• • • • • • • • Navigation Problem Inertial Navigation Schemes Inertial Instruments Reference Systems and Models Navigation Equations and Error Sources Navigation Aids: Global Positioning System Integrated INS-KF, INS-GPS Systems Examples and Applications

3.1. The Navigation Problem The navigation problem answers two fundamental questions of motion and travel: • • what is my current position? where am I travelling to?

In navigation, a fundamental role is the precise determination of the current position and velocity in time. Such problem requires the definition of several reference systems that need to be used to relate the motion to, in order to compute motion components.

It is also important to note, that the variable time is not a dependent variable anymore, but it is an important independent variable, and reduction of all possible errors concurring to the evaluation of the current position is such that state estimation plays now a very critical role in the general navigation loop.

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Sistemi di guida e navigazione, a cura di Mario Innocenti

Figure 3.2: Latitude and Longitude Definitions

Independently of mechanization, the navigation solution always requires: Position: Velocity: Attitude - Latitude, longitude, altitude - X, Y, Z, components in Earth centered coordinate frame - North, East, Down - Roll, Pitch, Yaw - Quaternions - Cosine directors

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Figure 3.3: Example of referenced Position Variables

There are two main approaches to navigation, one that uses and refers to external aids, and a second, which is completely independent from them.

3.1.1. Dead Reckoning This is an example of navigation using external aids. Dead-Reckoning relies on the continuous updating of the position data derived from inputs of velocity components or speed and heading generated from a known start position. A simple example of this technique is a system, which uses a compass heading in combination with a device, such as an odometer, to measure the distance travelled over the ground. The accuracy of dead reckoning is largely influenced by the accuracy with which the initial position, velocity and heading are known. If the basic information comes from an AIR-DATA sensor, the measure velocity is:
n b n ν n = Cb Cw ∆ν w + νw

(1)

If the basic information comes from a RADAR-DOPPLER sensor, then:
n b s ν n = Cb Cs ν

(2)

From one of the above measurements we obtain latitude and longitude information:

⎧ ν north φ = ⎪ Rmerid + h ⎪ ⎨ ν east ⎪λ = ⎪ [Rnormal + h ] cos φ ⎩ A possible implementation is shown in figure 3.4.

(3)

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Sistemi di guida e navigazione, a cura di Mario Innocenti

separated by a sufficient interval of time. • Three radar range measurements and three radar velocity measurements made simultaneously. the Sun) requires six independent measurements of vehicle position or velocity. on three separate celestial bodies moving in precisely known orbits around the Sun.1.Figure 3.5: Inertial Navigation Structure 3. Over a long time.2. Some possible examples are: • Two sets of radar range measurements. a cura di Mario Innocenti . The best known way of implementing such a reference system is by a gyro stabilized platform. made on three celestial bodies moving in precisely known orbits around the Sun. separated by sufficient intervals of time. The computer operates mathematically on the accelerometer indications to determine the true position. however. A number of combinations of quantities might conceivably be measured by optical or radar instruments to obtain the six independent measurements. at a known instant of time. Navigation in Space Each "fix" on the orbit of an unpowered vehicle in free space (under the gravitational attraction of a single body. imperfections in the gyros will cause the platform and the reference to drift out of alignment. Inertial Navigation Schemes Inertial navigation is implemented in two main ways as introduced earlier. velocity 5 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. To remove these errors it is necessary periodically to correct the platform alignment by sightings on the fixed stars.4. and this reference system must be maintained by some form of instrumentation on board the rocket. Three photographs of a major planet against its background of stars. 3. The stabilized platform isolates the accelerometers from rotational motions of the vehicle and maintains the proper orientation of accelerometer axes. These measurements must be related to a known reference system.

no 6 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. as shown in figures 3. and steering commands for the control system. gimbal magnetics (torquers must not leak magnetic flux) and reliability (bearings and slip rings tend to wear).of the vehicle. cost and performance. reliability (no gimbal magnetics. the major advantages are: simpler gyros (platform rotates at small rates. self alignment by gyro compassing and sensor calibration by platform rotations.7: Mechanization of Stabilized Inertial Platform Strap down platforms are characterized by components rigidly attached to the vehicle with benefits due to reduced size.7.8 and 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti .6 shows the general assembly of a stabilized platform. The mechanization of the overall INU is shown in figure 3. Figure 3. On the other hand some of the disadvantages are: complexity and cost. Among the advantages of Strapdown systems we have: simple structure.9. high accuracy (North and East accelerometers do not see a component of gravity). low cost. more rugged and lighter assembly. lower dynamic range). This solution finds its main application in space travel.6: Schematic Representation of Stabilized Inertial Platform Figure 3. Figure 3. no slip rings. with sensors and state variables.

long term characterization of the two methods. Figure 3.10 below. 7 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. motion induced errors which can only be partly compensated for. airborne radar ot other form of radar were used. namely radar and GPS systems. a cura di Mario Innocenti . A signal flow scheme of an inertial local level navigator is shown in figure 3.9: Mechanization of Strapdown Inertial Platform Improvement in navigation errors computation and reduction requires data estimation Kalman filters). There are of course disadvantages as: more difficult to align. more difficult to calibrate. accelerometer errors (each accelerometer may feel 1 g from gravity) and requires a computer that can perform coordinate rotations in <. electronics more reliable then machinery).8: Schematic Representation of Strapdown Inertial Platform Figure 3. Prior to GPS. and integration of inertial navigation output. with other schemes.01 sec). Synergy between inertial and GPS navigation is particularly effective due to the short term.bearings.

10: Signal Flow in Inertial Navigation Example: Consider a simplified implementation of a 2D inertial navigation unit (Strapdown). Figure 3.Figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti . The gyroscope is mounted with the sensitive axis orthogonal to both accelerometers.11: Basic Components of a Strapdown INU The system contains two accelerometers and a single rate gyroscope. all of which are attached rigidly to the body of the vehicle. allowing it to detect rotations about an axis perpendicular to the plane of motion (yb). The navigation is assumed to occur with respect to an inertial system denoted by 8 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. The sensitive axes of the accelerometers. indicated by the arrows directions are normal to each other and in the directions of motion (xb. zb) axes.

9 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. These quantities are combined with the specific force to determine true accelerations denoted by (ν xi . zi). This information is then used to resolve the measurements of specific force (fxb. and possibly altitude.xi. The full set of equations needed to be solved is given by: ⎧θ = ωib ⎪ ⎪fxi = fxb cos θ + fzb sin θ ⎪f = −fxb sin θ + fzb cos θ ⎪ zi ⎨ν xi = fxi + g xi ⎪ν = f + g zi ⎪ zi zi ⎪ xi = ν xi ⎪ ⎩zi = ν zi (4) Now consider the specialization of (4) to the 2D case for the navigation in a rotating frame.12 for a vehicle moving in a meridian plane around the Earth. ν zi ) . Such a system would be required to provide estimates of velocity with respect to the Earth. A gravity model. derived in a space fixed coordinate. stored in the computer. a cura di Mario Innocenti . to a geographic frame. yi.11. defined in this case simply by the direction of the local vertical at the current location of the vehicle. position along the meridian. fzb) into the reference frame. An alternative often used is to navigate directly with respect to the latter reference frame. body attitude θ is computed by integrating the measured angular rate ωyb with respect to time. Referring now to figure 3. These are subsequently integrated twice to obtain estimates of vehicle velocity and position. is assumed to provide estimates of the gravity components in the reference frame.12: Meridian View of a 2D Strapdown Navigation We are concerned here with a vehicle operating in the vertical plane alone. but it would entail a further transformation of the velocity and position. Figure 3. The situation is shown in figure 3. The mechanization given by (4) would work.

and current estimate of the turn rate of the geographic frame with respect to the inertial space. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Figure 3. The reference frames are depicted in figure 3.13: Frames for 2D Navigation about the local Vertical For a vehicle moving at a velocity νx. this rate is often called transport rate and is given by: νx R0 + h The equations describing the navigation solution are now described by the set (5): νx ⎧ ⎪θ = ωyb − R + h 0 ⎪ ⎪fx = fxb cos θ + fzb sin θ ⎪ ⎪fz = −fxb sin θ + fzb cos θ ⎪ ⎪ν = f + ν x ν z ⎨ x x R +h 0 ⎪ ⎪ ν2 x ⎪ν z = fz + g − + R h 0 ⎪ ⎪x = ν x ⎪ = ν z ⎪ ⎩ z (5) If we compare equations (4) and (5) we can say: • The attitude computation is modified to take into account of the turn rate of the local vertical as described above. in a single plane around a perfectly spherical Earth of radius R0. This information can be extracted by differentiating successive gyroscopic measurements of body turn rate with respect to inertial space.It is therefore necessary to keep track of the navigation information with respect to the local geographic frame.13 below. 10 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.

uniform Earth. and computer. There are different implementations and different sensitivities allowing the measurement of higher order vibrational modes as well. The gravity term appears only in the z-direction because of the assumption of spherical. 3.1. when the steady 11 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. the three main elements are: accelerometer. Accelerometers The main element for measuring acceleration on board a navigation unit is the accelerometer. is shown in figure 3. This section will describe in some detail the physical functioning and mathematical modelling. A generic physical description. Figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti .3. when the case itself is subjected to an acceleration along the sensitive axis (input axis).3. all with the same meaning. Inertial Instruments In the preceding sections we saw the basic components of an inertial navigation system. INS.14: Physical Model of an Accelerometer The basic principle consists of the measurement of the motion of a proof mass inside a case. leaving to later section a detailed analysis of the errors introduced. gyroscope. using linear modelling for potential and viscous damping. INU.• • The terms that appear in the velocity equations are included to take into consideration the additional forces acting as the system moves around the Earth (Coriolis terms).14. The mass will tend to oppose the motion according to its inertia. 3. The overall package goes under different synonyms such as IMU. In both stabilized and Strapdown mechanizations.

