Glossary

Action-research. An iterative process of diagnosis, planning, action, evaluation, and reflection. Adaptive management. “A structured, iterative process of optimal decision making in the face of uncertainty, with an aim to reducing uncertainty over time via system monitoring” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_ management). Adaptive management functions as a tool for learning as well as change within a system: As new information emerges, the system uses it (actively or passively) to change its operations and improve outcomes over the long term. The management process includes present and future stakeholders, bases iterative decision making on the results of monitoring (learning), and regards uncertainty as a means of improving understanding. Advisory services. Agricultural advisory services can be defined as the entire set of organizations that support and facilitate people engaged in agricultural production to solve problems and to obtain information, skills, and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being. See also agricultural extension. Agricultural education and learning (AEL). A variation on agricultural education and training that reflects a more student-centered approach to formal programs. Agricultural education and training (AET). Organized programs and activities that serve the need for information, knowledge, and skills among those who work in various parts of the agriculture sector and the broader rural space. An AET system typically consists of tertiary educational institutions (agricultural universities or faculties and col-

leges of agriculture within comprehensive universities) in addition to the polytechnics, institutes, or colleges that prepare technicians at the diploma level (postsecondary, subdegree level). This second category of education, often termed agricultural technical–vocational education and training (ATVET), technical–vocational education and training (TVET), or vocational education and training (VET), prepares technicians in a variety of specializations in agriculture subsectors. Some secondary schools offer agriculture as an elective. Agricultural training, frequently in training centers or training institutes, is offered to public employees as in-service training and/or to farmers as farmer training. Although the various elements in the AET delivery chain are often referred to collectively as a “system,” they do not necessarily form a robust system in which communication and feedback flow between institutions and allow for continuous improvements. Many countries divide responsibility for AET between the ministries of agriculture and education. Agricultural extension. The entire set of organizations that support and facilitate people engaged in agricultural production to solve problems and to obtain information, skills, and technologies to improve their livelihoods and well-being. Agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS). A system that links people and institutions to promote mutual learning and generate, share, and utilize agriculturerelated technology, knowledge, and information. The system integrates farmers, agricultural educators, researchers,

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and extensionists to harness knowledge and information from various sources for improved livelihoods. Farmers are at the heart of this knowledge triangle. Agricultural innovation system (AIS). A network of organizations, enterprises, and individuals focused on bringing new products, new processes, and new forms of organization into economic use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behavior and performance. Agricultural technical–vocational education and training (ATVET). See agricultural education and training. Business development services (BDS). A range of nonfinancial services provided by public and private suppliers to entrepreneurs, who use them to operate more efficiently and expand their businesses. BDSs can include training, consultancy, and advisory services, marketing assistance, information, technology development and transfer, and business linkage promotion. Business incubators. Programs designed to accelerate the successful development of entrepreneurial activities through an array of business support resources and services, developed and orchestrated by incubator management and offered both in the incubator and through its network of contacts. Incubators vary in the way they deliver their services, in their organizational structure, and in the types of clients they serve. Central nodes. In the terminology of social network analysis, well-connected partners who pull promising new entrants into networks and collaborate with a wide assortment of partners, exposing them to more experiences, different competencies, and added opportunities. By linking clusters of network actors, the central nodes facilitate flows of information and resources. Innovation brokers are particularly prepared to become central nodes. Change agent. See innovation broker. Commercialization or commercial services. A focus in the agricultural research and extension system on commercial crops or the provision of services for specific cash crops such as tobacco or cotton. Commodity extension. An extension system focused on one cash crop, for which advice and inputs are provided by one institution. Competitive research grants (CRGs). Grants that fund research based on national competition and scientific peer review. Transparent procedures are used to select the proposals that will receive funding, based on rigorous criteria. Well-designed grants can bring greater contestability to the innovation process; the funding may not necessarily flow to the traditional recipients. Grants can promote research partnerships, leverage research resources, and help to develop a more efficient, demanddriven, and pluralistic research system by involving

clients in setting priorities and financing, executing, and evaluating research. See matching grants. Contracting. When one organization contracts with another to perform a function or service. Contracting in occurs when research, extension, and other government agricultural services provide services for an external group, such as a nongovernmental organization or a private organization. Contracting out is when government hires an external organization to perform services. Cooperative extension. An extension model developed in the U.S. university system, in which universities, linked to the extension system, produce research results that are disseminated to farmers. Cost sharing. When users of services pay at least a partial amount of the cost. Decentralization. Moving responsibility and/or funding of public governmental services to local administrative levels such as districts. Decentralization can take many forms, such as deconcentration (accountability remains within the Department of Agriculture), devolution to local governments (accountability is transferred from central to locally elected governments), or delegation to semiautonomous services. Demand articulation. Identifying the needs of different user groups for the knowledge and information produced by agricultural research organizations or the services (credit, advice) provided by other types of organizations. Downstream research. Usually refers to research that adapts a technology (agronomic practice, new variety) to a particular country’s or locality’s needs. Sometimes called applied or adaptive research. Economies of scale. In agricultural research, economies of scale occur when the cost per unit of research output falls with the number of units of output produced, usually through better use of major fixed investment or specialized skills. Economies of scope. In agricultural research, economies of scope occur when the cost of a desired output falls with an increase in the number of different research outputs being produced. These gains occur when there is crosscommodity or cross-disciplinary learning as an external economy. Embedded services. Companies provide information with the inputs they sell or other products they market. Enabling environment. The environment (political, regulatory, institutional, economic, and social) that supports, promotes, and sustains a given outcome. For agricultural innovation, an enabling environment comprises those factors that influence agricultural innovation positively but are controlled by policy domains other than agricultural innovation policy itself.

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GLOSSARY

Farm business schools. Schools that facilitate learning on production, management, business finance, and marketing skills. Farm business schools and cooperatives have an important learning role in promoting entrepreneurship among farmers, but initially they require external facilitation. Farmer organization or producer organization. An organization constituted by farmers who seek solutions to production or commercial problems. Some agricultural services focus on providing extension, conducting research, or offering other services through these organizations. Farmer field school. A participatory method of learning, technology development, and dissemination based on adult-learning principles such as experiential learning. Typically groups of 20–25 farmers meet weekly in an informal setting on their farms with a facilitator. The defining characteristics of farmer field schools include discovery learning, farmer experimentation, and group action. This interactive, practical training method empowers farmers to be their own technical experts on major aspects of their farming systems. Farmers are facilitated to conduct their own research, diagnose and test problems, devise solutions, and disseminate their learning to others. Farmer field school networks. Networks of informal or formal groupings with a common interest that draw their membership from all the farmer field schools within a given geographic or administrative boundary. Farming systems research and extension (FSRE). System of research and extension that is focused on understanding the farming systems of small-scale farmers through applied, multidisciplinary, on-farm, farmer-centered research. Fee for service. The provision of services for a cost by government, nongovernmental, or private organizations. Genetically engineered. A genetically engineered or modified organism in which the genetic material has been transformed using the techniques of genetic engineering. These techniques combine DNA molecules from different sources into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This recombined DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel genes. Transgenic organisms, a subset of genetically modified organisms, carry DNA that originated in a different species. Examples include cotton that has been genetically transformed to resist a particular herbicide. Many countries strictly control the production, use, export, and import of genetically modified plants and animals. (Based on http://en.wiki pedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism.) Going concern. An enterprise that is expected to generate sufficient revenues and manage its resources in a manner

that will allow it to remain in business for an indefinite period. Governance. The systems and practices that governments use to set priorities and agendas, design and implement policies, and obtain knowledge about their impacts. Also refers to any systems and practices performing the same function at the subnational level (provincial research institutes, input subsidy programs) and in smaller institutions (farmer organizations, irrigation schemes). Green revolution. The enormous increases in cereal production resulting from the adoption of high-yielding wheat, maize, and rice varieties, grown under irrigation with fertilizer and other inputs, across large areas of Asia and Latin America from the 1960s to 1980s. Group-based approach. Extension programs that work with farmer groups or other common interest groups. Industry clusters. Agglomerations of strongly interdependent firms (including specialized suppliers) linked to each other in a value-adding production chain, service providers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Some clusters encompass strategic alliances with universities, research institutes, knowledge-intensive business services, bridging institutions (brokers, consultants), and customers. Cluster-based approaches for business development and innovation have increased agricultural productivity, innovation, and business formation. Information and communications technology (ICT). The wide and growing array of modern communications technology such as the Internet, e-mail, electronic databases, mobile phones and telephones, computers, personal digital devices, radio-frequency infrared devices, and the related infrastructure to support it (wireless networks, fiber-optic cable, and so on). Innovation. An invention that is used for the first time in a product that reaches the market or produces a change in a social process. An innovation that is well known elsewhere may still be regarded as an innovation if it is new locally. Innovation brokers. Teams of specialists that combine a strong background in science with knowledge of business and commercialization and/or the creation of innovation networks. Innovation brokers are also known as change agents or technology brokers. Innovation capabilities. The skills to build and integrate internal and external resources to address problems or take advantage of opportunities. Innovation capabilities depend not only on innovative individuals but also on internal features of an organization, especially incentives, cultures, organizational spaces for experimentation, coordinating structures, and collective action.

GLOSSARY

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often by including multiple stakeholders.org/wiki/Intellectual_property. and trade secrets. Examples of these services include training and advisory services. organizing many producers and intermediaries. They evolve with market opportunities and the technologies they develop. See innovation network. trademarks. deciding who participates in the chain. Innovation networks are a special form of organization with a nonhierarchical structure. fruits. stable relations. access to the chain is highly restricted. Intellectual property law grants owners of intellectual property (creations of the mind) certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets. and social capital) can survive in the highly competitive environment of modern marketing chains. Learning alliances contribute to improved development outcomes because lessons are more quickly identified and learned and because stronger links among research organizations and other actors in the AIS improve the focus on research and development practices. and setting quality and safety standards. consensus-based coordination (because members are free to leave the network at any time). Innovation platform. among others—in such a way that together they create an environment that enables and stimulates innovation. By focusing greater attention on demand and use from the very beginning. economic policy. and justice policy. markets. such as musical. The underlying assumptions in an intervention that link intervention inputs with expected outcomes. literary. Invention.) Intervention logic. Innovation network. industrial design rights. and marketing extension. education policy. The entities responsible within a given country for organizing. (Based on http://en. Growth based on innovative technologies. matching grants may be more effective than competitive research grants at enhancing the use of technology and knowledge by farmers and other entrepreneurs. Marketing chain. Learning alliance. Also referred to as value-chain oriented services. phrases. and technologies are generated mostly in developed countries and imposed by the leading agent. overseeing all the links from the farm to the shelf. industrial policy. Services that improve the performance of a small-scale enterprise oriented to agricultural production. market-oriented agricultural advisory services. Innovation networks differ from value chains in that the latter are more stable. Only farmers with strong capabilities for innovation (especially entrepreneurship. financial services. See tangible property rights. coordinating. 632 GLOSSARY . Overarching policies coordinating a wide spectrum of policy domains—science and technology policy. a collaboration-based culture. and words. A process-driven approach that facilitates the development of shared knowledge among different actors. discoveries and inventions. defining the nature of the interactions and commercial conditions. Matching grants increasingly promote near-market technology generation. technology transfer and adoption. technology. Other important features of modern marketing chains are that they focus on marketing specific products (such as vegetables. An invention becomes an innovation only when it is first used in a product that reaches the market or produces a change in a social process. private economic activity.wikipedia. processes. patents. be it individual or cooperative. and overall innovation. The creation of knowledge. Intellectual property rights (IPRs). Modern marketing chains for agricultural crops have many features of buyer-driven value chains: an actor close to consumers (usually a supermarket or broker) dominates. taxation policy. usually no legal personality (especially in their early stages). meat). and often relatively fuzzy objectives (such as improving the management of natural resources). infrastructure policy. or organizational arrangements rather than on large additional uses of natural resources. National innovation policy. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights. Matching grants. or executing research that contributes explicitly to the development of the country’s agriculture and maintenance of its natural resource base. basically by attracting users of technologies and knowledge in partnerships (and requiring a matching commitment). and enhanced agribusiness environments. and business linkage information. equipment. market information services. symbols. and are coordinated by a central actor. Local agribusiness development services. products. are focused on delivering a product or service. Innovation networks differ from farmer organizations in that farmer organizations have a homogeneous membership and more formal. verbal contracts based on trust are common but informal transactions rare.Innovation-led growth. Innovation networks are also known as innovation platforms. The matching of funds from the granting organization (usually a public agency) with funds from the beneficiary. A diverse group of actors that voluntarily contribute knowledge and other resources (such as money. and land) to develop jointly or improve a social or economic process or product. and designs. Sector-specific innovation policies (such as a policy for agricultural innovation) replicate the national innovation policy’s overarching and coordinating nature but have considerably less political clout to influence policies outside their domains. physical and financial resources. in accessing markets. and artistic works. National agricultural research system (NARS).

