTED RESPONSES TO DRUGS adverse drug effects Teratogenic effect