Let us assume that the case has an instantaneous acceleration a. the relationship between the vehicle (case) acceleration and the motion of the proof mass is trivial. When an accelerometer is not oriented normal to the local gravity vector. The latter is the variable of interest. leading to a second order transfer function: ⎧mξ + bξ + k ξ = mx ⎪ ξ(s ) 1 k ⎨ ⎪G(s ) = x (s ) = mk ⋅ ms 2 + bs + k ⎩ (8) Typical high performance accelerometers have a break frequency ωacc = k m about four to five times higher than the frequency of the fastest signal measured. the gravitational mass of the Earth will act on the proof mass stretching the spring and giving a non-zero acceleration signal as seen from (7) and repeated here: mξ + bξ + k ξ = mx + mg sin γ (9) 12 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. that is tilted up by an angle γ. thus acceleration. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Let y be the absolute acceleration of the proof mass. and define the relative motion of the mass with respect to the case by ξ. the force on the mass is balanced by the tension in the spring.14. Thus: ⎧a = x ⎨ ⎩ξ x − y (6) From the force free body diagram in figure 3.state is reached. and its value is picked up by a variable electric circuit. and the net extension of the spring results proportional to the applied force. we can derive the equation of motion of the proof mass as: −my + bξ + k ξ − mg sin γ = 0 (7) Rearranging we have: Suppose the inclination of the accelerometer is zero.

dimensions.The acceleration bias due to gravity a bias = g sin γ must be then taken in proper account when extracting the vehicle “true” acceleration from the measurement. and high dynamic range (104-105 dimensionless acceleration per resolution). The next figures describe some of the implementations. the actual technological implementation of the basic principle takes many different forms depending on application. small biases. In many applications restrained pendulum accelerometers are used as shown in figure 3. vibro-pendolous errors due to simultaneous acceleration and vibratory inputs.15. scale factor error caused by temperature effects. crossaxis coupling when g-loading is present. a cura di Mario Innocenti . precision. random bias due to assembly instabilities. As mentioned before. Figure 3. etc. The dominant sources of error for this accelerometer are: fixed bias arising from residual spring torques.15: Schematic of a restrained Pendulum Accelerometer Accelerometers of this type are capable of very high performance with good linearity.16: Pendulous fibre-optic Accelerometer 13 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Figure 3.

He named it from two Greek words. gyros – meaning “circle” or 14 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.17. and size of the photo-sensitive array. the material is elastic. Bohnenberger.18 shows another vibration-based accelerometer with a flat silicon proof mass cantilevered to the case.Figure 3. length of the optical fibre. and it has high strength and excellent electrical properties. Foucault.17: Vibrating Accelerometer 1 Figure 3. Figure 3. diameter of the optical fibre. The performance of the accelerometer depend on several parameters such as: size of the proof mass. a German inventor. 3. However. in 1810. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Gyroscopes 3. a French physicist. height of the suspension point.2.3. Figure 3.16 shows the schematic of a 2-axis pendulum–based accelerometer with optical pick-off generated by a laser moving under the input acceleration. it was Jean Foucault who built the first functional gyroscope in 1851. C.2.1. This solution is inexpensive.3. Brief History The earliest concepts for a gyroscope were put forth by G.18: Vibrating Accelerometer 2 An accelerometer based on asymmetrically vibrating quartz beams is schematically shown in figure 3. developed the instrument to demonstrate that the earth rotates on its axis.

developed a gyroscope in 1908 that could be carried on a submarine.19: Historical Review (taken by Sperry-Rand Corporation) The gyroscope plays a fundamental role in navigation for two main reasons: a) it can be used for direct measurements of motion variables. It contained two gyro wheels. an American named Elmer A. and skopein – meaning “to view”. Definition (Oxford Dictionary): An instrument designed to illustrate the dynamics of rotating bodies. a cura di Mario Innocenti . each weighing 4. as it was rigidly fixed to the ship. Anschutz-Kaempfe’s “gyrocompass” was itself problematic.000 pounds. In the same year as Anschutz-Kaempfe’s first gyrocompass installation. the maximum roll experienced by the ship was reduced from 30 degrees to just 6. 15 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. As a result. Hermann Anschutz-Kaempfe. a German manufacturer. Figure 3. since the tool had allowed him to ‘view’ the revolution of the earth. A continuous power supply was also necessary in order to keep the central disk rotating at a high speed. its precessing forces would largely counteract the roll being experienced by the ship. since it had to be free to turn yet also able to withstand significant movements of a ship at sea. His design allowed the axis of the rotor to move freely in a fore and aft direction. The ship itself was a 433-ton torpedo-boat destroyer.19) filed a patent for his own version of a gyrocompass that had significant improvement over the design of his German counterpart. and consisting essentially of a solid rotating wheel mounted in a ring. submarines could barely tell where they were at sea. when it was installed in the USS Worden. and having its axis free to turn in any direction. Due to the massive weight of the gyroscope. b) it maintains inertial reference of the applied forces to the vehicle.“ring”. His first prototype was not completed until 1912. since traditional ship navigation techniques were unavailable under water. At the time. Sperry (figure 3. The prototype used an electric motor to set the gyroscope precessing artificially just as the boat began to roll. but it could not move side to side.

Imagine taking a bicycle wheel and dangling it from a string attached to one side of the center of its spokes. setting the rotor in motion. the rotor will cause the gimbals to rotate and will thus remain almost exactly where it started. Inertia The inertia principle is shown in figure 3.2.20. and the wheel would return to its original horizontal position.. it will attempt to compensate by rotating around an axis that is perpendicular to the applied force 3. 16 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. it is quite obvious what would occur. Letting go of the wheel. Precession Understanding the precession is perhaps a little less intuitive however it is equally if not more relevant since it is this property that is used in order to use a gyroscope as a sensor for angular motion in terms of applied torque to a vehicle. a cura di Mario Innocenti .3. Then we lift some part of the wheel so that the entire wheel is now parallel with the string.2. We can take a rotor and mount it in a set of gimbals (metal rings). Gravity would cause the upper portion to flop back toward ground. Since inertia dictates that the rotating wheel desires to remain in the same plane of rotation.2.3. Figure 3.3.The two main physical principles behind the gyroscope are: • Inertia: when the spinning portion of a gyroscope (called a rotor) is set in motion it will attempt to keep its axis of rotation continuously pointing in the same direction • Precession: when a force is applied to a spinning rotor.20: Inertia Stiffness about Spin Axis 3. We start from a classical example. we can then hold on to an outer frame of the gyroscope and attempt to rotate the disc. The inertia or stiffness of a rotating disc is the gyroscopic principle used in recognizing an inertial direction in space.

21: Stationary Wheel hanging from a Rope The situation is depicted in figure 3. while also rotating around a vertical axis (rather than simply flopping over) since each point receiving left and right forces is rapidly moving away from the point at which it received that force. The last image c) shows the wheel as now spinning around a horizontal center line. If the wheel is set spinning before letting go. the locations marked in red desire to travel in the directions marked a blue. To understand how precession works. consider the first image a): the green arrows represent forces such as gravity pulling down and the string pulling up.21.22: Relationship between Angular Momentum and Precession 17 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.22 below: Figure 3. Figure 3. where the wheel simply flops over. we need to take a closer look at the forces acting on a gyroscope. the physics of precession is fairly intuitive. This makes sense when thinking about the non-spinning wheel example. we saw that it remains vertical but turns around the hanging string.22: Precession Explanation To continue with the bicycle wheel example. Consider the three images in figure 3. the result is a vertical position rotating about the rope (precession). a cura di Mario Innocenti . Now we spin the wheel as to rotate fast about the axle. As a result. On a basic level. but at the same time they are being spun.Figure 3. The second image b) demonstrates why this happens: the original points on the gyroscope that received left and right forces (marked as red) attempt to travel in those directions.