or technological needs or opportunities. organic.Niche markets. In agricultural research. governance. or a new product derived from a traditional crop. A farmer operating under a formal or informal agreement (often a contract) to grow produce for a commercial agricultural enterprise (for example. harrowing. provide food security. A small. amaranth. and communications routines (whether they are hierarchical or allow individual exploration of opportunities and horizontal communication). Examples include innovation platforms. a sugarcane processor) or a large-scale farmer. and using this knowledge to develop innovations that address commercial. Participatory or demand-driven approaches. or other products certified to have particular qualities. Organizational interface. Outgrowers may receive credit and advice from the processor. the propensity to interact and cooperate with other actors in the AIS. See farmer organization. protect the environment. learning routines (the heuristics and methods used for collectively accepting new ideas and procedures). and/or diffusion of an innovation. These approaches include methods such as farmer field schools and farmer research groups. no-till requires only one or two passes for spraying herbicide and seeding. and risks to achieve a match of interests and jointly deliver products and services. planking. and well-defined subset of the market on which a particular product focuses. Extension system based on multiple service providers. and farmers’ participation in these markets depends on whether they can meet those requirements. Organizational abilities for innovation include maintaining specialized knowledge. Extension systems run by NGOs. An organization can be either formal or informal. including frequent exchanges of information. they can make only a limited contribution to alleviating poverty. including public. in which the focus is often on demand-driven. developing a long-term vision for the organization. PPPs in agricultural research can be set up not only to generate knowledge via research but also to foster the diffusion and application of knowledge among private actors (agribusiness. no-till requires less-powerful tractors and reduces equipment depreciation. GLOSSARY 633 . Public-private partnerships. The abilities of the organization’s members and the organization’s key characteristics. Organization. and joint implementation of innovation projects. creativity. Usually the partnership agreement is in the form of a contract that establishes each partner’s commitments and the distribution of benefits. absorbing information generated by other agents (also called the absorptive capacity). adaptation. specific. Services run for profit. Nongovernmental organization (NGO) extension. social. For this reason. small-scale growers of particular kinds of produce purchased directly by consumers in a nearby city. and extension agencies). and commitment to the organization. Method of research and/or extension focused on bottom-up approaches and empowerment of clientele. Collaboration may take different forms. Growth associated with a range of additional public goods that especially reduce extreme poverty. joint priority setting for policies and programs. No-till agriculture. not necessarily for cash crops only. Conventional tillage practices involve multiple tractor passes to accomplish plowing. At least one public and one private organization share resources. Organizational capabilities for innovation. keeping soil covered. knowledge. An organization’s key characteristics include its culture. Full transfer of ownership (usually by sale) from government to a private entity. Privatized research or extension services. Outgrower. Privatization. Pluralistic extension. In addition to reducing the number of operations. Niche markets can be considered a form of innovation network. and the availability of resources for the development of innovations (capital and specialized assets). private. or sustain the growth process itself. Some niches have more demanding quality and commercial requirements than others. An agronomic practice in which crops are planted in previously unprepared soil by opening a narrow slot or trench of the smallest width and depth needed to obtain proper coverage of the seed. and seeding operations. Although niche markets have had important impacts on local communities. A group of actors that collaborate over a sustained period. and public-private partnerships. participatory approaches. PPPs bring together partners with different skills and knowledge to contribute jointly to the generation. and using crop rotations—the actual packages differ greatly by location. Qualitative growth. value-chain approaches. Modalities that help to transform knowledge and information produced by research organizations into socially and economically relevant goods and services. and civil society organizations. Examples include markets for fair trade. and acai are three of many kinds). organizational. Producer organizations. narrow structural inequalities. creating new knowledge. farmers) and public actors (universities. they cannot expand beyond a certain size without becoming commoditized. often in a project mode and focused on participatory methods. research institutes. a new market for a traditional product (quinoa. While no-till principles are the same everywhere—entailing minimal soil disturbance.

although it can stimulate and leverage private investment in the sector. establishment. membership in other groups. multinational companies. Technical regulations include import bans (total or partial). Venture capital funds will not only provide money but will mentor their investee firms. for example plasmids or vectors. another company) or an initial public offering in which the company becomes authorized to sell its stock to the general public on a stock exchange. drink. or groups of companies. pests. (3) animal or plant life from pests. run by central government. See standards. Rural productive alliance. and requirements for labeling and claims. Money explicitly available for investment into a high-risk business or a security of some type—typically those that are not publicly traded on any national stock exchange. such as credit and fertilizer facilities.Risk capital. public investment cannot meet the needs. A document approved by a recognized body that provides. toxins. A system of extension management with a focus on improving technical knowledge of extension agents and regular visits to farms. Social capital facilitates coordination and cooperation. Theory of change. Programs focused on disseminating information and new technologies. See intellectual property rights. Technology broker. and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. Vocational education and training (VET). with which compliance is mandatory. and ties to external service providers. consisting of social networks and associated norms that have an effect on community productivity and wellbeing. Examples include the development and introduction of minimum social and environmental standards for agricultural or forestry products. and disease-causing organisms. including the applicable administrative provisions. In this sourcebook. and feedstuffs. and (4) a country from other damage caused by the entry. See innovation broker. and the buyer’s contribution (such as technical assistance. payment modalities and price determination criteria. Standard. quantity to be produced or bought. The set of linked activities pursued by the different actors that a firm organizes to produce and market a product. Value chain. A narrow view of social capital regards it as a set of horizontal associations between people. often through applied agricultural research integrated with institutional innovations in farmer organization and marketing. risk capital refers to investment in a company or project at an early or high-risk stage. or characteristics for products or related processes and production methods. Returns on venture capital investment are from a trade sale (sale to. See venture capital. Extension focused on increasing agricultural productivity. Traditional extension system (general extension). 634 GLOSSARY Strategic alliances. information requirements. Regulations that specify product characteristics or their related processes and production methods. intragroup trust. Such programs often include an integrated approach in which technology is pushed as a package deal with the requisite institutional support. for common and repeated use. Venture capital is a form of private equity provided for early-stage and more mature companies with substantial market potential. See also marketing chain. and when. Tangible property rights. Social networks can increase productivity by reducing the costs of doing business. Venture capital. Such measures include national control of contaminants. diseases. production modalities (such as how a product will be delivered. specific inputs. and diseases (vaccination programs. or disease organisms in food. by whom. as well as grading and packing requirements). to protect: (1) human or animal health from risk arising from additives. Training and visit (T&V). using a top-down approach and often emphasizing the transfer of technology. An economic agreement between formally organized producers and at least one buyer. Private investors are the major sources of risk capital. See agricultural education and training. and arrangements for input reimbursement—for example. This quality is strong within mature groups with strong internal institutions. packaging standards. Measures. or merger with. including regulations and agreements. Transfer of technology (TOT). fair trade arrangements. Value-chain approach. (2) human life from risks associated with diseases carried by plants or animals. limits on pesticide residues in food) as well as international controls to prevent their inadvertent spread (for example. guidelines. The set of rights defined by law that relate to a physical object. rules. contaminants. Social capital. Partnerships that usually involve longterm cooperation (10 or more years). at the time of sale). with which compliance is not mandatory. See standards and technical regulations. the rejection of insectinfested food shipments that pose a risk to domestic food production). See technical regulations. relationships. Technical regulations. which specifies product characteristics (such as size and varieties to be produced). technical specifications (process and product standards). or spread of pests. and similar ambitious programs. See risk capital. Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) protection. The underlying assumptions in an intervention that link intervention inputs with expected outcomes. altruistic behavior. Attention to improving efficiency along the value chain for a particular agricultural commodity. . Increasing evidence shows that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. The institutions.

(Link Ltd. Catholic Relief Services (CRS) Regina Birner. Consultant Josef Ernstberger. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS) Luz Diaz Rios. Agriculture and Rural Development. University of California. Wageningen University Alistair Brett. Jamaica Marie-Hélène Collion.org) Howard Elliott. Farmer Field School Foundation. Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA). Programme Officer. Aravazhi. Bennett. and formerly with infoDev Peter Ballantyne. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) John Allgood. Consultant Javier Ekboir. Latin America and Caribbean Region. Consultant 635 . Berkeley Arnoud R. LINK Ltd.A U T H O R S A N D T H E I R A F F I L I AT I O N S Nuria Ackermann. World Bank Institute. International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) S. University of California. Braun. Consultant Wyn Ellis. Davis Rupert Best. University of Hohenheim Sara Boettiger. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) Alan B. Consultant Kumuda Dorai. University of the West Indies. www. Institutional Learning and Change Initiative (ILAC. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Anthony Clayton. Consultant Judy Chambers.cgiar-ilac. started as a UNU-MERIT/FAO initiative in 2005) Deborah Duveskog. World Bank Kristin Davis. Program for Biosafety Systems. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Seth Ayers.

ILSI Research Foundation Mohinder S. Farmer Field School Foundation Promotion Services. Consultant Charles J. Wageningen University Stanley Kowalski. Consultant Bernardo Ospina Patiño. Ministry of Agriculture. French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) S.M.Michelle Friedman. CIAT John Lynam. Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) María Verónica Gottret. Consultant Vijay Mahajan. ADVANSIS Ltd. LINK Ltd. ADVANSIS Ltd. Maguire. Agriculture and Rural Development Department. Forestry and Food Security. BASIX Group. Robert Potter Consulting John Preissing. (Link Ltd. Andrea Pape-Christiansen. International Livestock Research institute (ILRI) 636 AUTHORS AND THEIR AFFILIATIONS . World Bank Steen Joffee. World Bank Josef Geoola. World Agroforestry Centre (CIFOR) Anton Krone. Concord Patti Kristjanson.K. Johnson. Karuppanchetty. Consultant Indira Ekanayake. Assistant Professor. GALVmed Peter Gildemacher. Africa Agriculture and Development. India Morven McLean. David Lugg. Decision and Policy Analysis Program. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Ranjitha Puskur. University of New Hampshire School of Law. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Willem Heemskerk. Wageningen University Laurens Klerkx. Mudahar. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Godrick Khisa. Communications and Innovation Studies. Innodev U. World Bank Ninatubu Lema. Consultant Robert Potter. University of Guelph Frank Hartwich. SaveAct. Director. NARS Tanzania Tarmo Lemola. Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) Douglas Horton. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Mark Lundy. Sierra Leone Trish Kammili. Latin American and Caribbean Consortium to Support Cassava Research and Development (CLAYUCA) Christopher Palmberg. started as a UNU-MERIT/FAO initiative in 2005) Helen Hambly Odame. Tropical Agriculture Research and Education Center (CATIE) Andy Hall. Adolphus J. Prolinnova South Africa Gunnar Larson.

