Kernmantle Rope A large number of filaments running the whole length of the rope are contained in a braided sheath. This construction gives it a high tensile strength, protection against abrasion and comparative freedom from twisting. Kermantle ropes are commonly available from a diameter of 2mm to 11 mm. The smaller sizes are used for a variety of ways while the bigger ones (10 – 11 mm) are used for climbing. Laid Rope Natural synthetic fibers are twisted into yarns into strands, and the strands twisted into ropes. "Hawser-laid" rope with a diameter of 11 mm, made of strong nylon, may be used as a mountaineering rope. Woven Rope Synthetic fibers are woven or braided into line or rope in small diameters. This type of rope is inferior to the above types and should not be used as a climbing rope.

A knot is any lump in the rope. A bend is a knot joining two ropes. A hitch is a knot joining a rope to something else. A loop is a knot joining a rope to itself. Overhand. (Thumb Knot) A knot used to secure loose rope ends after another knot has been tied. The simplest of all knots, formed by passing one end of a rope over and around the other end. The overhand knot is the basis for a wide variety of more complicated knots. It is commonly used to temporarily "stop" the end of a fraying rope.

Tips. The Thumb knot jams easily so it is far better to use a Figure of Eight knot to stop the end of a fraying rope.

a cowboy bowline is a bowline that also has the running end of the rope coming out of the wrong side of the knot. Two half hitches. In the same way that a Left Handed Sheet bend is a Sheet bend that has the running end of the rope coming out of the wrong side of the knot.Bowline. will never jam. The loop formed by the running eye knot can be made smaller by pulling on the standing part of the rope. and can be easily untied. This is most often used to tie a climbing rope around your waist when conditions warrant the need for a safety rope. and the rabbit is the running end of the rope. A quick-release modification.For added security. . A knot used for fastening. . where the hole is the small loop. It is used for making a fixed loop that will not jam or slip.    A chant used by many to remember this knot is "The rabbit comes out of the hole. The running eye knot is made by tying a simple overhand knot around the body of the rope. Slip knot. Formed by making a loop in the rope with the end portion under the standing part. . is the running eye knot. around the standing part. and back down the hole again". finish the knot with a stop knot such as a Figure of Eight knot to remove any possibility of the Bowline slipping.perhaps a rescue where a harness is unavailable . The bowline has been called the king of knots. Don't be afraid to use this knot to form a loop of any size in rope. Half-hitch.then you MUST use a stop knot as mentioned above. It suffers the same problems as the left handed sheet bend. check to see that the running end exits the knot on the inside of the loop.If you use this knot in a man carrying situation . Two half-hitches placed one on top of the other are frequently used to fasten a rope to a spar or other object. the simplest form of sliding knot or slip knot. In contrast to the bowline. it will hold under tension. . and back through the loop. Good for fastening a rope to a post or a ring. round the tree.To quickly identify if you have tied the Bowline normal or left handed. It is made by forming a loop in the rope some distance from the end and then passing the end of the rope through the loop. Tips.

The halfhitches hold the doubled-over part of the rope in place. This knot is used for tying a rope to a log. The tightness of the rope can be adjusted by sliding the hitch. Often used to tie a rope around a post or peg. At each end of the doubled-over portion a half-hitch is taken over the looped ends with the standing part of the rope. If you are in a situation where the clove hitch may unroll.Sheepshank. . Finally twist the running end around itself three or four times. use the Round turn and two half hitches to start and finish your lashings instead of the Clove Hitch. Since the knot does not slip. and is easier to finish tying off. It just does not look so neat! Tautline hitch. or where security is not an issue. Wrap the rope around the log. With practice. This is often used for joining two ropes of different thickness or diameter. it is used to tie the guy lines of a tent to the peg. Resembling a bowline.)  Tip: Jolly useful for dragging logs back to the camp fire! Sheet bend. Often used to start and finish lashings. add a couple of half hitches with the running end to the standing end of the knot. Primarily used to attach a guy line to a tent. Used to shorten a rope temporarily. Like the clove hitch. and can in fact suffer from the hitch unrolling under tension if the pole can turn. It is made by doubling a portion of the central part of the rope over on itself one or more times. This knot tightens under strain. Clove hitch. It won't unroll. it is used in bushcraft. this can be easily tied with one hand especially useful for sailors!  Tips. turning it into a "Clove Hitch and Two Half Hitches"! . (Note: this is only shown twice in the animation.When pioneering. Timber hitch. but comes undone extremely easily when the rope is slack. then pass the running end around the standing part of the rope. It rarely jams.

its end is tied to the bight of another rope instead of its own. shoelaces. around the first rope. and packages. Englishman's bend. This is used for tying two thin ropes of equal size together. in which the rope ends come out of the knot on different sides of the loops. (Angler's knot. in opposite directions. This kind of knot will slip if the slightest tension is placed on it. It is also more decorative and is frequently used for tying neckties. and is very effective with small diameter strings and twines. When tying knots in monofilament line. which brings the rope ends out of the knot at either end on the same side of the loop. Granny knot. in the running end of the first rope around the second rope. Note the Thumb knots are tied such they lie snugly against each other when the standing ends are pulled. it is believed to be the oldest of all practical knots and is one of the most useful. Bow knot. reducing the area of the sail). It is formed by tying two overhand knots. The loops of the square bow knot are parallel to the standing part of the knot. In its simplest form. The granny is less secure than the square knot and is more likely to jam if tension is applied to one end. because it can be loosened by pulling on the ends. It is used by fishermen to join fishing line. Also known as the reef knot because of its use in tying reefs in ships' sails (that is. It is a lso the best knot for joining fine lines together. The square bow knot is less likely to slip or to jam than the granny bow knot. Then tie a thumb knot in the second rope. moisten . It is strong and easily tied and untied. Waterman's knot) This is used for tying two ropes of equal diameter together. If two overhand knots are tied in the same direction. one on top of the other. and also for tying bandages in first aid. The bow knot can be tied either in square or granny form.   Tie a Thumb knot. is a modification of the square knot. It has been replaced to a large degree by the double fisherman’s knot. True Lover's bend. The first overhand knot is tied with the ends of the rope as in the square knot. the result is a granny knot. English knot. Another variant on this simple knot is the fool's knot or thief knot. The bow knot is simpler to untie than the square knot. Fisherman’s knot. Halibut knot. which is similar to the square knot except that the loose ends emerge diagonally from opposite corners of the knot. whereas the loops of the granny bow knot are perpendicular to the standing part. but in tying the second overhand knot the ends are doubled into loops and the knot is tied with the loops rather than the ends. Square knot.

(Flemish Knot. but it is frequently incorporated into decorative rope designs. It is the most decorative of all simple knots. Also known as a grapevine knot. . which weakens it.  Tips: The Figure of Eight is useful to temporarily stop the ends of a rope fraying. Savoy Knot) A strong knot that can be readily untied after being under load. Double fisherman’s knot. This helps to stop the line heating up with friction. this is the most secure and preferred knot for tying the ends of two ropes together for rappell. Figure of 8 knot. It is made by doubling the end of a rope to form a loop and passing the free end around and under the standing part and then through the loop. before it is whipped. Its practical use is confined to stopper knots on the ends of lines.the line before pulling the knot tight.

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