Point A is still traveling in the upward direction when it is at the 90 degrees position in figure 3. B. A gyro's axis will move at a right angle to a rotating motion. This is called precession. in this case to the right. represent the areas of the rim that are most important in visualizing how the workings. The bottom axis is held stationary but can pivot in all directions (see figure 3. D. as seen before. point A will be where point B was when the gyro has rotated 90 degrees. the axis would move in the precession plane to the left. the gyroscope resembles a spinning top and four point masses. depending on the gyro’s degrees of freedom. Since this gyro is rotating in a clockwise direction.24a).23: Precession Torque Details The principles of gyroscopes outlined above can be implemented in different ways. and point C will be traveling in the downward direction. If the gyro were rotating counter clockwise. or the number of gimbals used to hold the rotating mass In the simplest case.23. The same goes for point C and D.24b).The main reason for precession is the induced variation of the total angular momentum of the spinning wheel in its vector form as shown above. a cura di Mario Innocenti . point A is sent in an upward direction and C goes in a downward direction (figure 3. The combined motion of A and C cause the axis to rotate in the "precession plane" to the right (figure 3. If in the 18 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. and the variation term ∆L causes the precession about the rope as shown in figure 3. Figure 3. the applied torque τ originating by the wheel’s weight mg satisfies the relationship: d ( I ω) ⎡ dL ⎤ τ = mgl = ⎢ ⎥ = = Iω = Iα dt ⎣ dt ⎦ inertial (10) Such torque changes the constant angular momentum from L to L+∆L. A. C.24). When a tilting force is applied to the top axis. A spinning wheel at constant angular velocity ω produces an angular momentum L given by: L = Iω From second Newton’s law.24b.

There is no change in the RPM of the rim around the axis. the axis will rotate in the tilting force plane in this example. The rim then rotates back into the tilting force plane where it will be accelerated once more. Figure 3. the more the rim on the other side pushes the axis back when the rim revolves around 180 degrees. the tilting force (being constant) is more than the upward and downward counter acting forces. Actually. as needed. Figure 3. Gyroscopes. The property of precession of a gyroscope is used to keep monorail trains straight up and down as it turns corners. Sometimes precession is unwanted so two counter rotating gyros on the same axis are used. The gyro is a device that causes a smooth transition of 19 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Then. Each time the rim is accelerated the axis moves in an arc in the tilting force plane. a cura di Mario Innocenti . on one axis of a heavy gyro. where the rotating body doesn’t have a confined axis in any plane. The property of Precession represents a natural movement for rotating bodies.clockwise example the tilting force was a pull instead of a push. A more interesting example of gyroscopic effect is when the axis is confined in one plane by a gimbal.24c.25 shows a simplified gyro that is gimballed in a plane perpendicular to the tilting force. As the rim rotates through the gimballed plane all the energy transferred to the rim by the tilting force is mechanically stopped. The downward motion of point C is now countered by the tilting force and the axis does not rotate in the "tilting force" plane. The more the tilting force pushes the axis. The axis will rotate because some of the energy in the upward and downward motion of A and C is used up in causing the axis to rotate in the precession plane.24: Another Look at the principle of Gyroscope When the gyro has rotated another 90 degrees as in figure 3. when gimballed. when points A and C finally make it around to the opposite sides. only resist a tilting change in their axis. A hydraulic cylinder pushes or pulls. point C is where point A was when the tilting force was first applied. the precession would be to the left. The axis does move a certain amount with a given force. Also a gimbal can be used.

The tilting force will change the position of point mass B and D very little and change the position of point mass A the most. We are concerned at how far the mass at the average distance will rotate within the tilting plane when a given force is applied to the axis in the direction indicated. and the axis will advance another . where the two planes intersect along the axis. the axis will move . 1/4kg. and add their combined.1 seconds. Only now.005 meter in an arc. The right side has the same mass as the 20 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.25. The point masses at the rim are the only mass of the gyro system that is considered. Since the length of the axis is twice as long as the average distance of the rim’s mass.24. if applied for 0. This means that it is exposed to the tilting force for only 0. mass to point mass A of 1/2kg. The same thing happens when point mass A is on the right side of figure 3. The mass and gyroscope effect of the axis are ignored. a cura di Mario Innocenti . in the tilting force plane. The point masses inside the "stop the tilting force plane" share half their mass on either side of the plane.25: Gimballed Gyroscope In figure 3. The tilting force of 1 Newton.01 meters in an arc. The mass on the left side is 1kg.momentum from one plane to another plane.1 second. the precession plane in the gimballed gyro functions differently than in the example of figure 3. and has been renamed "stop the tilting force plane".1 second is not the whole story because the mass on the right side of the gyro hasn’t been considered. .1 seconds the point mass will be in the "stop the tilting force plane" and all the energy transferred to point mass A is lost in the physical restraint of the gimbal bearings. So then the total mass on the left side is ½ the total mass of all 4 point masses. the tilting force will move point mass A down. T he average distance the mass is from the "stop the tilting force" plane is 1/2 meter. Point mass A is rotating at 5 revolutions per second. the left half. At the end of . So we must use the average distance from the axis of all the mass on the lefthand side.01 meter every . or 1kg. Figure 3. At first consider only ½ of the rim.25.01meters. Figure 3. will cause the mass at the average distance to move .25b shows a profile of the average mass in the tilting plane and the average distance from the axis that the mass is situated.

Each time a half of the rim passes though the "stop the tilting force plane". the axis will move 5cm per second along an arc. at the point that the 1 Newton force is applied.2. Both halves of the rim mass will pass through the stop the tilting force plane 10 times in one second. a cura di Mario Innocenti . The gyro will rotate at . Figure 3. 10 times a second.005meters.1 second on the rim mass at the average distance. The Mathematics of the Gyro The mathematics of the gyroscope is derived from the mechanics of a spinning body. 3.4.27: Free Body Diagrams of a Two-Axis Gimballed Gyro 21 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. The mass has to undergo acceleration again so we continually calculate the effect that 1 Newton has for . half of . or . So the axis will advance half as much.48 RPM within the tilting force plane. So then.01 meter.left and has the same effect on the axis as the left side does.3. it losses all its momentum that was added by the tilting force.26: Example of a Two-Axis Gimbaled Gyroscope Figure 3.

The angle θ describes the angular position of the inner gimbal with respect to the outer gimbal o.We refer to the previous figures. and consider the modeling of a two-axis gyroscope. and the angle ψ defines the angular position of the outer gimbal with respect to the Earth (or with respect to the vehicle to which the gyro is mounted). and the β frame to the outer gimbal o.27c): ( ΣM ) * z = 0 = Mir + Mig + Mio ( ) z + Mc (14) The inertial moments can be expressed in terms of angular momentum: 22 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Referring to figure 3.27b are ( ΣM ) * y = 0 = Mir + Mig ( ) y + Mb (13) For the system g+r+o we have in vector form (see figure 3. The rotor is driven at a constant angular rate n with respect to inner gimbal g.27 and the application of D’alembert principle. The angular velocities of the relative frames are given by: ⎧Ωβ ⎪ ⎪ α ⎨Ω ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ = 1z ψ = Ω α / β + Ωβ = 1y θ + 1z ψ = = 1x ( −ψ sin θ ) + 1y θ + 1z ( ψ cos θ ) (11) () The angular velocity of the rotor I then: ⎧Ω r ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ r Ω ⎪ ⎩ = Ωr / α + Ωα = = = 1x n + 1y θ + 1z ψ = (12) = 1x ( n − ψ sin θ ) + 1y θ + 1z ( ψ cos θ ) () The equations of motion of the gyro are derived according to the free body diagrams in figure 3. the XYZ frame is considered the inertial frame. a cura di Mario Innocenti . The following assumptions are made in deriving the model: the rotor is perfectly balanced and symmetrical the bearings are rigid and perfectly centered a moment Mb is exerted about the Y axis between gimbals g and o a moment Me is exerted about the Z axis on the outer gimbal by the fixed base The Earth (or the vehicle) is considered to be inertial. the α frame is attached to the inner gimbal g.26. The dynamic equilibrium equations in vector form for the system g+r from figure 3.

yields: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪− Mir + Mig = J y θ + hψ cos θ + ( J z − J x ) ψ 2 sin θ cos θ y ⎪ ⎪− M r + M g cos θ = J ψ cos2 θ − ψθ sin θ cos θ − hθ cos θ i i z z ⎪ ⎨ ⎪+ ( J x − J y ) ψθ sin θ cos θ ⎪ ⎪− Mir + Mig z sin θ = −J x ψ sin2 θ + ψθ sin θ cos θ + ⎪ ⎪+ ⎩ ( J z − J y ) ψθ sin θ cos θ ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ) (17) ( ) This becomes finally: 2 ⎧ ⎪J y θ + hψ cos θ + ( J z − J x ) ψ sin θ cos θ = Mb ⎨ o 2 2 ⎪ ⎩ J z + J z cos θ + J x sin θ ψ − hθ cos θ + 2 ( J x − J z ) ψθ sin θ cos θ = Mc ( ) (18) In many applications of interest. a cura di Mario Innocenti . therefore linearized analysis can be carried out. equations (18) become simply: ⎧ ⎪J y θ + hψ = Mb ⎨ o ⎪ ⎩ J z + J z ψ − hθ = J Z ψ − hθ = Mc ( ) (18’) 23 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.⎧ −M r = H r = H r + Ω α × H r α i ⎪ i ⎪ α g g g g ⎨ −M i = H i = H α + Ω × H ⎪ ⎪−Mio = H o = H r + Ωβ × H o β i ⎩ (15) Where the angular momentum expressions are: ⎧H r = 1 ⎡J r ( n − ψ sin θ ) ⎤ + 1 ⎡ J r θ ⎤ + 1 ⎡ J r ψ cos θ ⎤ x ⎣ x ⎦ y⎣ y ⎦ z⎣ z ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ g g g g ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎨H = 1x ⎡ ⎣J x ( −ψ sin θ ) ⎤ ⎦ + 1y ⎣ J y θ ⎦ + 1z ⎣ J z ψ cos θ ⎦ ⎪ o o ψ ⎪H = 1z J z ⎩ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ⎧h ⎪ ⎪J x ⎨ ⎪J y ⎪ ⎩J z r Jx n r g = Jx + Jx r g = Jy + Jy r g = Jz + Jz (16) Rewriting (14) as: 0 = M ir + Mig ( ) z cos θ − Mir + Mig ( ) x sin θ + Mio ( ) z + Mc Using (15) and (16). In this case. it may be assumed that the angular motions will be very small (of the order of milliradians or arc seconds) and that n ψ .