Agricultural Research for Development. World Bank Institute Bernard Triomphe. Sharma. BASIX Group. Innovation Policy Consultancy Silvia Sarapura. Prolinnova International Secretariat. India Rodrigo Vega Alarcón. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) David J. University of Guelph Eva Schiffer.Catherine Ragasa. South Asia Agriculture and Rural Development. Consultant Kiran K. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) David S. Africa Finance and Private Sector Development. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Riikka Rajalahti. ETC Foundation Melissa Williams. Forestry and Food Security. World Bank Mariana Wongtschowski. France (CIRAD) Klaus Urban. Centre for Research on Innovation and Science Policy (CRISP). Ministry of Agriculture. ETC Foundation Ann Waters-Bayer. Spielman. World Bank Johannes Roseboom. Vasumathi. World Bank AUTHORS AND THEIR AFFILIATIONS 637 . Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) K. India Florian Theus. Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) Douglas Zhihua Zeng. formerly with FIA Laurens van Veldhuizen. Sierra Leone Rasheed Sulaiman V. Prolinnova International Secretariat. Suale. Agriculture and Rural Development Department. Consultant.

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163 agricultural education and training (AET). 414–20 technology transfer and. 240b. 278b Agri-Business Incubator@ICRISAT (ABI) (India). 423b ABI (Agri-Business Incubator@ICRISAT). 615 African Agriculture Fund. 406–13. 4b education and training. 299b. 367b research organizations. 114t agrarian economies. See education and training evolution of. 393b. 548–49. 3b functional assessments. 189b affirmative action. See innovation networks overview. 217. 76 education and training. 319b accreditation. 125 regional research coordination in. 548t funding. 247t. See also extension and advisory services aerial photography. See innovation brokers need for. A AACREA (Argentine Association of Regional Consortiums for Agricultural Experimentation). 219 innovation networks. 393b. 418 African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS). 246–50. 51 partnerships. 426–29 agricultural credit services. 248–49b Agricultural Economics Institute. 522–25 education and training in. 430 Adaptable Program Loan (World Bank). 430–34. See innovation funds initiatives to strengthen key components. 362 risk capital for. 241 adaptive management. See also business incubator Agrícola Cafetelera Buena Vista (Bolivia). 264–69. 417–18b. 372b. 377 advisory committees for curriculum reform. 512–15 innovative activity profiles. See education and training Agricultural Exports and Rural Income (AERI) Project. 540b extension and advisory services. 49b. See also governance coordination and collective action. 301b regulatory frameworks in. 63b Aakruthi Agricultural Associates of India. and t following the page number. 21. 4b networks. 614–15 Ackermann. f. 3–4. 317–19. 188. and tables are indicated by b. Fuels. 423b. 4f research in. 109b agenda setting coordination and collective action. 151 agricultural innovation councils. Nuria. 189b African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD). 4–7 innovation brokers. 36 defined. 396–405. See also research 639 . 388–441 business incubators and. and Chemicals (Canada). 8b AERI (Agricultural Exports and Rural Income) Project. 123 ACF (Asia Challenge Fund). 453b Africa Country Programmes (ACP). 265. 153 advisory services. 188. 1 examples. 19b additionality. 46 agricultural business development. 29. 32. 23 agricultural innovation systems defined. 423b accountability. 431–33b enabling environment for. figures. 65 Africa. 114–17. 96 Agricultural Biorefinery Innovation Network for Green Energy. 421–41 partnerships and. See education and training AFAAS (African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services). 188. See also specific countries and regions biosafety regulatory systems in. 10. 151 AET (agricultural education and training).INDEX Boxes. 388–95 cluster-based approach.

278b investment needs. South Africa). 109. 614–15 Asociación Argentina de Consorcios Regionales de Experimentación Agricola (AACREA). 345b. 287–88 policy issues. 401b agricultural research linkages. 346t. 548–49. 292b. 522–25 defined. 543–45. Seth. 137b AWARD (African Women in Agricultural Research and Development).). 85b. 546–52 benchmarking and. 277–88 commercialization approaches. 550–51 potential benefits. 286 in AIS. 522–25 foresighting investments. 234b biosafety regulatory systems in. 216b Ballantyne. 547b. 49b. 598–602 investment context. 63b ASOSID (Mexico). 566t gender issues and. India agricultural credit services in. 428 Allgood. 312b assessment. 235b lessons learned. 542t. 603–6 organizational. 242–43b Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA) (India). 233b. 299b Andhra Pradesh Dairy Development Cooperative Federation.. competitive grant funding in. 3b agrodealer development in. 84–89 coordination organizations in. 492–500. 498b 640 INDEX . 347 Agricultural Sector Development Program (Tanzania). 279–80t lessons learned. 551–52 methods. 84–89. 234. 233–34. 127–28 Association of Small and Medium Agro-producers of Panama (APEMEP). 278–86. 284–86. 549–50. 546–47 investment needs. 547–50. 540b of environmental risk. 84–89. 73t research and development in. 23 Agriculture Education Council (India). 547b Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (U. See also organizational assessment policy issues. 440 Alemaya University of Agriculture (Ethiopia). 73t public-private research partnerships in. 286–87 potential benefits. 188 Albania. 285b Agricultural Risk Management Team (ARMT). 541. 231–35. 72t. 465b no-till agriculture in. 156 aid-for-trade. 63b Armenia. 294 Argentine Association of Regional Consortiums for Agricultural Experimentation (AACREA). 306b Asia Challenge Fund (ACF). 56b BAIF Development and Research Foundation. 589–609. 551–52 theory of change. 165–68 backward integration. 553–61. 92b ATMA (Agriculture Technology Management Agency). S. 277–88 innovative activity profile. 326 Banana Producers Association in Riva (Nicaragua). 70. 92b Aravazhi. 85 Agri Science Park (India).S. 248b Andhra Pradesh. 136–40 Agricultural Technology Consortium model (Chile). 274b. 598–602 of innovation systems. 547–48. 49b. 433b Bangladesh agricultural innovation systems in. competitive grant funding in. 344–49. 21 technical human resources development in. 86–87f. 146 Agriculture Investment Sourcebook (World Bank). 347 ASARECA. South Africa). 526–29 Self help groups (SHGs) in. 23 biosafety regulatory systems in. Peter. 436 ARMT (Agricultural Risk Management Team). 232. 548t innovative activity profiles. 200 Agricultural Services and Producer Organizations Project (PASAOP. 49b national innovation policy in. 190 Agriculture Technology Fund (Peru). 109. 421 agrodealer development. 415 APEMEP (Association of Small and Medium Agro-producers of Panama). 544t lessons learned. 438b. 549t of biosafety risk. 286 technology transfer and. 501–11. 401b Argentina farmer organizations in. 281–82b agricultural technical-vocational education and training (ATVET). 563–64b. 550–51 recommendations. 70. John. 63b innovation networks in. 388 Azerbaijan. 284 research councils in. 156 All-China Women’s Federation. 241. 338–43. 562–68. 84–89 angel investment. 541–43. 37b national agricultural innovation system in. 526–29 innovative activity profiles. 499b coordination organizations in. 234–35 support systems. 593–97. 248b community organizations in. 541–602 of innovation system functions. 36. 342–43b Agriculture and Rural Development Council (Australia). 550 public sector role. 277–78. Senegal). 234b Ahmadu Bello University (Nigeria). 284b no-till agriculture in. 192. 231 Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa. 232b knowledge transfer and. 109b Ayers. 85 ATVET (agricultural technical-vocational education and training). 136–40 Australia agricultural innovation council in.Agricultural Research Council (ARC. 348b investment context. 284–86 financing for. 339b. 87–88b financial services in. innovation funds in. 436 B BACET (Building Agribusiness Capacity in East Timor) project. 421 ARC (Agricultural Research Council.

233b. 9. 375b rural road networks in. 402 brokers. 234b BASIX Group. 394–95 in Mali. 31–32. 423b innovation networks and. 391–95. 498b investment context. 433–34 coordination and collective action and. 182 CAFÉ PERÚ. 9–10 for biosafety regulatory systems. 366. Regina. 389b investment needs. 266 Birner. 248–49b Bayero University (Nigeria). 233. 431. 406 Best. 411b Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. 404 Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture (CEDAC). 59–69 education and training and. 292b. 109b. 483b BRAC. 385b research and development in. 127b. 440. 549t cluster-based development and. 235b no-till agriculture in. 40–41. See agricultural business development. 494–95 potential benefits. 112b. 382t Boettiger. See also agri-business incubators financing. 440b intellectual property rights in. 70. 553 block grants. 390b services of. 236 Brazil coordination and collective action in. 38b Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 424 local business development and. 549–50. 214. 414 British American Tobacco. 495–99 Bioseed Research India. 344 Best Bet technologies. 70. 129 farmer organizations in. 163 Bunda College of Agriculture (Malawi). 234b Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India). 494b recommendations. 388–95. 73t public-private research partnerships in. 117b farmer organizations in. 209b in India. 215–16b Braun. Sara. 497–98. 480. 391–95 revenue models for. See innovation brokers Building Agribusiness Capacity in East Timor (BACET) project. 492–500 capacity building for. 246–50. 391 potential benefits. 421–25 investment context. 21 technology transfers in. 46 innovative activity profiles. 292b national innovation policy in. biosafety regulatory systems in. 493b innovative activity profiles. 45b no-till agriculture in. 112b Brett. 96. 73t public-private research partnerships in.extension and advisory services in. 70. 299b no-till agriculture in. Rupert. 522–25 interministerial coordination for. 70. 402 national innovation systems and policies. 381–82. 466. 156 BecA-Hub. 112b. 389–91 lessons learned. 47b. 43b biosafety regulatory systems. 97 Botswana business development services in. 391 recommendations. 424 typology. 133 Bolivia education and training in. 181b broad cluster mapping. 9–10 evaluation and. 424b BIOTEC program (Thailand). 242b Cambodia innovation funds in. 70. 133b Bioconnect (Netherlands). 73t capacity building. 192. 554 Bennett. 283 rural productive alliances in. 27b. 233b. 234b Business Minds Africa: Professionals for Agricultural Entrepreneurship in East-Africa. 388b sustainability. 299b benchmarking assessment and. 495–99 policy issues. 493–94 lessons learned. 492 investment needs.. 207 C CAADP (Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme). 209b policy issues. 26–28. 214. 34 education and training in. 165–68 Bukalasa Agricultural College (Uganda). 463b no-till agriculture in. 580 INDEX 641 . 494. 72t. 455b technical knowledge transfer in. 516 Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia). 67 innovation networks in. 67 Brazilian Agricultural Research Coooperation (EMBRAPA).. Alan B. 207 intellectual property management in. 483b Botswana Technology Centre (BOTEC). 388–89. 486b public-private partnerships in. 156 Burkina Faso. 389t business linkage development. 500b business development. local business development services (LBDSs) business incubators. 247t. 440b Canada International Development Agency. Alistair. 615 BFA (Bangladesh Fertilizer Association). 393b. 385b research councils in. 72 public-private partnerships in. 467–68b organizational assessment and. Arnoud R. 493b cluster-based business development and. 235b Bangladesh Fertilizer Association (BFA).