To this end. the outer gimbal is fixed to the vehicle and only the inner gimbal is free to move. we can make some comments on the motion characteristics of a gyroscope. In this case. we may assume: ⎧Mb = −bθ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩Mc = −cψ In many applications. The initial velocity produced by the moment can be computed to be 24 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.27c.0. Consider the response to an impulse response My(t)=µδ(t). we have the so-called single-axis gyro: J y θ = Mb − hψ Several arrangements exist. System (20) can be solved using Laplace Transform methods yielding a natural motion with four poles: s = 0. whereas the imaginary pair is an harmonic motion with natural frequency ω= h J y JZ = Irx n J y JZ = 2n (21) I where : J y = J Z = rx 2 Therefore the oscillation is roughly twice the spin speed n and it is undamped since the gyroscopic coupling terms do not produce energy dissipation. for instance depending upon Mb.27b and 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti . a single axis rate gyro has then the linearized form: ⎧ ⎪Mb = −k θ − bθ + Mu ⎨ ⎪ ⎩J y θ + bθ + k θ = Mu − hψ (19) Based on the above linearized analysis. ± jh / J y JZ The two poles at the origin correspond to constant angular motion θ and ψ.Because of the high quality construction of bearings and viscosity. consider a two-axis configuration described by (18’) and repeated here with a little different nomenclature: ⎧J y θ + hψ = M y ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩JZ ψ − hθ = MZ (20) The axes y and Z are shown in figure 3.

The spin axis follows a cycloid path. This motion is small compared to the spinning rate of the gyro.Ω yo µ Jy And the angular motions are given by Ω yo t ⎧ θ = ( t ) [sin ω(τ)u(t − τ)] d τ ⎪ ∫ ω 0 ⎪ ⎨ Ω yo J y t ⎪ ψ = t ( ) [(1 − cos ω(τ))u(t − τ)] d τ ∫ ⎪ ω J Z 0 ⎩ (22) Figure 3. The coning motion is circular if the two moments of inertia in (22) are equal. The steady behavior of ψ(t): 25 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti .28: Coning Motion of a two-axis Gyro The motions of precession (described earlier) and nutation (present in the case of a two-axis gyro) can also be derived from (20) by applying a constant torque Myo acting on the inner gimbal of its y axis. In this case the time histories of the angular motions can be computed solving (20) as: M yo t ⎧ [(1 − cos ω(τ))u(t − τ)] d τ ⎪θ(t ) = J y ω2 ∫ ⎪ 0 ⎨ M yo t ⎡ sin ω( τ) ⎤ ⎪ ( ) (τ − )u(t − τ)⎥ d τ t ψ = ∫ ⎢ ⎪ ω h 0⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (23) The time histories of precession and nutation are shown in figure 3. and it becomes noticeable only at low rotor speed (similar to a top slowing down). Figure 3.28 shows the time histories of the angular displacements.29. The motion is called coning and it is a property of the rotor spin axis.

ψ( t ) = M yo h Figure 3. and the up and down nodding motion superimposed to it is the nutation. The precession ψ ss (t ) is steady about an axis normal to the axis about which the torque is applied. The results are shown in figure 3. and for a lowly damped case. a gyro may precess many times.31: Commercial Gyrocompass 26 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.Is the precession amount.30: Precession and Nutation of a Two-Axis Gyro The steady value of precession is also called gyro drift.30. and its amount dictates the actual gyro performance. Figure 3. nutating all the way. as we know already. a cura di Mario Innocenti .

the float is suspended in a liquid is just sufficient to relieve the gimbal bearings of the rotor weight reducing friction by up to 1000 times. inertial navigation units must have drifts of the order of degrees per year. a cura di Mario Innocenti .32.33: Electrically suspended spherical Gyro 27 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.32: Floating Single–Axis Gyro A general view of a floating single axis gyro is shown in figure 3. for aircraft stabilization are degrees per hour. Figure 3. Figure 3.31 shows a high quality gyrocompass with a price of about 15. For missiles and control antennas typical values are degrees per minute. The gimbal is sealed in a case.000 USD. there are many technological implementations for single axis and free gyros.Depending on the use the tolerable amount of drift varies of course. As in the case of accelerometers. Figure 3.

Figure 3. It employs a spherical rotor suspended electrically or magnetically in an extremely good vacuum. Laser gyros have a number of advantages over more conventional ones. In recent years.34 in a triangular configuration (other configurations have four sides).34: Schematic of a 3-side RLG The gyro is made up of a laser. Support is effected by controlling the plate voltages with position-feedback signals.5o/hour • Long and reliable lifetime • Low total cost A single DOF gyro is schematically shown in figure 3.A better implementation for reducing bearing friction is shown in figure 3. and the location of spin axis (θ and ψ) is sensed optically. space and military guidance.33. 28 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. such as: • No moving parts • Simple design – less than 20 components • Very rugged-insensitive to g and g*g vibrations • Wide dynamic range • Output inherently digital and TTL compatible • Fast update rate-less than 50ms to measure a rotation of 0. the ring laser gyro has provided higher accuracy and reliability at lower cost than other mechanical and fiber optic gyro technologies. The first commercial application came when Boeing chose Honeywell to supply inertial reference systems for its 767 and 757 aircraft in 1978. and an interferometer/photo detector. a closed path cavity. mirrors at each intermediate corner in the path. a cura di Mario Innocenti . navigation and control systems. technology advances in Strapdown inertial units have converged to two types of gyros: • • (RLG) Ring Laser Gyro (FOG) Fiber-optic Gyro Ring Laser Gyro (RLG) The ring laser gyro was developed in the 60s and 70s for commercial. Since that time.

The operation of the gyro is based on optical and electronic phenomena. The optical principle used by these gyros is the so-called Sagnac effect shown in figure 3. Three mirrors S with a beam splitter form a square enclosed in a circle of radius r.35. the effective path length traveled in the direction shown is shortened (assuming small angles) by: ∆l = 2 2 ∆s = r ωτ 2 2 For a rotation τ. we have: 29 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. referring to the right scheme in figure 3. and we relate the time difference in wave-length change. The effect can be described with geometrical optics. rather than mechanical.35. As a result. a cura di Mario Innocenti . The time to propagate around the closed path in both directions is: (l + ∆l ) ⎧ τ+ = ⎪ ⎪ c ⎨ ⎪τ = (l − ∆l ) − ⎪ c ⎩ The difference in time to propagate in the two directions is therefore: ∆τ = τ+ − τ− = 2 ∆l r ωτ = 2 c c If we define the rotation period τ above as the time to transient around the closed path without rotation. Figure 3.35: Sagnac experiment used in RLG Two laser beams from the same source propagate in opposite directions: clockwise (cw) and counter clockwise (ccw). these gyros exhibit little of the error associated with acceleration. As a result of rotation ω.

we obtain finally: ∆ν = − and ∆ν = 4ωA Pc λ ∆λ 4ω A ν=− ν c Pc (24) Equation (24) shows that the frequency change due to the gyro’s rotation is more sensitive with the higher ratio of the area to the perimeter. A scheme of a single DOF FOG is shown in figure 3.37. This equation holds for other RLG configurations as well as circular fiber-optic gyroscopes.36: RLG Configurations (courtesy of Honeywell) Fiber-Optic Gyro (FOG) Another application of laser technology is implemented in FOGs. 30 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.36. P = 4 2r Therefore: ∆λ = 2 r ωλ 4ωA = c Pc / λ Recalling that the frequency ν is related to the wave-length by νλ=c. a cura di Mario Innocenti . the enclosed area A formed by the path and its perimeter P are given by: A = 2r 2 .35. Two commercial RLG are shown in figure 3. Figure 3.∆λ = 2 r ωλ c From the geometry in figure 3.

πD 2 2π 4 4 2πLD ∆φ = ωNL = ω c πDN λ cλ (26) Figure 3.Figure 3. Substituting (24) in (25) we have that the phase change due to rotation is more sensitive with longer length fiber. L=length of optical fiber.37: Schematics of a FOG.) 31 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.28: Example of FOG as Gyrocompass (courtesy of Sperry Rand Corp. The gyro’s mechanization also uses Sagnac’s effect. a cura di Mario Innocenti . The interferometric output of phase shift can be determined from (24). The relationship is given by: ∆φ = 2π ∆νNL c (25) Where N = number of windings around the spool.

29. Such reference however may not be the final reference frame of use for the navigator. The most common direction cosines matrix (DCM) is certainly the one based on the standard Euler angles triad for a right-handed transformation: ⎧Ψ 3 = Yaw Angle ⎪ ⎨Θ2 = Pitch Angle ⎪Φ = Roll Angle ⎩ 1 (27) The basic transformations deal with a single rotation 3-2-1 according to figure 3.4.28. they usually consist in 3x3 square matrices. 3. and coordinate transformations take place within or outside the INU.4. Coordinate Transformations A coordinate transformation is a relationship between components of a vector expressed in two different reference frames. the motion of a point is initially referred to an inertial system. 3.1. showing a fiber-optic gyrocompass used in marine applications.1.1.An application of the FOG technology is shown in figure 3. Figure 3. Direction Cosines Direction cosines use a 3-angle sequential rotation for relating two different reference frames. Varieties of coordinate systems are used. velocity and orientation in the most convenient way for the end-user. nor the easiest to use in terms of implementation.4.29: Director Cosine Transformation Sequence And they are given in (28): 32 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Reference Systems and Models In inertial navigation. a cura di Mario Innocenti . In a 3D environment. 3. The main approaches to coordinate transformation are the direction cosines and Quaternions. in order to represent position.

31 for the time rate of change of yaw angle. Recall the DCM relative to the angle ψ from reference X to reference Y: 33 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Figure 3.30: Euler Angles In the case of time varying Euler angles. ⎣ ⎡T (a)⎦ ⎤2 = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣0 − sa ca ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ sa ⎡ ca BA ⎢ ⎡ ⎣T (a)⎤ ⎦3 = ⎢ − sa ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − sa⎤ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ 0 ca ⎥ ⎦ (28) sa 0⎤ ca 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎦ The general transformation is therefore a linear combination of the three above as: ⎡ ⎣T ⎤ ⎦321 = ⎡ ⎣T ( Φ )⎤ ⎦1 ⋅ ⎡ ⎣T ( Θ )⎤ ⎦2 ⋅ ⎡ ⎣T ( Ψ )⎤ ⎦3 And: BG B2 21 1G (29) ⎡c Θc Ψ −cΦsΨ + c ΨsΦsΘ sΦsΨ + c ΨcΦ sΘ ⎤ −s Φ c Ψ + s Ψ c Φ s Θ ⎥ [T ]321 = ⎢ ⎢cΘsΨ c Φc Ψ + s ΨsΦsΘ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − Θ Φ Θ Φ Θ s s c c c ⎣ ⎦ BG (30) (30) is shown schematically in figure 3.⎡T (a)⎦ ⎤1 ⎣ BA 0⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎡ ca BA ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ = ⎢0 ca sa⎥ . We refer to figure 3. it is of interest to compute the time variation of (30) or one of the 1-rotation DCMs in (29).30.

In analytical form we have: ⎧ y (t ) = T (ψ(t ))x (t ) = T (t )x (t ) ⎨ ⎩ y (t + ∆t ) = [I − ∆Ψ ]T (t )x (t ) = T (t + ∆t )x (t ) with : (32) [I − ∆Ψ ] = ⎢ ∆Ψ ⎣ ⎡ 1 −∆Ψ ⎤ 1 ⎥ ⎦ Then the time rate of change of T (ψ(t )) is defined as: T [ ψ(t )] = lim T (t + ∆t ) − T (t ) T (t ) − ∆ΨT (t ) − T (t ) = lim ∆t →0 ∆t →0 ∆t ∆t −∆ΨT (t ) = lim ∆t → 0 ∆t (33) In compact form: y Txy (t ) = −Ω y x / yTx (t ) (34) Where Ω is a skew-symmetric rotation matrix and the subscripts and superscript are interpreted as a rotation of the Y frame relative to the X frame in Y frame coordinates. a cura di Mario Innocenti .[T (ψ )]3 BG sψ 0 ⎤ ⎡c ψ ⎢ = ⎢ −sψ cψ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ (31) Figure 3. 34 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.31.31: Geometry of Time Rate of Change of Yaw Angle Transformation The effect of a variation ∆ψ in a time ∆t is shown in figure 3.

a quaternion can also be written as a linear combination H = a ⋅ 1 + bi + cj + dk Or represented by complex 2x2 matrices: ⎡ z w ⎤ ⎡ a + ib H=⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ −w z ⎦ ⎣ −c + id c + id ⎤ a − ib ⎥ ⎦ (37’) The use of Quaternions in coordinate transformations is based on the following figure: 35 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti . and they form a group known as the quaternion group. i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = −1 (37) into the stone of the Brougham bridge. The idea for Quaternions occurred to him while he was walking along the Royal Canal on his way to a meeting of the Irish Academy. they are associative. and the Quaternions are a single example of a more general class of hyper-complex numbers discovered by Hamilton.1.2. By analogy with the complex numbers being representable as a sum of real and imaginary parts.⎡0 Ωy x/y = ⎢ ⎣ω3 −ω3 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (35) The transpose of (34) is: Tyx (t ) = Tyx (t )Ω y x/y And the general result for a 3-axis transformation is given by: Tyx (t ) = Tyx (t )Ω y x/y Ω y x/y ⎡0 =⎢ ⎢ω3 ⎢ ⎣ −ω2 −ω3 0 ω1 ω2 ⎤ −ω1 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (36) Coordinate transformations based on Euler angles or similar triples suffer of singularities in certain situations. a ⋅ 1 + bi .4. and Hamilton was so pleased with his discovery that he scratched the fundamental formula of quaternion algebra. Quaternions The Quaternions are members of a non commutative division algebra first invented by William Rowan Hamilton. H. 3. This problem is solved by the introduction of Quaternion representation. While the Quaternions are not commutative. The set of Quaternions is denoted.

(38’) becomes (38) (38’) (39) 36 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.32.32 in their standard notation as: δ ⎧ ⎪q0 = cos 2 ⎪ ⎪q = λ sin δ = cos α sin δ 1 ⎪ 1 2 2 ⎨ ⎪q = λ sin δ = cos β sin δ 2 ⎪ 2 2 2 ⎪ δ δ ⎪q3 = λ 3 sin = cos γ sin 2 2 ⎩ Where: cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1. With this and (39). a cura di Mario Innocenti . β.32: Quaternions Coordinates The direction cosine matrix in (30) can be written in terms of the orientation [α.Figure 3. γ] of a unit vector λ and a rotation δ about this vector in figure 3. Tyx (t ) = cos δI + sin δ ( λx ) + (1 − cos δ ) λλT Using the relationship λλT = I + ( λx )( λx ) we have: Tyx (t ) = I + sin δ ( λx ) + (1 − cos δ ) ( λx )( λx ) Define the Quaternions from (27’) and figure 3.

35 has the X-axis in the direction of earth’s spin. Figure 3. The next 3 figures show different axis definitions. and figure 3.2. Earth-Fixed Frame (ECEF) The ECEF frame is fixed within the earth.2.33 has the Z-axis parallel with the earth’s spin axis.33: ECEF1.1. Z=Spin Axis.4.2 2 2 2 With orthogonality condition q0 + q1 + q2 + q3 = 1 . figure 3. NED Local Geodetic 37 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti .34 has the Y-axis parallel to the spin axis. and time rate of change given by: ⎡q0 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ q ⎥ ⎢ −ω ⎢ 1⎥ = ⎢ 1 ⎢q2 ⎥ ⎢ −ω2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣q3 ⎦ ⎣ −ω3 ω1 0 ω3 −ω2 ω2 −ω3 0 ω1 ω3 ⎤ ⎡q0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ω2 ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ q1 ⎥ −ω1 ⎥ ⎢q2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎦ ⎣q3 ⎦ (40) 3. and it is centered at the earth’s center. Earth-Centered. X=Greenwich Meridian. under and in proximity to the Earth are: • Earth-centered • Local level geodetic (geographic) • Wander azimuth 3. Reference Systems The main navigation reference frames for motion on.4. Figure 3.

2.32: ECEF2. 3. NWU Local Geodetic For each of the above frame. 38 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. and NWU (North-West-Up) respectively.36 shows the body-fixed and navigation frames and their corresponding coordinate transformation matrix. For strap-down INU the body frame is usually identical to the navigation system inertial sensor triad.Figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti . X=Spin Axis. an inertial reference can be established as well (ECI) if needed.35: ECEF3.33 – 3. and their relationship with the vehicle’s attitude requires the presence of a body-fixed system rigidly attached to the navigation system itself. Y=Greenwich Meridian. ENU (East-NorthUP).2. ENU Local Geodetic Figure 3. These navigation reference frames are non-inertial. Z=Greenwich Meridian.4.35 also show a local reference system associated with the corresponding ECEF. Figure 3. They are labelled NED (North-East-Down). Y=Spin Axis. Local Geodetic (Geographic) Reference Figures 3.