484b national innovation policy in. Anthony. 51 marketing chains. 36b organizational change and. 50. 318b for pluralistic extension systems. 75–77. See also business incubators. 380b public-private research partnerships in. 222b CGIAR. 209b Chiang Mai University (Thailand). 90–94. Mexico). 307b Center for Entrepreneurial Management (CEGE) (Nicaragua). 307b CEDAC (Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture). 431–33b institutional framework and. 399–400. 198–200 for public-private partnerships. 158 Center for Coordination of Agricultural Research and Development in Southern Africa (CCARDESA). 23 Agricultural Technology Consortium model in. 157–59. 402–5 regulatory environment and. See also specific countries Central American Learning Alliance. 397 innovative activity profile. 226 innovation systems and. regional research coordination in. See Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Cheetah Network (Mali). 431–34 public-private partnerships and. 312b lessons learned.. 36. 485b 642 INDEX . 72 olive oil industry in. 607–9. 64 for governance. 282–83. 347 CFC (Common Fund for Commodities. 348b CATIE. 339b. 310t. 90–94 Learning Alliances. 124–25b value chains in. 138 higher education reform in. 348b CLAYUCA. 440b CEGE (Center for Entrepreneurial Management) (Nicaragua). 85. 433–34 infrastructure and. See also environmental issues cluster-based business development. 431b coordination and collective action role. 295 policy issues. 299b. 95 Colombia agricultural innovation systems in. 344. 432b CENICAÑA (Colombian Sugarcane Research Center). 283. 314 potential benefits. 344–49. 347. 159b intellectual property management in. 211–12 for national coordination. 129. 379 Casas Agrárias (Mozambique). 126. 309t investment needs. 9–10 for intellectual property (IP) management. 86–89. 48. 133b innovation brokers and.capacity building (continued) extension and advisory services. 92b. 314–15 partnerships for. 66 Center for Community-Based Research (Thailand). 318b. 90–94. 392b education and training in. 402–5. 518b local business development services and. 608–9b. 78b collective action. 396–405 capacity building and. 157–59. 377b. 344–49 CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center). 91–93. 12b. 188. 404b recommendations. 395b farmer organizations in. 322 climate change. 396–97 lessons learned. See coordination and collective action colleges and universities. 17b. 368. 273. 92b Client-Oriented Research and Development Management Approach (CORDEMA). 50 CIP (International Potato Center). 432b Central Africa. 133. 35. 138 innovation networks and. 314 COFUPRO (Coordinadora Nacional de las Fundaciones Produce. 82b research and development tax incentives in. 61. 434 policy issues. 371b Clayton. 397 CMSA (community-managed sustainable agriculture). 316–17. See also nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). 309–13. 70. 365b China business incubators in. 430–34. 397–99 investment rationale. Kenya). 3b business incubators in. 159b Chile agricultural innovation council in. 45b. 208b Cassava research networks. 222b civil society. 72. 10 farmer organizations and. 342–43b assessment in. 362. 90 tertiary education reform in. 375b. 157–59. 347. 338–43. 426–29 no-till agriculture in. innovation brokers Catholic Relief Services (CRS). 400 potential benefits. 54b Chinese University of Technology. 67 intellectual property rights in. 473–76 higher education students and. 87–88b codesigned innovations. 80–83 intellectual property management in. 28. 461b no-till agriculture in. 562 CLAYUCA (Latin American and Caribbean Consortium to Support Cassava Research and Development). 409b. 57 research and. 46. 397–98 value chains vs. 409b CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture). 431. See also Learning Alliances CBR (community-based research). 47b. Marie-Hélène. See tertiary education and training Collion. 609f coordination organizations in. 31 education and. 73t public-private partnerships in. 398–99. 308–9. See also CLAYUCA catalytic agents. 310b. 159b CCARDESA (Center for Coordination of Agricultural Research and Development in Southern Africa). 398f investment needs. 308–15 investment context. specific organizations cluster-based business development and.

246 Davis. 30. 233 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India). 124–25b extension and advisory services. 20 investment rationale. 21. and Workplace Relations (Australia). 381–82. 137b Department of Primary Industries (DPI. 17 research and educational organizations role. 78b coordination and collective action. 235b Dairy Cooperative Societies (India). 179. 59–69 economic growth and. 16–18 monitoring and evaluation. Bangladesh). 6b. 378–79 performance-based. 20–26. 87–88b competency-led partnerships. 306b role of. 318b. 75–77. 32–33 on national level. 327b Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE. 53. 26–28. 180. 222 Gender and Diversity Program. 262. 32 in biosafety regulatory systems. See also matching grants. 38b Council of Social Science Research (India). 385b commodity boards. 184. See also financial services CRGs. 284b. 137b INDEX 643 . 338 credit markets. 342b consortium approaches. 286. 437–38b. 135 cyber-extension. 378–79 Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs). 24. 9. 382t. 233b. 514 for public-private partnerships. 19b Farmer Field Schools (FFSs). 498b capacity building for. 90. 131–35 investment context. 28–29 poverty reduction and. 247t. 307b CORDEMA (Client-Oriented Research and Development Management Approach). 283–84 Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) extension and advisory services. 295 competitive position analysis. 235b Department of Education. 284b. 93. 94b education and training in. 183b D DAE (Department of Agricultural Extension. Employment. 28–29. 17–18 public and private sector role. 81 Costa Rica cassava market in. 132–33. 109b research centers. 44–51 innovative activity profiles. 157–59. 133b recommendations. 159b community-managed sustainable agriculture (CMSA). 86–89. 274b. 160–62 public-private research partnerships in. 202 research. 385b rural productive alliances in. 519 for partnerships. 133 higher education reform in. 77 education and training. 402 competitive research grants (CRGs). 236 decentralization coordination and collective action. 297–307 sustainability issues. 62b CORAF/WECARD. 27b overview. 180. 41b. 18. 85. 262–63. See competitive research grants Crops Research Institute (Ghana). Chile). 278b. 134 potential benefits. 30–31 innovation networks and. 70–99 instruments and incentives for. 97 Colombian Coffee Growers’ Federation. 28 public goods production and. 66 Colombia Productive Partnerships Project. 15–33 policy issues. 128. 478 innovation brokers and. Kenya). 197–98. 60 DAPEP (Dryland Agriculture Productivity Enhancement Program). 274b. 90 cost-sharing. 189b factors essential to. 583b CRCs (Cooperative Research Centres). 194. 29 value chains and. 96. 236–39 gender issues. 15–106 agenda setting. and innovation funds defined. Mexico). 29 governance and. 385b no-till agriculture in. 16–17 environmental outcomes and. 222b democratization. 31.matching grant schemes in. 71b curriculum reform. 29 of extension and advisory services. 31–32. 270 Department for International Development (UK). 270 DEEPA Industries Ltd. 6b. Australia). 117b Coprokazan (Mali). 72 public-private research partnerships in. 270. 298b Consorcio Papa Chile SA. 34–43 organizations for. 246–50. 47b counterfactuals. 27b. 386b. 381–82. 30. 582. 38b Council on Agricultural Research (India). 60 Colombian Sugarcane Research Center (CENICAÑA). 134–35 policy issues.. 277–88. 131–32 investment needs. 222b community-based research (CBR). 382t Corporation to Promote Production (CORFO. Kristin. 6b. 368. 248–49b. 497–98. 183b. 632 Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). 25b. 22t. 132 lessons learned. 322 core (block) funding. 23–25b. 52–58 Copperbelt College of Education (Zambia). Bangladesh). 338 Coordinadora Nacional de las Fundaciones Produce (COFUPRO. 23. 18 equity issues. 23–24 Common Fund for Commodities (CFC. 182 CONDESAN. 189–90. 7 contracting intellectual property (IP) management and. 233b.

457–58 environmental issues enabling environment for innovation and. 449. 181b. See also tertiary education and training e-extension. India). 107–77. India). Josef. 108–11 technician development. 452–53. 132 higher education reform in. Javier. 450f monitoring and evaluation for. 108. 302 research. 154–56 for intellectual property (IP) management. 327b technical skill development in. 264 East Africa Dairy Development Project. 408t. 133. 580 downward accountability. 119–20. 170b Ekanayake. 456 financial services. 137b Dryland Agriculture Productivity Enhancement Program (DAPEP). 145–53. 455–56. 283 education and training. 111–12 investment needs. 151–53 technical skills development in. 516–21 investment context. 205 education and training in. 136–40. 539. 297 El Salvador. 458–59t national innovation policy. 122–30. 47. 438b net-mapping in. 401b Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA). 492–511. 456–57. 596b research and development in. 490b investment context. 526–29 governance and. 519 Duveskog. 44. 210. 151–53 financing trends. 501 diffusion of technology. Luz. 109b innovation funds in. 236. 163–64. 469–79 infrastructure 512–14 innovative activity profiles. 169–71. Kumuda. 512 Ekboir. 70–71 Dijkman. 583b 644 INDEX . 157–62. 5–7. See also standards. 580–88. 15. 407–8 tertiary level. 70. India). Australia). Howard. biosafety environmental issues. 6b. 457 poverty reduction and. 29 extension and advisory services. 456–58 investment rationale. 234b European Foundation for Quality Management. 114t structure of systems. 236 E EARTH University (Costa Rica). 34. 455b. 169–71. 291b research and development in. 488 local business development services and. 210b Equity Bank of Kenya. 17b Elsenburg Training Institute. 160–62 East Africa Farmer Field Schools in. 184. 201. 210b national innovation policy and. 163–64 Eurasia Group. Deborah. 421 Dharampur Uththan Vahini (DHRUVA. 421 due diligence. 426 Estamos (NGO). 215–16b Ecuador innovation networks in. 9–10. 327b equity issues. 52. 456 regulatory frameworks and.. 145–71 in-service training and development. 107–21 policy issues. 450–52. 246–47 Ernstberger. 273 District Services for Economic Activities (Mozambique). 117b informal. 512–29 intellectual property management. 452. 201 Envirotrade project. 188–91. 246 DST (Department of Science and Technology. 457. 381. 450f. Indira. 206b Doing Business (World Bank). 480–91. 131–35. 449–537. 324 partnerships. 216b Diaz Rios. 10–11. 39b. 460–68 policy issues. 188 DPI (Department of Primary Industries. learning alliances in. 5b formal. 299b East Africa Agricultural Productivity Project. 170b for Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs). 437. 582. 170b vocational training in. 580 counterfactuals and.Department of Science and Technology (DST. 456 intellectual property (IP) management and. 111. 113–19. 7 innovative activity profiles. 244 organizational change. 327b Eastern and Southern Africa Seed Alliance. 70. 59. 126. 45b public-private research partnerships in. 361. 8b. 391 Dorai. 187b gender-inclusive education in. 208b Ethiopia business development services in. 456 public-private partnerships. 292b enabling environment for innovation. 183b Egypt education and training in. 169–71. 141–44. 370 pluralistic extension systems. 93. 464 pluralistic extension systems and. 120–21t overview. 112–13 reform priorities and directions. 407–8. 114–17 monitoring and evaluation of investments in. See also gender issues coordination and collective action. 522–25 rural areas. 75 Elliott. 569. 238 regional research coordination in. 270 ERAP (External Resource Person Advisory Program). 489–90. 452–55 investment needs. 450–52. 111 initiatives to strengthen. 201 regional research. 125–26. 110–11 gender and. 285b Economic Development Programme (BRAC). 90. 126b. J. 454–55. 109b ICT and. 112b. 117b curriculum reform. See also monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity building and. 138 extension and advisory services in. 164 evaluation.