36: Body Coordinate Frame and Transformation Matrix 3.3. for instance. the Wander angle α is an up rotation about the respective Z-Axes and it is shown in figure 3.37 – 2) and 3).4.2. For example. ENU.Figure 3.37: Wander Azimuth (WA) Frames for NED. For the ENU and NWU frames. Figure 3. and NWU It will be shown later that the time rate of change of Wander angle satisfies [see 1) and 2). Wander Azimuth Frame The Wander Azimuth (WA) frame is currently used in navigation. Figure 3. 3) respectively]: ⎧α = λ sin φ ⎨ ⎩α = −λ sin φ (*) 39 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.37 shows three different WA definitions depending on the local geodetic reference used.37 – 1) the WA frame is rotated with respect to NED by an angle α about the Z-axis. a cura di Mario Innocenti . and has several definitions. in figure 3. The WA frame plays an important role for navigating at high latitudes without incurring in transformation singularities associated with North-based implementations.

4.4. Specific Coordinate Transformations The basic single-axis rotations given in (28) are used to go from one reference system to another with the appropriate rotation sequences.2. Figure 3. with the same yaw-pitch-roll sequence of figure 3.5. we can compute the transformation matrix from ECEF to the local geodetic frame NWU as: 40 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Figure 3.The body frame – WA frame relationship (NED case) is shown in figure 3.2. Geographical Local Horizon LOS A line of sight can be defined on the local horizon plane. a cura di Mario Innocenti .39: Geographical Local Horizon LOS Reference Frame 3. if there are sensors used for navigation or targeting such as cameras pointing a specific direction.4.39 shows the orientation of a LOS in terms of Azimuth (Az) and Elevation (El) angles relative to a NED geodetic frame.38: Body Frame – Wander Frame Relationship (NED) 3.36. Using (28). Figure 3.38.

36. then an additional “type-3” rotation is necessary. a cura di Mario Innocenti . for the earth’s spin axis defined along the Z ECEF direction. as navigation reference. This transformation requires four single rotations in a sequence: • Rotation –φ about xb • Rotation –θ about y’b 41 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. we can derive the transformation matrix between the ECEF and NED via 3 rotations: • Rotation 1: λ about Ze • Rotation 2: -φ about Y’e • Rotation 3: alignment of axes from Up-East-Down to North-East-Down sλ 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 1⎤ ⎡ c φ 0 s φ ⎤ ⎡ c λ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ T ( z ) = T3 (i ) ⋅ T2 ( −φ) ⋅ T3 (λ ) = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ −s λ c λ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − − φ φ 1 0 0 s 0 c 0 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ −sφcλ −sφsλ cφ ⎤ =⎢ cλ 0 ⎥ ⎢ −s λ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − φ λ − φ λ − φ c c c s s ⎣ ⎦ G E (43) The transformation between earth centered inertial and local geodetic is obtained introducing earth’s angular displacement θ given by θ = ωI / E t . yielding: ⎡c α sα 0 ⎤ ⎥ G T ( x ) = T ( x ) ⋅T ( x ) = ⎢ ⎢ −sα cα 0 ⎥ ⋅ TE ( x ) ⎢ 0 1⎥ ⎣0 ⎦ Note : N E N G G E E N TN (x) = ⎡ ⎣TE ( x )⎤ ⎦ T (42) In a similar fashion. ⎡ −sφc (λ + θ) −sφs(λ + θ) cφ ⎤ G ( z ) ⋅ TI E ( z ) = ⎢ 0 ⎥ TIG ( z ) = TE c (λ + θ) ⎢ −s ( λ + θ ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ( ) ( ) c c c s s − φ λ + θ − φ λ + θ − φ ⎣ ⎦ (44) A relationship between body frame to navigation frame was obtained earlier.0 ⎤ ⎡ c φ 0 −s φ ⎤ ⎡1 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ T ( x ) = T1(λ ) ⋅ T2 (φ) = ⎢0 cλ sλ ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣0 −sλ c λ ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣s φ 0 c φ ⎥ ⎦ G E (41) If we want to use the WA frame. and shown in figure 3. A similar transformation can be computed assuming earth’s spin axis along the X direction as shown in figure 3.38.

being tracked by a station with respect to the station’s position: ⎡ρ ⎤ ⎡ −sElcAz −sElsAz cEl ⎤ ⎡ ∆x ⎤ ⎢0 ⎥ = ⎢ −sAz ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ∆y ⎥ cAz 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 cElcAz cElsAz sEl − − − ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ∆z ⎥ ⎦ (45) 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti .2.• • Rotation –ψaz about znb Rotation of π about xnb. Figure 3. and equation (36) repeated here for convenience: Tyx (t ) = Tyx (t )Ω y x/y Ω y x/y ⎡0 =⎢ ⎢ω3 ⎢ ⎣ −ω2 −ω3 0 ω1 ω2 ⎤ −ω1 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (36) 42 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. The result is shown in figure 3.6.40.39: 0 sEl ⎤ ⎡cAz sAz 0 ⎤ ⎡ −sElcAz −sElsAz cEl ⎤ ⎡cEl ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ = T2 (El ) ⋅ T3 ( Az ) = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ −sAz cAz 0 ⎥ cAz 0 ⎥ = ⎢ −sAz ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − − − − sEl 0 cEl 0 0 1 cElcAz cElsAz sEl ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ T LOS G The above expression can also be used to derive the relative (linearized) position ∆r of an object at range ρ.3.40: Body Coordinate Frame and Transformation Matrix (X Spin Axis) The transformation matrix from geodetic to LOS reference frame is computed with 2 simple rotations with reference to figure 3. Consider Figure 3.1. Rate of Change of Coordinate Frames Let us recall some facts from direction cosine matrix rates algebra.4.

b = [ b1 b2 T b3 ] T With this. we can obtain (*) with the following procedure: recall that N TEN ( x ) = −ΩN E / NTE ( x ) (46) The navigation-to-earth angular rotation vector in navigation coordinates is given by: ⎡ρ x ⎤ ⎥ =⎢ ⎢ρ y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ρz ⎥ ⎦ ω N E /N (47) Substitute in (45).The above expression is obtained by expressing a cross product between two vectors as a matrix (skew-symmetric) vector product. and solve the second equation for φ yields: φ = cαρ y + sαρ x Substitute the above in the third equation: λ= −(sαρ y − cαρ x ) cφ (48) (49) Substituting (48) and (49) in the first equation. With reference to (35). From (42). ⎧α = −λ sin φ ⎪ α = −λ sin φ + ρz ⇒ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ for ρz ≡ 0 (50) 43 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. the skew-symmetric matrix in (36) is equivalent to the angular velocity vector’s cross product ωy x/y ×. use (42). a cura di Mario Innocenti . we can establish the rate of change in earth-to-navigation transformation matrix. Given two vectors a = [a1 a2 Then ⎡0 a ×b = ⎢ ⎢a3 ⎢ ⎣ −a2 −a3 0 a1 a2 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎢ −a1 ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ b = ⎢ −b3 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣b2 b3 0 −b1 −b2 ⎤ b1 ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ a = −b × a 0 ⎥ ⎦ a3 ] .

With reference to Figure 3. Consider the relationship: φ = [ −δψ δθ δϕ] φ = given T (52’) T [ −δψ δθ δϕ] = to be found Tilt errors are expressed in terms of the computed and true body-to-navigation frame TBN ( x ) shown in Figure 3.It is sometimes necessary to compute angular position and latitude/longitude wander angle errors. we have: 44 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti . ⎡0 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ T (x) = ⎡ ⎣I − ( δφ ) ×⎦ T ⇒ ⎣I − ( φ ) ×⎦ = ⎢ −φz ⎢φy ⎣ N B N B φz 0 −φ x −φ y ⎤ ⎥ φx ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ Using the above and following the procedure of equations (51)-(52). define the errors as follows (the overbar indicates the computed value): ⎧δθ ⎪ ⎪δφ = φ − φ ⎨ ⎪δλ = λ − λ ⎪ ⎩δα = α − α For the angular position error vector we have then: ⎤ N TEN ( x ) = ⎡ ⎣I − ( δθx ) ⎦ TE ( x ) ⎡1 δθz −δθ y ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎡I − ( δθx ) ⎤ = ⎢ −δθz 1 δθ x ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢δθy ⎥ −δθ x 1 ⎣ ⎦ (51) And for the other errors: δφ = δθ y cα + δθ x sα δλ = x y ( δθ cα − δθ sα ) cφ δα = δθz − δλsφ (52) We can also express Tilt errors φ’s in terms of Euler angles errors in body-navigation coordinates.40.40.

41: WGS-84 Ellipsoid Constants and Parameters 3. The main characteristics of WGS-84 are given in figure 3. Figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti . The sources of errors come from the shape of the Earth.δθ = φ y cφ + φ x sψ δϕ = φ y sψ − c ψ cθ δψ = φy − ( φ x cψ − φ y sψ ) t θ (52’’) 3.3.41.4. and the variation of gravity due to the non uniform density of Earth itself.4.3. The most widely used model today is the World Geodetic System (WGS-84). Earth Models Precise modeling of the Earth is a fundamental problem in the design of inertial navigation systems.1 Ellipsoid Geometry 45 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.

a cura di Mario Innocenti .42 is described by the equations for an ellipse: ⎧ β2 z 2 ⎪ 2 + 2 =1 ⎪ re rp ⎨ 2 ⎪ rp 2 ⎪ r 2 = −(ε − 1) ⎩ e And also: ⎧z 2 ⎪ = (1 − ε ) tan φ ⎨β 2 ⎪ ⎩ tan φc = (1 − ε ) tan φ (53) (54) Using the variables in figure 3. Figure 3.43 relative to the Equatorial plane. we can compute the position coordinates in the ECEF frame for a point on the surface. from figure 3.42: Earth Shape Model Geometry The Earth’s surface.Figure 3.43: Earth Model in the Equatorial (X-Y) Plane Combining (54) and (53) and from figure 3.43 we have: 46 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.

the values of latitude and longitude vary with time with respect to the inertial frame.⎧ ⎪ ⎪ x = β cos λ ⎪ ⎨ y = β sin λ ⎪ 2 ⎪ z = re (1 − ε )sin φ ⎪ (1 − ε2 sin2 φ) ⎩ (55) Approximating the dependence on the altitude above the surface we finally obtain the following expressions for X-Y-Z coordinates: ⎧ ⎛ r (1 − ε 2 ) ⎞ e ⎪ x ECEF = ⎜ + h ⎟ cos φ cos λ ⎜ (1 − ε 2 sin2 φ) ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ 2 ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ECEF ⎛ re (1 − ε ) ⎜ ⎟ cos φ sin λ = + y h ⎨ ⎜ (1 − ε 2 sin2 φ) ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎞ ⎪ ECEF ⎛ re (1 − ε 2 ) ⎜ ⎟ sin φ = + z h ⎪ ⎜ (1 − ε2 sin2 φ) ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ (56) The radii of curvature (along the lines of constant longitude and latitude respectively) can be computer well. They are needed to determine the orientation changes of the navigation frame with change in position. The computation is carried out from the analytical definition of radius of curvature: ⎡ ⎛ dz ⎞2 ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ β d ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ re (1 − ε2 ) ⎣ ⎦ = d 2z (1 − ε2 sin2 φ) ± 2 dβ Rmeridian = (57) Rnormal = re β = cos φ (1 − ε 2 sin2 φ) (58) During the motion on the surface. In the latter case we can write therefore: ν north ⎧ φ = ⎪ Rmeridian + h ⎪ ⎨ ν east ⎪λ = ⎪ ( Rnormal + h ) cos φ ⎩ (59) 47 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. and with respect to the arc-length along meridians and parallels. a cura di Mario Innocenti .

can be found as an approximated series of terms that include a first term representing spherical Earth. Position evolution in this instance must use other methods (DCM or Quaternions).2 Ellipsoid Gravity The mutual mass attraction due to Earth.33. a cura di Mario Innocenti . in vector form: ωG I /G ⎡ ⎤ ν east ⎢ ωI / E cos φ + ⎥ ( Rn + h ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ −ν ⎥ = ⎢ north ⎥ ⎢ Rm + h ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ν east ⎢ −ωI / E sin φ − tan φ ⎥ ( Rn + h ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (62) 3. Thus: ⎡c φ 0 sφ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 ⎥ =⎢ ⎢0 ⎥ ⋅ ⎢0 ⎥ + ⎢ −φ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ −s φ 0 c φ ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣λ ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣0 ⎥ ⎦ ω G' E /G ' After substitution we get: ⎡ 0 0 1⎤ ⎢ G' = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ωE / G ' ⎢ ⎣ −1 0 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ν east ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ( Rn + h ) ⎥ ⎢ −ν ⎥ = ⎢ north ⎥ ⎢ Rm + h ⎥ ⎢ −ν ⎥ east ⎢ tan φ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ( Rn + h ) ⎦ ω G E /G (60) If we write the Earth’s rotation in the above ECEF frame. we obtain: ⎡ 0 ⎢ =⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ωI / E ⎤ ⎡ ωI / E cos φ ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ E 0 ⎥ .Note: equation (59) is always valid except for poles operation. or Gravitation. We re-write (59) as time rate of change of the Earth geographic frame using an intermediate frame G’ transformed through the latitude φ.4. where a singularity exists. and subsequently into the geographic frame. The longitude rate [second of (59)] is an angular rate relative to the ECEF frame about the Z-axis as shown in figure 3. and 48 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. and ωI / E = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ −ωI / E sin φ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎥ ⎦ ωIE/ E (61) Finally.3.

Navigation Equations and Error Sources In this section we will derive the Navigation Equations for a Strap-Down inertial system.successive terms approximating the oblateness. Gravity deviations from the nominal value given by (64) and (65) are usually represented in vector form with respect to the local level geographic frame: ⎡ ξg ⎤ ⎥ (66) g=⎢ ⎢ −ηg ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ g ⎥ ⎦ Where ξ is the meridian deflection about the vertical. depending on the unity quality. the local gravity direction would be normal to the ellipsoid. a linearization of the equations is necessary. The Local Level mechanization frame will be used. Gravity anomalies are present however and they are stored in the navigation unit. a cura di Mario Innocenti . η is the normal deflection of the vertical. and error sources will be described. The mechanization of a gimballed unit can be found in the references. 3.5. g is the gravity magnitude from (65). In order to integrate the INU with independent Kalman Filter data. The gravity vector is therefore: g = G − ΩI / E ΩI / E r (64) A model of the gravity magnitude at the surface of the WGS-84 ellipsoid is given by: g = gWGSo (1 + gWGS1 sin2 φ) (1 − ε 2 sin2 φ) (65) If the Earth were associated to a homogeneous ellipsoid. If we stop after the first two terms we have: (63) Gravity is the acceleration on a rotating Earth. rather than standard Newtonian form. Note that linearization can 49 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. therefore (63) must be adjusted to account the centripetal acceleration due to Earth’s rotation. The resulting differential equations are nonlinear and will be formed in terms of measured accelerations and angular rates.

Local Level Mechanization Equations We will derive the translation equations first.5.1. whose alignment coincides with the navigation frame. depending upon the application and also on the industrial proprietary capabilities of INU makers. and then the attitude equations. The gyros sense the motion ωIB/ B in body-fixed coordinates. which is generated in the computer by the body rates navigation computer using CB coming from the gyros. the sensors are mounted on a gimbal.44. The accelerometers output fB is transformed into the navigation frame by the K . As said before.be performed in different ways. a cura di Mario Innocenti . however strapped down sensor information can not be used by a gimballed system due to the much higher level of measurement error. Figure 3. In the following sections the transformation matrices are indicated with a C(.1. 3.44: Functional Diagram of a StrapDown INU 3. In a gimballed INU. each solution has advantages and disadvantages.1.). The core of the INU is a set of 3 gyros and 3 accelerometers mounted in orthogonal triads and rigidly attached to the vehicle. and the navigation frame rates created by the vehicle’s velocity. A general block diagram of a StrapDown INU is shown in figure 3. Velocity Equation The velocity vector in the rotating navigation frame is given by the position rate of change in ECEF frame as: N ν N ≡ CE rE (67) Taking the time derivative: N N ν N ≡ CE rE + CE rE (68) 50 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.5. Therefore accelerometers output fK are integrated to get velocity and position.) instead of a T(.

the first of (70) becomes in inertial coordinates: r I = CIN (f N + g N ) + ΩII / E ΩII / E r I (73) Substituting (73) into (71) yields: νN = f N N N N N −⎡ ⎣ΩE / N + 2ΩI / E ⎤ ⎦ν +g (74) Equation (7) gives the basic description of velocity change in a local navigation frame. (69).The position vector and its derivative. (74) is directly applicable to local-level geodetic and Wander frames (only if specifications in coordinates is needed). the former sensed by the accelerometers and reduced in the navigation frame: f N = CIN r I − G N G N = g N + ΩIN/ E ΩIN/ E r N Using a similarity transformation: I I ΩIN/ E ΩIN/ E = CIN ΩIIIECN CIN ΩIIIECN (72) From the above. a cura di Mario Innocenti . and (70) into (67) gives: I I I E N I I I ⎤ ν N = CIN ⎡ ⎣ r − (ΩE / N + 2ΩI / E )CI ν − ΩI / E ΩI / E r ⎦ (71) The specific force is a combination of inertial and gravitational acceleration (gravity and centripetal contributions). and also to either gimballed or StrapDown mechanizations. 51 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. related to the inertial frame are: ⎧r E = CIE r I ⎪ E E I E I E I I I ⎨r = CI r + CI r = CI (r − ΩI / E r ) ⎪ E E I ⎩with CI = −CI ΩI / E (69) Compute the second derivative of r E yields: ⎧r E = CIE (r I − 2ΩII / E r I + ΩII / E ΩII / E r I ) ⎪ I ⎨ΩI / E = [ 0 ] ⎪ N N N ⎩ CE = −ΩE / NCE (70) Note that in (70). Substituting (68). the Earth’s rotation rate is assumed constant at one revolution per day.