475b policy coordination organizations in. 181–82. 216–18 investment context. 246–47 F facilitation. 154–56 investment levels in. 185b initiatives to strengthen. 111 FARM-Africa (NGO). 213–14. 270. 192b pluralistic extension systems. 81b finance partnerships. 246–50. 583–85. Peru). 67 information technology use by. 211 Farmer and Nature Net (FNN). See also producer organizations defined. 109. 236–39 gender issues. 110b. 179–93. 23 farmer organizations. 585 principles. 215–16b. 46 in-service training. 248–49b cluster-based development and. 179–80. 180. 247t. 185b. 369b. 404 facilitating cooperation. 80–83. 3b. 194–250 agricultural credit and. 16b extension and advisory services. See also broker. 218 institutional framework and. 63b. 215t lessons learned. 585–88 methods. 520–21. 191. 247t. 216–18. 288. 474b research and innovation council. 213–20 Farmer Field Schools. 216–18 potential benefits. 248–49b agrodealer development. 188b fertilizer deep placement technology. 15–33. 26 extension and advisory services. 187. 472b governance of innovation systems in. 586–87t policy issues. 218 recommendations. 526–29 extension services and. 581–83. and innovation broker business. 189b defined. 271b sustainability of. 248–49b instruments. 585–88 exit strategies for public-private partnerships. 221–30 innovation networks and. 180–83. 422 direct. 180 sustainability. 36. 580–81 investment needs. 46 marketing chains and. 189–90 of farmer organizations. 182 farmer training centers (FTCs). 427 Fair Trade movement. 239 participatory group learning in. 585 potential benefits. 183 financing. 582b recommendations. 23. 191. 246–50. 235b FFA (Future Farmers of America). 237b lessons learned. 403 network membership and. 214–16. 62b FDSE (Fondo para el Desarrollo de Servicios Estratégicos. 204–12 monitoring and evaluation of. 19b technology transfer. 217t policy issues. 469–479. 476b Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes). 218–20 monitoring and evaluation of. 30. 190t roles and impacts of. 581–85 lessons learned. 344–49. 189–90 “extension-plus” approach. 67 investments for innovation. 540b investment context. Chile). 191. 191. 414–420 partnerships. 472b. 244 evolution of. 188. See Farmer Field Schools FIA (Fundación para la Innovación Agraria. 246–50. 236–39 defined. 305t. 17 farmer-to-farmer (F2F) extension.defined. 295 financial services agricultural credit. 181b local business development services. 185b Farm Business Schools. 369b. 216 public and private sector roles. 206b gender issues. 191. 583–84b. 192. 591 public sector. 181b. 62b innovation networks and. 180b development principles. 213–20 human resource issues. 379 extension and advisory services. 202 financing of. 242–43 fee-for-service extension. 192–93. 63b. 184b farmer-managed foundations. 185–86t equity issues. 232b coordination of. 247t. See also matching grants and research grants of agricultural research linkages. 180. 316–25. 473b INDEX 645 . 440b Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) coordination networks for. 474b strategic intelligence capabilities in. 207. 194–203 policy issues. 183–87. 368–69 of research. 52 poverty reduction and. 187b Farm Radio International. 286 of business incubators. 237 sustainability. 417t savings and credit cooperatives. 53 FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 402 enabling environment for innovation and. 181b “extension-plus” approach. 214t investment needs. 24–26. 219–20. 7 innovation brokers and. 5b. 283. 238 farmer interest groups (FIGs). 183b. 218 External Resource Person Advisory Program (ERAP). 306. 189. 187–91 public and private sector roles. 5b Finland response to challenges of globalization. 190–91 ICT and. 394–95 extension and advisory services. 190–91. 231–35. 111 FFSs. 220t sustainability. 6b. 308–15. 185b potential benefits.

187b Fundación Chile. Republic of Korea. 81b fourth-round funding. 539. 201 Gene Technology Act (Australia). See also biosafety regulatory systems genetic resources intellectual property management and. 517–18b Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook (World Bank). 29 as cross-cutting theme. 473–76 competitive research funding and. Chile). 71b. 469–79 of innovation systems in Finland. 12b education and training. 189b. 610–13. 563–65 recommendations. 182 France. 3b agricultural research linkages in. 21 Foundation for Agricultural Innovation (Chile). South Africa. 486b Haiti. 30. 21. Peru). 36. no-till agriculture in. Josef. 471–77 lessons learned. 95 FTA (Fondo de Tecnología Agraria. 190–91 in Farmer Field Schools. 566t formal organizations. 242–43b FTCs (farmer training centers). 61 innovation funds and. 327b. 30. 241. 385b rural productive alliances in. Peru). 189b. 319b potential benefits. 109. Michelle. 416 Framework for African Agricultural Productivity. 613t Fondo de Tecnología Agraria (FTA. 327b. 72 Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya (FPEAK). 324 gender analysis. Peter. 273. 23. Andy. public-private research partnerships in. 51 of innovation systems. 440b Fodder Innovation Project. 242–43 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 517–18b Global Development Alliance. 21 Ghana Cocoa Board. 242–43b Fondo para el Desarrollo de Servicios Estratégicos (FDSE. 384t innovation networks. 181b. 155–56 net-mapping in. 327b. 211 Ford Foundation. 221 Guatemala farmer organizations in. 482 foresighting investment. 567–68 tools and applications. 280b education and training in. 408–9 transparency and. 516–21. 344 governance. 17b public-private research partnerships in. 241. 110b. 209 national innovation policy and. 109b innovation funds in. 499b genetically engineered foods. 24b Friedman. 598–602 gender issues in assessments. 539. 324 partnerships. 477 project-based funding and. 478 enabling environment for innovation and. 469–71 investment needs. 544t. 495–96b. 596b no-till agriculture in. 560b public-private research partnerships in. 456–57. 479 Granovetter. 464 organizational change. 301b foreign direct investment. 40. 399 Fundación para la Innovación Agraria (FIA. Peru). 24 Gildemacher. 50 Gottret. 562–67. 416 FLAR (Latin American Fund for Irrigated Rice). 600t in coordination and collective action.. 500b. 80–83. 375 recommendations. 237b organizational change. 192b Ghana agricultural innovation systems in. 580.first-round funding. public-private research partnerships in. 516–21. 469–79 intellectual property (IP) management and. 274b Geoola. (Cambodia). 567–68 potential benefits. 298b FNN (Farmer and Nature Net). 405 Golden Rice. M. 42t public-private partnerships. 111 G GALVmed (Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines). 90 H Hagar Soya Co. 30. 67 learning alliances in. 155 gender-inclusive education in. 113 in education and training. 234b Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS). 97 Guyana. 598–602. 329b. 70. 452. 568 policy issues. 370 pluralistic extension systems. 569. 567 process. 192b GlobalGAP. 36b. 36. 80–83. 562–68 lessons learned. María Verónica. 437 in-service training for extension staff. 481b public-private partnerships. 383. 81b Future Farmers of America (FFA). 610 646 INDEX . 469–79. 568 sustainability and. 408–9 investment context. 23. 111. 182. 221 Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed). 72 organizational assessment in. 90 research councils in. 479 Technology Transfer Offices and. 23. 472f capacity building for. 41b. 182. 477–79 local business development services and. 41b coordination and collective action. 317–19. 516 GFRAS (Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services). 109b in extension and advisory services. 90 Hall. 469–79 farmer organizations.

224–25 recommendations. See tertiary education and training Honduras education and training in. 333t. 27b coordination role of.Hambly Odame. 431b for education and training. 291b Innova-Chile. 145–48 innovation brokers in. 23b Innovation and Competitiveness Program for Peruvian Agriculture (INCAGRO). 138 extension and advisory services in. 246 ICAR. 344 IFDC (International Fertilizer Development Center). Uruguay). 84–89. 38. 225–26 lessons learned. 604t. 228 policy issues. 489 human resource development (HRD). 364. 137b infoDev. 333t. 191. Douglas. 393b. 240–45. 21. 248b ICRISAT. 62b. 85b. 7. 47b. 242 IDRC (International Development Research Centre). 86–87f. 146 I IBEX (Inter Borrower Exchange Program). 185b farmer organizations and. 274b tertiary education reform in. 228–30 typology of. 385b honest broker role. 320–21b. 117b extension and advisory services and. 38. 331–37. 323b. 111. 404 HoneyBee Network. 224b farmer organizations in. 540b market intelligence. 17b. 224b informal organizations. 294 Hawassa University (Ethiopia). 72. 141–44. 168 INIA (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria. 392b infomediaries. 179. See also Andhra Pradesh Agricultural business incubator at ICRISAT. 25b. 266. 221–30 innovation networks and. 145. 224b National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP). 8b. 183b. 227–28 monitoring and evaluation of. 425t coordination organizations in. 334–36b Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). 320–21b INIAP (Ecuador). See Innovation and Competitiveness Program for Peruvian Agriculture INCOPA Project (Peru). 16b extension and advisory services role of. See International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics ICT. 323b scenario planning in. Helen. 240b. 3b agrodealer development in. 392b. 128 learning alliances in. 225t innovation funds. 316 household surveys. 390b. 127b Industry Skills Training Councils (Australia). 421–25. 413 for organizational assessment. 244t. 331–37. 81 Innovation Acquisition Service (Thailand). 423–24b. 231–50 investment context. 422f. 269. 45b INIAP (Instituto Nacional Autónomo de Investigaciones Agropecuarias. 272b training and. 397. 221–22 investment needs. 242–43b. 222–24. 38b. 194 higher education. 183b information and communication technology (ICT) education and. 606b technology development and transfer in. Willem. 226 potential benefits. 272–73. 58. See International Livestock Research Institute Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). 72t research organizations in. 46 innovative activity profiles. 322 innovation brokers brokering role. 115. 559 humanitarian licensing models. 38b. 246–50 biosafety regulatory systems in. 383. 129. 555–56 research and. 495–96b business incubators in. 70 INCAGRO. 334–36b no-till agriculture in. 224b knowledge exchange role of. 184b. 222–23b. See Indian Council of Agricultural Research ICICI Bank. See business incubator India. 17b public-private research partnerships in. 87–88b education and training in. 117b information gathering defined. 231 BASIX. 156 Heemskerk. 63b higher education reform in. 21 Information and Communication Technologies for Agriculture e-Sourcebook (World Bank). 431b Horton. 233b IIRR (International Institute of Rural Reconstruction). 381–87 governance and. 232–33. 30–31 defined. Frank. 272–73. 125. 8b research and. Ecuador). 272–73 infrastructure for cluster-based business development. 129 public-private research partnerships in. 39b. 207 ILAC (Institutional Learning and Change Initiative). 45b incubator. 628 ILO (International Labour Organization). 375b ILRI. 605f. 62b innovation brokers and. 331–37 Indonesia education and training in. 559b. 179–259 capacity building and. 546 Hartwich. 603–6. 70. See information and communication technology IDE (International Development Enterprises). 421–25 agricultural innovation systems in. 384t INDEX 647 . 224b IDESI (Institute for Development of the Informal Sector–Arequipa). 222. xv. 224b HORIZONT3000. 8b. 539.

519 enabling environment for innovation. 231–50 innovation funds. 44–51 incentives for. 48 social capital issues. 292b intellectual property (IP) management. 516–21. 589–609 biosafety regulatory systems. 151 Instituto Nacional Autónomo de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP. 154–56 investment context. 409–10. 488–89 national innovation policy and. 23b technology transfer and. 487 public and private sector roles. 157–62 Inova. 347. 406–7. 516–21. 291b Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA). 421–41 in-service training/learning. 407–8. 482–83 trade and. 411–12. 383–84 sustainability. 47b public and private sector roles. Ecuador). 410. 142–43 lessons learned. 38 Technology Licensing Office (Thailand). 437–38b. 517–18b institutional framework and. 407t. 384–85 potential benefits. 184b internal rate of return (IRR). 48–49.innovation funds (continued) innovative activity profile. 51 investment context. 482 training for. 329b prioritization. 593 public-private research partnerships. 518b contracting and. 70–74 organizational change. 144 potential benefits. 398–99. 480–91 capacity building for. 411b in-service training/learning. 410 investment context. 141–44 implementation issues. 346t. 292b Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB. 201 research and. 295 recommendations. 283 innovative activity profiles advisory services models. 522–25 business incubators. 141 investment needs. 27b coordination and collective action role of. 398f. 90–94 rural productive alliances. 293. 412–13. 410 pluralistic extension systems and. 431b “extension-plus” approach and. 421–41 agricultural research linkages. 344–49. 559b Institutional Linkage Project. 487–88 lessons learned. 44–45 investment needs. 326–30. 17b. 407–9. 5 Technology Transfer Offices and. 145–53. 145–71 enabling environment for innovation. 517–18b Mexico produce foundation. 481b governance and. 487–88 potential benefits. 431b interest groups. 47–49 potential benefits. 154–56 intellectual property (IP) management. 40. 489 innovative activity profile. 49b recommendations. 488 foreign direct investment and. 47–48 innovation platforms. 430–34. Argentina). 49–51 policy issues. 30. 46–47. 413b. 519 due diligence. 437t. 48 sustainability and. 70–99 education and training. 489–91 research councils and. 386–87. 431–33b coordination and collective action. Indonesia). 490b Inter Borrower Exchange Program (IBEX). 383 lessons learned. 348b assessment. 517b public-private partnerships and. 327b. 95–99 regulatory frameworks. 45–46 lessons learned. 437–38b. 46 innovation networks. 320–21b Instituto Nacional Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA. 488. 440b innovation partnerships and business development. 345b. 44–51 capacity building and. 482 genetic resources and. 39b. 421–25 cluster-based business development. 408t. 169–71. 51 research role. 387b policy issues. 268–69. 484–87 legal framework and. 482 policy issues. 410–13. 437t. 480–82 investment needs. 146. 133 INTA (Instituto Nacional Tecnología Agropecuaria. 418 International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). 243b institutional framework cluster-based business development and. 91–93. 381–82 investment needs. 485–86 tertiary education and. 242 Institute of Peruvian Amazon Research. 435–41. 147 Institutional History monitoring method. 143–44 Institute for Development of the Informal Sector–Arequipa (IDESI. 440b investment context. 326–49 technician development. 410. Argentina). 610–13. 577b. 30. 522–25 research. 483–84. 246 Interchurch Organization for Development Corporation. Peru). 163–64. 516–21 environmental issues. 408–9 humanitarian licensing models. 480–91. 610–19 no-till networks. 440–41 InnovationNetwork (Netherlands). 613t institutional learning. 127b. 75–79 monitoring and evaluation (M&E). 144 innovative activity profile. 231–50 agricultural business development. 216–18 intellectual property (IP) management and. 512–29 innovation brokers. 170b tertiary education and training. 489–90. 435–41. 348b 648 INDEX .

222b. 422f. S. 222b. 474b strategic intelligence capabilities in. See also specific countries competitive research grants in. 24b Kenya Good Agricultural Practices (Kenya-GAP). 327b value chains in. 79b. 141–42. 44.International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). 540b IP. 480 Kristjanson. competitive grant funding in. 435 KTDA. 47b. Stanley. 269 KARI (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute). See local business development services learning alliances. 133 Ireland education and training in. 327b International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). 401b coordination organizations in. 238. 215b. 24b. India). 185b Kelemework. 564b public-private research partnerships in. 348b learning organizations. 221 Kline. 225 research and development in. 236 Klerkx. 299b. Indonesia). 375b Lake Victoria Environmental Management Program. 217b. 392 IPB (Institut Pertanian Bogor. Gunnar. 66–67 Kerala Horticultural Development Programme (KHDP. 589 joint experimentation. 236. 285b. 60. 24. 195. 341 K Kammili. 580 KAPP (Kenya Agricultural Productivity Project). 163 Joffe. 242 Land Care movement (Philippines). 224b International Development Research Centre (IDRC). 40 Latin American and Caribbean Consortium to Support Cassava Research and Development (CLAYUCA). 156 L Labor standards. 54b Kenya Agricultural Productivity Project (KAPP). 569. 311 joint venture.. Steen. 268 knowledge transfer. 17b. 563b scenarios. 476b Kowalski. 470–71. 233b International Food Policy Research Institute. 344 International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC). 526 Latin America and the Caribbean. 238b. 153. 222b. Willem. 386b farmer organizations in. 222b. 166. Republic of governance of innovation systems in. 298b LBDSs. 90–94. 536b IRR (internal rate of return). S. 294 regional research coordination in. 286. 423–24b. 84. 269 Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). 345b. 223b. Anton. 53. 393b. 232–33. 297–98. 273. 207 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture–FOODNET. 559b LEED (Local Economic and Employment Development) Project. 219b Khisa. 50 International Potato Center (CIP). 238b farmer organizations in. 78b internship programs. 78b J Jamaica foresighting investments in. 64b Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA). 563b Teagasc. 326 Krone. 275 Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities. 111. 270 Land O’Lakes. 269 Karuppanchetty. 65–66 public-private research partnerships in. 385b Janssen. 161 intervention logic. 181b International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR). 207 cluster-based business development in. 348b International Labour Organization (ILO). 344–49. 607 Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (Ethiopia). 233b. 298b research and development in. 269 Kenya Dairy Goat and Capacity Building Project (KDGCBP). See intellectual property management iPark (business incubator). 234b business development services in. 473b policy coordination organizations in. 127–28 Kenya agrodealer development in. See also education and training. 201. Laurens. 90–94. 222. 64b. 421–25. 24b Kenya Tea Board. technology transfer Korea. D. 92b Latin American Fund for Irrigated Rice (FLAR). 418 ISNAR (International Service for National Agricultural Research). 62b gender-inclusive education in. 24b Kenya Horticulture Council. 375b International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). 238b. defined. J. 551b INDEX 649 . 271b. 326–30. 404b Lambayeque Institute for Agricultural Development (Peru). See Kenya Tea Development Agency Kwadaso Agricultural College (Ghana). 64b extension and advisory services in.. 185b Kenya Flower Council. 421 Kazakhstan. 127b. M. 235b. 222b International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR). Patti. 17b. 263 science and technology funds in. 81b. 126 foresighting investments in. 346t. 45b. Trish. 109b innovation brokers in. 436 KDGCBP (Kenya Dairy Goat and Capacity Building Project). 165. 425t International Development Agency (Canada). 238b Farmer Field Schools in. 167 Larson.. Adolphus. 232. 299b International Development Enterprises (IDE). 589 Johnson. Godrick.

60 investment context. 107. 98. 55 policy issues. John. and Markets Project (LiLi). 63b. gender issues farmer organizations and. 25b marginalized populations. 72 public-private research partnerships in. 209–10 social targeting of. 23b. 223b. 56–57 potential benefits. 200. 62b Mali Agribusiness Incubator Network. and innovation funds defined. 384b. 56–57 sustainability and. 327b research within AIS. 191. 44. 154. 38b Ministry of Agriculture (Netherlands). 54b. 23 farmer organizations in. 209 implementation of. 280b Ministry of Science and Technology (Thailand). 56–57 marketing chains. 342b Lugg. 56–57 market intelligence. Mark. 208–10 potential benefits. 522 MERCOSUR. 204–5 investment needs. 67 innovation networks in. 243b. 8 Livestock. Charles J. 163 Mahajan. 211. 206b Local Innovation Support Funds (LISFs). 170b Milk Producers’ Cooperative Unions (India). See also specific countries education and training in. 492. 209b M&E. 48 value chains and. See also assessment 650 INDEX . 327b local business development services (LBDSs). 435–41. 156 Malawi business development services in. 204–12 capacity building and. 149. 169–70 Ministry of Education (Ethiopia). 297–98 Midwest Universities Consortium for International Activities (MUCIA). 413 matching grants (MGs). 516–21 intellectual property management. 381–82. 52–53 investment needs. 272–73. 11. 25b Ministry of Agriculture (China). 56b microcredit. 549t. 516–21 ILRI. 318b Ministry of Education (China). 205–7. 217b farmer organizations and. 261 M Maguire. 487–88. 569–79. 440b locavore movement. 326–30. See also regulatory frameworks Lemola. 246 Middle East and North Africa. 187. 610–13 Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed). 124b Ministry of Education (Egypt). 152–53. 149 Ministry of Agriculture (Peru). 516–21. 416 LISFs (Local Innovation Support Funds). 435–41. 242. 138 Ministry of Agriculture (India).. 286. Morven. 58. 124b Ministry of Agriculture (Ethiopia). 209 sustainability. 298b Mexico codesigned innovation in. 149 Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Ghana). David. See also competitive research grants. 131. 138 Ministry of Education (Netherlands). 53 Los Lagos University (Chile). 266 mixed-portfolio investment model. Vijay. 206b lessons learned. 122. 210b governance and. 438b. 109b Mali business development services in. 389 mobile phones. 551b Local Economic Development Projects (Mozambique). 49b no-till agriculture in. 205–8. 67. Tarmo. 21 value chains in. 246 Makerere University (Uganda).legal framework for intellectual property. 382t. See also equity issues. 632 McLean. 211–12 environmental issues. 205f. 326–30 role of ICT for. See information and communication technology (ICT) monitoring and evaluation (M&E). 146 Mansingh Institute of Technology (India). 209b farmer organizations in. 108 regional research coordination in. 75–79 farmer-managed foundations in. 312b coordination organizations in. 165–68 Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (Tanzania). 344 Lynam. 55–56 public and private sector roles. 440b Livelihoods Diversification and Enterprise Development Fund. 299b Fodder innovations project. 90 research councils in. Livelihoods. 151. 208 extension and advisory services in. 136. 368. 210 Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Project. 52–58. 210. 207 gender-inclusive education in. 141. 145. See also value chains coordination and collective action. 299b. 435 Lundy. 57 recommendations. 438b. 57–58 social capital issues. 212 investment context. 469 limited partnership investments. 238b livestock. See monitoring and evaluation Manpower Advisory Councils (India). 517–18b biosciences. 155. 53–55 lessons learned. 244 Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (Timor Leste). 57 niche markets and. 23–24 extension and advisory services. 208 public and private sector roles. 65 innovation networks and. 169–71. 210–12 policy issues.

372–73. 35–36 lessons learned. 466–68b policy issues. 163 research and development in. 464–65 potential benefits. 458–59t of extension and advisory services. 36b investment context. 539–41 lessons learned. 42t recommendations. 460–68 benchmarking for. 226 National Agricultural Extension Program (Mozambique). 331–37. 593–97. 333t. 466. 262–63 National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (India). 38–40. 294b. 269. 578–79. 25b. 224b national innovation policy. 291b National agricultural research institutes (NARIs). 187. 577–78. 331 N Namibia National Farmers Union. 391 NDDB (National Dairy Development Board. 41b. 24. 373t policy issues. 540b of education and training. 583–85. 586–87t of national innovation policy. 281b National Innovation Agency (NIA. 299b. 367b. 449–59. 24 INDEX 651 . 186–87b. 464 intellectual property management and. 544t. no-till agriculture in. 581–85 investment rationale. 570–76. 25b. 120–21t. 69 of innovation brokers. 32–33 counterfactuals and. 582b of public-private partnerships. 262–63 National Agency for Agricultural and Rural Advisory Services (Senegal). Thailand). 301b Nepal. 205. 34–35 investment needs. 266 National Innovation Foundation (India). 275. 303–7. 276t terminology. 40–41 National Council on Innovation for Competitiveness (Chile). India).. 63b national coordination. Mohinder S. 577.capacity building and. 34–43 capacity building for. 331–37. 184. 580 competitive research funding and. 181b. 36–37 project-based funding. 109b innovation brokers in. 210b gender-inclusive education in. 583–84b. 217t farmer organizations and. 334–36b NARIs (national agricultural research institutes). 540b Most Significant Change (MSC). 571–72b. 201. 34–43 development of. 206b. 582. 70. 466–68b of organizational change. 80 National Cooperative Dairy Federation (India). 330 participatory. 24. 463 recommendations. 482 investment context. 21. 610–19 investment context. 208b. 585 principles. 43b coordination organizations in. 462b enabling environment for innovation. 149–50 Net-Map. Uganda). 222. 40. 38. 578–79. 227 Netherlands Foundation for International Cooperation. 585 potential benefits. 576–77b. 38b thematic or subsectoral coordination. 126b for enabling environment for innovation. 304–5t of research. 149–50 innovation brokers in. 423 New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). 543–45. 21. 541. 585–88 of regional research. 301b New Zealand extension and advisory services in. 216–18. 37–43 research councils. 85 National System of Innovation for Competitiveness (Chile). 299b. 467–68b coordination and collective action. 266. 281b National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS. 228 innovative activity profiles. 63b NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa’s Development). 197b. 583b defined. 576b of partnerships. 391 National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (Chile). 47b. 22t. 460 investment needs. 208 extension and advisory services in. 181b Netherlands Bioconnect. 269. 570–76. 333t. 188t no-till agriculture in. 460–63 lessons learned. 573–75t. 38. 37–43 operational practices. 464 governance and. 35. 327b NAIP (India). 464 National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (India). 37 potential benefits. 284 Wageningen university and research center. 449–59. India). 216b National Business Incubator Association (NBIA). 465–68 monitoring and evaluation of. 192–93. 80 National Union of Agriculture and Livestock Farmers (Nicaragua). 338 National Dairy Development Board (NDDB. 200. 192b of “extension-plus” approach. 63b National Fund for Agricultural Research (Senegal). 43b higher education reform in. 266. 319–20. 576b Mountains of the Moon University (Uganda). 465–68 social capital and. 23b. 541–43. 380b recommendations. 294–95. 460–68 environmental issues. 184 National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) (India). 379–80. 206b. 72 New Zealand Dairy Board. 200. 581–83. 542t. 596b Network of Indian Agri-Business Incubators (NIAB). 119–20. 226 Mudahar. 72 Nestlé. 35–36 policy issues. 585–88 methods. 569–70. 163 Mozambique business development services in. 432b NBIA (National Business Incubator Association). 41b of coordination and collective action. 334–36b National Agricultural Research Institute (Ecuador). 580–81 investment needs.

329b investment context. 316–25. 362 contracts for. 70. 560b organizational frameworks. 92b farmer organizations in. 555–56 investment context. 207 gender-inclusive education in. 554 framework for. 324–25 for research. 316 investment needs. 387b research and. 381–87. 370 incentives. 378–79 equity issues. 364–65t investment needs. 57 public-private partnerships and. 90 Nippon Foundation. 25b organizational assessment. 557–58b policy issues. 109b public-private research partnerships in. 416 monitoring and evaluation of. 324 gender issues. 208b Operation Flood (India). 47b. 90–94 PASAOP (Agricultural Services and Producer Organizations Project. 277–88. 559 information gathering. 322–23 recommendations. 363–69. 189. 368–69 gender issues. 53. 558–59. 346t. 185b participatory market chain approach (PMCA). 238b nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). 371–72 investment rationale. 560–61 potential benefits. 55. 320 innovative activity profiles. 90 outcome mapping. 318b for coordination and collective action. Bernardo. 198 financing. See also agricultural business development. Sierra Leone). 348b Ospina Patiño. 262–63. 556–58. 266 NIAB (Network of Indian Agri-Business Incubators). 362–63 limited. 395b participatory group learning. 90. 370 extension and advisory services. 207–8. 52. 431b coordination and collective action role of. 319–20. See nongovernmental organizations NIA (National Innovation Agency. Senegal). 324 governance issues. 70. 196t innovation networks and. 73t ParqueSoft Centers (Colombia). 17b public-private research partnerships in. 316–22. 313b creation and consolidation of. 270. 369–71 principles for. 372–73. 345b. 598–602. 23–25b. 324 monitoring and evaluation of. 56. 317t lessons learned. 62b participatory research. 195. 90 niche markets. 323–24 potential benefits. 313b participatory monitoring and evaluation. 553 learning organizations and. Andrea. 423 Nicaragua cluster-based business development in. 469 Panama cassava research in. 231 no-till agriculture in. 432–33b learning alliances in. 572b outsourcing partnerships. 294 Oxfam. Christopher. 154 Njaa Marufuku project (Kenya). 561 methods. 267 no-till networks. 344–49. 589–92 Pakistan agrodealer development in. 278b. 589–92 partnerships. 23b. 67 public-private research partnerships in. 330 policy issues. 316–25 capacity building and. 430–34. 317–19. 377 for research. 46 marketing chains. 319b incentives for change. 576b Participatory Radio Campaigns. 600t innovation brokers and. 559b lessons learned. 311. public-private partnerships agricultural business development and. 22t. 70–74. 225 Pape-Christiansen. 365b innovation funds. 555b household surveys.NGOs. Thailand). 431–33b. 72t. 390b. 555–59 performance assessment. 316–17. 559–60 staff surveys. 291b Partnership for Agricultural Innovation and Development (PAID. See also specific organizations cluster-based business development and. 208b one-stop agribusiness centers. 72–73t O OIKOS (NGO). 435–41 investment context. Sierra Leone). 10. 554f. 406 Paraguay cluster-based business development in. 16b equity issues. 281–82b 652 INDEX . 553–55. 17b extension and advisory services. 58 Nigeria agrodealer development in. 431b P PAID (Partnership for Agricultural Innovation and Development. 326–30. 405b no-till agriculture in. 234b business development services in. 72 Palmberg. 20–26. 553–61 benchmarking and. 45b gender and assessment of. 373t policy issues. 27b defined. 97 Papa Andina codesigned innovation and. 361–448. 385b rural productive alliances in. 327b.

198–200 environmental issues. 385b. 95–99. 205–7. 31. 583b public-private partnerships. 23. 298b Produce Foundations (Mexico). 323–24 partnerships. 28–29.Peking University (China). John. 201 institutional framework and. 201 equity issues. 196t. 431b. 488. 577–78.. 189. P. 209–10 marketing chains. 42t project management. 37 curriculum reform. 541–43. 517b local business development services (LBDSs). 201 investment context. 194–203. 411–12 tertiary education and training. 45b project-based funding. 560–61 organizational change. 455–56. 90–94. Mozambique). 450–52. 450f. 267. 92b education and training. 62b. 184. 241. 542t. 226 innovation funds. 409b PepsiCo. 456 Preissing. See also agenda setting private sector. 134 education and training. defined. See also monitoring and evaluation (M&E) performance-based contracts. 57 pluralistic extension systems. 202 policy issues. 271–72 role of. See also public-private partnerships coordination and collective action. 249b performance. 187–91 “extension-plus” approach. 51 in-service training capacity. 369b. defined. 314 coordination and collective action. 541–43. 320–21b Philippines public-private research partnerships in. 27b. 487–88 local business development services (LBDSs). 31. 48–49. 300–302 research. 540b. 208–10 marketing chains. 90. 313b policy issues agricultural research linkages. 281b. 290b. 202 “extension-plus” approach. 540b. 244. 201 gender issues. 17–18 enabling environment for innovation and. 41b. 410. 220t. 418–19 technician development. Robert. 567–68 innovation brokers. 142–43 Prolinnova network. 187. 142 intellectual property (IP) management. 379 INDEX 653 . 600t innovation networks in. 216–18 foresighting investments. 40. 269–70 risk capital investments. 200 PROINPA Foundation (Bolivia). 201 research financing. 218 innovation networks and. 212 capacity building for. 384–85 innovation networks. 494–95 business incubators. 293–94. 156 Potter. 199t lessons learned. 385b research and development in. 181b. 286–87 assessment. 5b. 480 poverty reduction coordination and collective action role in. 196t capacity building for. 60 Propensity Score Matching. 200–201 public-private partnerships. 23 PROfarm courses. 385b product marketing companies. 342b. 550–51 biosafety regulatory systems. 274b research and development in. 222b. 56–57 monitoring and evaluation (M&E). 400. 483–84. 431b codesigned innovations. 190t. 5b. 12b value chains. 433b. 57. 410. 514 Peru agricultural innovation systems in. 489. 457 evaluation. 205f. 585 extension and advisory services. 191. 240–45 gender and program assessment in. 374–80 business development services. 598–602. 143 enabling environment for innovation and. 128 value chains. 300 plant variety rights (PVRs). 75–79 Producer organization. See also farmer organization defined. 453b pluralistic extension systems. 93 PROCISOR. 411–12. 60. 542t. 45b public-private research partnerships in. 195–97 investment needs. 6b. 24. 456 exit strategies. 197–200. 369–71 pluralistic extension systems. 376 regional research. 200 public and private sector roles. 290t. 112–13 enabling environment for innovation. 201 recommendations. 200–201 potential benefits. 378–79 for coordination and collective action. 379 cluster-based business development and. 137b Programa Nacional de Extensão Agrária (PRONEA. 28 extension and advisory services. 203 sustainability. 391 cluster-based business development. 195. 464–65 organizational assessment. 404b contracts for. 200 PMCA (participatory market chain approach). 240 priorities. 283 research funding in. 56–57 Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). 270 Pingali. 585 national innovation policy. 3b extension and advisory services in. 208. 138–39 Technology Transfer Offices. 49b. 47–49 intellectual property (IP) management. 631 Productive Partnerships Project (Colombia). 52. 93.

517b local business development services (LBDSs). 492 investment needs. 488. 377 recommendations. 376 principles for. 218 innovation networks. 298b investment needs. 501–11. 268 roundtables. 48–49. 294–95. 510–11 policy issues. 522–25 technical regulations and standards. 326 PVRs (plant variety rights). 449. 379–80. 5b. 369b lessons learned. 57 pluralistic extension systems. 303–7. Ghana). 505t investment context. 48 innovative activity profiles. 492–511 biosafety regulatory systems. 275. 57. 510 Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020 (U. 277–88. 293–94. 38b Research-Extension-Linkage Committees (RELCs. 270–75 investment rationale. 417–18b recommendations. 297–99. 550–51 coordination and collective action. 280b Research Into Use (RIU) program. Riikka. 93 public sector. 133b. 6b innovation networks and. 494–95 potential benefits. 49b intellectual property (IP) management. 452–53. 269–70 public-private partnerships and. 571b regional research. 270. Ghana). 374–75 investment needs. 209–10 marketing chains. 460. 180. 493b interministerial coordination for. 414–20 investment context. 302 investment context. 603 Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural Knowledge Systems (RAAKS). 195. 262–64 investment needs. 274b. 334–36b research councils. 92b. 375–76 investment rationale. 502b institutional frameworks and. 493–94 lessons learned. 616–18b RIR (Rural Infrastructure Revival). 205–7. 492–511. 270 financing for. 270 equity issues. 291b policy issues. 201 research financing. 294–95. 302–7 monitoring and evaluation of. 304–5t policy issues. 327b sustainability.S. 497–98. 45b. 159b decentralization of. 345b. 308–15 community-based. 291–92b reforms. 90–94. 344–49. 34..). 270. 261–62 monitoring and evaluation of. 346t. 331–37. 294 research. 297–307 equity issues. 1. 189. 504. 492–500 capacity building for. 495–99 policy issues. 295–96 research and. Ranjitha. 272–73. 262–63. 457. 277. 418–19 potential benefits. 419–20 policy issues. 416–18. 348b participatory. 289–96. 452–53. 291–92b. 420 venture capital funds. 285b. 128 RELCs (Research-Extension-Linkage Committees. 261–360 in agricultural innovation system. 316–25. 10 regional. 196t “extension-plus” approach. 39b. 247 risk capital. 495–99 cluster-based business development and. 397–98 coordination and collective action and. 207. 5b role of. 93 Puskur. 276t organizational framework for. 271. 38–40. 326–49 investment context. 58 Royal Tropical Institute. 415–16 Rockefeller Foundation. 614–19. 21. 277 Rajalahti. 415f. 380b policy issues. 133. 301b regulatory frameworks. 302 Regional Unit for Technical Assistance (RUTA). 494b recommendations. 376 potential benefits. 207 654 INDEX . 522–25 innovative activity profiles. 503t lessons learned. 299–300 lessons learned. 507–8 public and private sector roles. Catherine. 264–69 codesigned innovations. 289–96. 278b. 501 Rosenberg. 505. 297–307 technology transfer and. 453b R Ragasa. 415t investment models. 190. 274b. 275. 300 sustainability. 508–10. 301b Roseboom. 414–15. 12b value chains. 503–4b. See also public-private partnerships assessment and. 190t. Johannes. 362–63. 494. 15. 509t potential benefits. 498b investment context. 505b. 501–2 investment needs. 457. N. 379 value chains and. 157–59. 92b. 5–7. 293. 90–94. 272b initiatives to strengthen. 502–7. 509b. 271b ICTs and. 63b investment context. 347 Regional Universities Forum in Africa (RUFORUM). 289–90. 109b. 483–84. 300–302 potential benefits. 294b.public-private partnerships (continued) extension and advisory services. 205f. 280b representational partnerships. 206b farmer organizations and. 28 extension and advisory services. 21 enabling environment for innovation and. 284–86. 381. 133b. 376–80 monitoring and evaluation of. 262–63. 415–16 lessons learned.

China). David J. 95–106 enabling environment for innovation and. 145–48 State Office for Comprehensive Agricultural Development (SOCAD. 56–57 national innovation policy and. 56–57 social network analysis. Chile). 297–98. 471. 306–7b research and development in. 126 Rural Infrastructure Revival (RIR). India). 455b.rural areas business development and. 21 science parks. gender issues enabling environment for innovation and. Fair Food Project. 8b SAUs (state agricultural universities. 605f.. 411b strategic alliances. 45b. 399 education and training in. 152 SOCAD (State Office for Comprehensive Agricultural Development. 84–89. 320b Suale. 53. 247 self-help groups (SHGs). 247 Shining Path. 156 rural productive alliances. 277. 85b. 209 Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty (SERP. 327b SAFE (Sasakawa Africa Fund Education) Program. 50 Sulaiman. 234b gender-inclusive education in. 294 staff surveys. David. 247. 273 subsectoral coordination. 211 Secondary Vocational Agricultural Education Program (U. 185b Safe Food. 155 SERP (Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty. 110b Supervised Enterprise Project (SEP). 526 Senegal. Rasheed.S. 95–106 value chains and. 427 State University of Campinas (Unicamp. 183 scenario planning. 454–55. 154. 109b S SACCAR (Southern African Center for Cooperation in Agricultural Research and Training). 456 extension and advisory services and. 40–41 subsidies. See also specific countries education and training in. 128 second-round funding. 593 science and technology councils. 133. 55 productive alliances in.. 108 extension and advisory services in. 156 sanitary/phytosanitary standards. 401b cluster-based development in. 80 skill gap analysis. 157–59 learning alliances in. 392. 422 Self Help Group Quality Improvement Program (SHGQIP). 238 policy and planning assessment in. 416 sector-specific incubators. See also equity issues. 457–58 higher education reform and. 421 SHGQIP (Self Help Group Quality Improvement Program). 154–56 Samako Agricultural Institute (Mali). 155 INDEX 655 . 603–6. 389–90 seed fund investment. 604t. Silvia. 273 supermarkets. 464 value chains and. 183 SAE (Supervised Agricultural Experience). 474b public-private research partnerships in. agricultural research linkages in. 275. 71b satellite imagery. 560b startup funding. 90 regional research and. 84–89 shared responsibility system. 25–26. India). 247 Rural Polytechnic Institute of Training and Applied Research (Mali). 307b strategic intelligence capabilities in.). 242–43. 17b marketing chains and. 502b Sarapura. 264. Kiran K. 72 policy coordination organizations in. 154. 108 Southern African Center for Cooperation in Agricultural Research and Training (SACCAR). 369. 99 Rural Research and Development Council (Australia). 589–92 Sistema Nacional de Innovación para la Competitivad (SNIC. 281–82b SEP (Supervised Enterprise Project). 48 marketing chains and. 307b SACCOs (savings and credit cooperatives). 427 social capital. Andhra Pradesh). Brazil). Andhra Pradesh). China). 110b Safaricom. 247 SHGs (self-help groups). 606b Schiffer. 99 Rural Capacity Building Project (Ethiopia). 86–87f. 84. 154 Sasakawa Africa Fund Education (SAFE) Program. 31. 7 “extension-plus” approach and. 271–72 SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). 84–89 Sokoine University of Agriculture (Tanzania). 370–71 Sharma. 66 regional research coordination in. 241 Sierra Leone Farmer Field Schools in. 374 Strategic Services Development Fund (Peru). 307b Spielman. 133. 400. 393–94b Rwanda agrodealer development in. 369 coordination organizations in. 190 farmer organizations in. 213. 361. 218 innovation networks and. 79b social targeting of local business development services. 84. 476b South Asia. 156 South Africa cluster-based business development in. 154–56 Sasakawa–Global 2000. 129 governance of innovation systems in. 473b no-till agriculture in. 37b Rutgers Food Innovation Center (USA). 416 state agricultural universities (SAUs. Eva. 558–59. 31. 145–48 savings and credit cooperatives (SACCOs). 589 Sub-Saharan Africa education and training in. 415. 87–88b. 598 Sasakawa Africa Association. 126b. 56b Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE).

139 tertiary education and training. 147 value chains. See also education and training farmer organizations and. 277–325 coordination and collective action for AIS. 137b lessons learned. 34–69 enabling environment for AIS. 368 governance and. 147–48 policy issues. 45b. 151–53 innovative activity profiles. 285b agrodealer development and. 375b public-private research partnerships in. 40–41 Thematic Notes agricultural education and training to support AIS. 125–26. 139 policy issues. 235b financing. 122–44 agricultural research as part of AIS. 211 Swiss-Re. 401b extension and advisory services in. monitoring and evaluating AIS. 232. 379. 145–53. 29 extension and advisory services. 131–35. 23b technology parks. 367–68 technology transfer. 123–25. 278b 656 INDEX . 440 research capacity building in. 396 third-round funding. 233b. 374–420 assessing. 170b investment context. 136–37 investment needs. 187. 122–62 comprehensive reform. 136–40 Thailand coordination organizations in. 482 Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPS). 424 coordination and collective action. 408t. 475b territorial innovation programs. 413b training for. 68 for intellectual property (IP) management. 207b Farmer Field Schools in. 416 Tianjin Women’s Business Incubator (TWBI. 407–9 lessons learned. education and training in. 136–40 innovative activity profile. 407–8. 81b. 157–62 in-service training. 364 TBIE (theory-based impact evaluation). 490b training and visit (T&V) extension model. 128 recommendations. 125 public-private partnerships in. 128 program design. 182 Training of Teachers (ToT) program. 540b. 334–36b Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs). 200. 412–13. China). 163–64. 129–30. 238 gender-inclusive education in. 407t investment needs. See also Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) agricultural business development and. 128 potential benefits of investment. 137–38. 210 marketing chains and. 23b education and training in. 188 intellectual property (IP) management and. 194–230 innovation partnerships and business development. 5b innovation brokers and. 128–29. 157. 409–10 recommendations. prioritizing. 218 Farmer Field Schools. 584b Technical Assistance and Support Services (TASS). 137b ToT (Training of Teachers) program. 81b tertiary education and training. 20. 141–44 institutional development and. 171 sustainability business incubators. 47–48 local business development services. 122–23 investment needs. 56–57 pluralistic extension systems. 408t Tekes (Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation). 392b Timor-Leste. 109b innovation funds in. 189–90 “extension-plus” approach. 547b Theus. 265. 482–83 research and. 284–86. 139 technology consortiums. 138–39 potential benefits. 246 technician development. 426–29 agricultural research linkages and. 284–86. 200 public-private partnerships. 318b tax incentives. 385 regional research. 124–25b curriculum reform. 485–86 investment context. 126. 163–64 transforming economies. 481b training. 408–9 institutional framework and. 147 investment context. 338–43 Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV). 584b theory of change. 460–511 extension and advisory services as part of AIS. 407–8. 302 technician development. 238 innovation funds. 226 intellectual property (IP) management and. 410. 139–40 sustainability. 165–68 Tocal College (Australia).Supervised Student Internship Programs. 285b. 546–88 theory-based impact evaluation (TBIE). 410. 147 for technician development. 169–71. 410–13 policy issues. 123–28 lessons learned. 327b systemic intermediaries. 158–59 thematic coordination. Florian. 56–57 Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). 406–7. 138 recommendations. 384b Technology Licensing Office (Thailand). 331–37. 163–64 trade extension and advisory services. 440–41 innovation networks. 411–12 potential benefits. 406–13. 489–90. 274b Thailand Research Fund (TRF). 547–48. 126b. 130b sustainability and. 221 T Tanzania cluster-based business development in.

224b vocational education and training (VET). 58 U UAP Insurance. matching grant schemes in. 401b Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. 163–64 Uganda Fish Processors and Exporters Association. 109. 125. 430–34. 415–16 vertical coordination. 272 rural productive alliances and. 411b Union Training Centers (India). 500b Villagro Network.. 215b. 154 INDEX 657 . 149–50. 377 TRF (Thailand Research Fund). 156 University of Beijing (China). 127–28. 111 United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). 308. 55 policy issues. 184. 206b Farmer Field Schools in. 158–59 Trinidad and Tobago. 112b. 384b TTOs. 109b. 219b Veldhuizen. 435 West Africa. 90 Triomphe. See also specific countries Agricultural Productivity Project. 109b innovation brokers in. 61 governance and. 186–87b. 496–97b business development services in. 56–57 sustainability and. biosafety regulatory systems in. public-private research partnerships in. 327b Udayana University (Indonesia). 57. 31. 431–33b United States business incubators in. 391 cluster-based development in. 52–58 defined. 338 Vegetable and Fruit Promotion Council. 265 Uruguay coordination organizations in. 168 Uganda biosafety regulatory systems in. 207 Vasumathi. 435 Vende Project (Paraguay). 16b investment context. 90 vocational education in. Laurens van. 41b coordination and collective action. 160. 27b Williams. 481b Tropical Agriculture Research and Education Center. Ariani. 404b Unicamp (Brazil). 155–56 upward accountability. India). 262. 136–40 W Wadi Programme of Dharampur Uththan Vahini (India). See Technology Transfer Offices Turkey. 73t public-private research partnerships in. 163 Wartenberg. 57 niche markets and. China). 264 biosafety regulatory systems in. 80. 70. 522–25 Center for Crop Improvement. 201. 46. 205b. 344 Tsinghua University (China). 285b Whirlpool Company. 299b Network of Peasant and Agricultural Producers’ Organizations. 401b Wines of South Africa (WOSA). 516–21. 384b TWBI (Tianjin Women’s Business Incubator. 157. 73t public-private research partnerships in.transparency competitive research funding and. 53–55 lessons learned. 479 public-private partnerships. 205b cluster-based business development in. 404b extension and advisory services in. 93 recommendations. 205. 20 veterinary medicines. Melissa. 200. 246 Vega Alarcón. 238 gender-inclusive education in. 274b research and development in. 607 Waters-Bayer. 99 social capital issues. 152–53 no-till agriculture in. 217b. 90 venture capital funds. 31. 216b Wageningen University and Research Center. 55–56 public and private sector roles. 109 United States Agency for International Development (USAID). 384b Turkey Technology Development Project. 191 farmer organizations. Bernard. 39 no-till agriculture in. 392b 200 Markets Upgrading Program (China). Kerala (VFPCK. 402 coordination and collective action. 361. 57–58 research financing and. Rodrigo. 25b United Nations. 72 public-private research partnerships in. K. 63b. 217 urbanized economies.. 111. 409b University of Cape Coast (Ghana). 52–53 investment needs. 397 cluster-based development and. 271b V value chains. 368–69. 60 Seed Alliance. 405b University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin). 56–57 Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences. 409b TTGV (Technology Development Foundation of Turkey). 405b Venezuela no-till agriculture in. 234b. 506–7b technical skill development in. 181b. 517–18b Vietnam. 84. 2b United Nations Educational. Ann. 526 Wine Industry Network for Expertise and Technology (Winetech). 226 technical regulations and standards in. Scientific. 56–57 potential benefits. 435 TRIPS (Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights Agreement). 399 education and training in. 39b INIA. 383. 52–58 cluster-based business development vs. 35 extension and advisory services. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

181b. 243 farmer organizations and. 396 Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Funds (ZARDEFs). 117b gender-inclusive education in. 262 rural productive alliances and. 128. See gender issues Women’s Development and Leadership Develpoment Programs (India). 512–15 business development services in. 6. 347 public-private partnerships and. Kellogg Foundation. 241. 404b research and development investments by. 401b X Xavier Labour Research Institute. 96 World Development Report 2008 (World Bank).K. 265 WOSA (Wines of South Africa). 263. 435 World Bank on education and training. Douglas. 427 Z Zambia agricultural business development in. 240b. 318ba 658 INDEX .W. Mariana. 160 women. 109b Zamorano University (Honduras). 385b. 67 learning alliances and. 133 Zeng. 384b. 323b research centers. 207 education and training in. 111. 138 extension and advisory services. 112. 25b Wongtschowski. 108 education financing. 5b. 217b Y Yangling High Technology Agricultural Demonstration Zone.

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