3. Consider the navigation equations as a nonlinear system given by: x (t ) = f ( x . The error system provides a useful way to study INS error propagation using linear methods and as the basis for designing Kalman filters to implement the various aiding techniques.5. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Perturbation Equations and Errors The nonlinear navigation equations are now linearized to obtain linear error models. 3. With reference to equation (36). and attitude. (70) can be solved by direct integration as described above. velocity. the rate of change of the DCM matrix is given by: N N CB = −ΩN B / N CB (75) N Where the skew symmetric matrix ΩN B / N is formed from the rotation vector ωB / N as Ω N B/N ⎡0 =⎢ ⎢ω3 ⎢ ⎣ −ω2 −ω3 0 ω1 ω2 ⎤ −ω1 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ The rotation vector is obtained from the gyros measurements ωIB/ B as: N N B ωN B / N = ωB / N − CB ωI / B (76) Time evolution (solution) of (75) with (76) can be performed in several ways: • • • Integration of 6 DCM elements and computation of the other 3 Integration of 4 Quaternions Integration of (76) directly All techniques require Initialization. that is: N N CE = −ΩN E / N CE (77) Once initialized. Linearization is performed as perturbation on position. 3.3. u ) (78) 52 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Position Equations The position is obtained using DCM by solving the third of (70). Attitude Equations The attitude equations are based on the gyros output.5.1.2.1.2.5.

etc. Define: a = computed a = real The computed value has errors due to initialization. a cura di Mario Innocenti . we can write: ν N = ν N + δν N Similarly we set: ⎧ f N = ⎡I − ( φ ) ×⎤ f N + δf ⎣ ⎦ ⎪ N N ⎪ωE / N = ωE / N + δωN E /N ⎨ N N N ⎪ωI / E = ωI / E + δωI / E ⎪g N = g N + δg N ⎩ N (82) (83) Substituting (82) and (83) in the first of (81). yields: δν N = f N × φ + δf N N N N + δg N − ⎡ ⎣ωE / N + 2ωI / E ⎤ ⎦ × δν N N N −⎡ ⎣δωE / N + 2δωI / E ⎤ ⎦×ν (84) 53 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. For the first of (81). subtracting the true value from the computed. sensor measurements.Define the error as: e=xINS -xSIM u=uINS -uSIM Then the error dynamics are given by: e (t ) = Ae+Bu Let us recall the navigation equations derived before: N N ⎧ν N = f N − ⎡ωN ⎤ N E / N + 2ωI / E ⎦ ν + g ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ N N N ⎨CB = −ΩB / NCB ⎪ N N C = −ΩN E / N CE ⎪ ⎩ E (79) (80) (81) The first step is the expression for the velocity error equation. biases.

and (52”). Linearization here implies approximating the Earth radii with a constant nominal value R as done when we introduced the Wander Azimuth frame. using the notation ρ ≡ ωN E / N . Remember that ρz represents the vehicle transport velocity about the vertical. its expression in vector cross product for is given by: δωIN/ E = ωIN/ E × δθ (86) Substituting (85) and (86) in (84). a cura di Mario Innocenti . From this. The next computation refers to the attitude error equation. This equation will be derived using the tilt error representation from (52’). δR ≈ δh .Equation (84) requires the expression for the rotation vectors errors (perturbations) expressed in terms of position and velocity perturbations. ⎡ δν y ρ x ⎤ − δh ⎥ ⎢− R ⎥ ⎢ R ρ ⎢ ν ⎥ = ⎢ x − y δh ⎥ ⎢ R R ⎥ δρz ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ N N δωN E / N = ωE / N − ωE / N (85) As far as ωIN/ E = Ω is concerned. Recall the transformation from body to navigation frame: N ⎤ N CB (x) = ⎡ ⎣I − ( φ × ) ⎦ CB (87) The error component in the transformation matrix is given by: N N N N δCB = CB − CB = − ( φ × ) CB (88) The rate of change of the error is then: N N N N N δCB = − φ × CB − ( φ × ) CB = − φ × CB + ( φ × ) ΩN B / NCB ( ) ( ) Or: N ⎤ N δCB = − ⎡ φ × − ( φ × ) ΩN B / N ⎥ CB ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ From (88) and (89) and using (81) we obtain ( ) (89) 54 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. so that it can be solved in a closed form. which is zero for Wander Azimuth mechanizations [see equation (50)]. the error equation in the Wander Azimuth mechanization is obtained. we obtain equation (85).

( φ ×) = −Ω And in vector form: N B/N ( φ ×) + ( φ ×) Ω N B/N N N +⎡ ⎣Ω B / N − Ω B / N ⎤ ⎦ N ⎡ N ⎤ φ = φ × ωN B / N + ⎣ ωB / N − ωB / N ⎦ (90) In (90). after some manipulations. we can introduce the gyro error through the measured angular velocity term: N N B N ωN B / N = ωB / N − CB ωI / B + ε (91) Equation (90) is then transformed into a vector equation where the tilt error is represented in a coordinate transformation form from inertial to navigation frame. in vector form we have: δθ = δρ − ωN E / N × δθ Summary: (94) The entire set of linearized error equations can then be re-written summarizing the above results: δν N = f N × φ + δf N N N N + δg N − ⎡ ⎣ωE / N + 2ωI / E ⎤ ⎦ × δν N N N −⎡ ⎣δωE / N + 2δωI / E ⎤ ⎦×ν φ = δρ + ωIN/ E × δθ + φ × ωIN/ N + ε 55 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. φ = δρ + ωIN/ E × δθ + φ × ωIN/ N + ε (92) The position error equation computation is the last one. Define the error matrix: N N N N δCE = CE − CE = − ( δθ × ) CE Taking the derivative yields N ⎤ δCE = − ⎡ δθ × − ( δθ × ) ΩN E /N ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) And. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Position errors are computed from the Earth to navigation transformation matrix: N ⎤ N CE =⎡ ⎣I − ( δθ × ) ⎦ CE (93) The procedure is similar to the other error equations.

δθ = δρ − ωN E / N × δθ For the case of zero transport rate. from Figure 3. therefore attractive for onboard computation. the attitude error is defined as: ψ = φ − δθ Taking the time derivative and using (93) we obtain: (95) ψ = ψ × ωIN/ N + ε Which is simpler than (92).5.40. Using δρz = 0 and (86) we obtain: 56 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti . we have: Figure 3.45: Summary Error Equations The error equations derived earlier used the Tilt angle formulation. which in some cases results in a reduced computational load. which led to (84). We can however use an equivalent “psi” representation.1.2. 3. Alternate Error Equations Formulation Recall the velocity equation expression from (81) and (83): N N N ⎧ν N = f N − ⎡ωN ⎣ E / N + 2ωI / E ⎤ ⎦ν +g ⎪ ⎨ N 1 ⎤ N ν =⎡ ⎪ ⎣I − ( δθ × ) ⎦ ν + δν ⎩ (95’) (96) The procedure for computing the velocity error equation is similar to that. In this alternate formulation. ( δρz = 0 ).

that is: ψ = ψ × ωIN/ N + ε The alternate position error equation is given by (94). and with δg 1 = δg 1 − g N × δθ : N N 1 δν1 = − ⎡ ⎣ωE / N + 2ωI / E ⎤ ⎦ × δν + f N × ψ + δf N + δg 1 (98) The attitude error equation remains the same in this alternate formulation. and using (98) yields: (99) ⎡ ( δν1 ⎤ v y + ν z δθ x − ν x δθ z ) ⎢− + y2 δh ⎥ R R ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ δν1 − ν δθ + ν δθ ⎥ ⎡ 0 ( v x z y y z) ⎢ δθ = ⎢ − x2 δh ⎥ + ⎢ −ρz ⎢ ⎥ R R ⎢δρ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ρy ⎢ z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ρz 0 −ρ x −ρ y ⎤ ⎡δθ x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ρx ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎢δθy ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎣δθz ⎥ ⎦ ⎦ ⎢ (100) Assuming Wander azimuth implementation ( ρz = 0 ) and using: ωN E /N ⎡ νy ⎤ ⎢− ⎥ ⎢ R⎥ ⎢ ν ⎥ =⎢ x ⎥ R ⎢ ⎥ ρ ⎢ z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ We obtain: νy ⎡ νz 1 1⎤ ⎢ − δθ x + 2 δh − δν y ⎥ R R ⎡ δθx ⎤ ⎢ R ⎥ νx 1 1⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ νz ⎢ δθy ⎥ = ⎢ − R δθy − R 2 δh + R δν x ⎥ ⎢ δh ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −ν y δθ x + ν x δθ y + δν1 z ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ A summary of the previous results is given by: (101) 57 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.δν1 = ( δθ − φ ) × f +δθ × ν N N + δf N N 1 ⎡ωN ⎤ + δg N − ⎣ E / N + 2ωI / E ⎦ × δν (97) Using (95). a cura di Mario Innocenti .

Figure 3. which may be useful for computational purposes. The linear position error is related to the angular position error by the relationship: 58 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.47: Error Equations in Wander Azimuth Reference The alternate error description can be used to transform the error equations in a wander azimuth terrestrial navigation system (assuming δθz=0).46: Summary Alternate Error Equations The above representation requires less error state than the equations in figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti .45.Figure 3.

3.48. the horizontal direction indicated by the INU will be tilted by δθ with respect to the true horizontal. If however the support is subjected to an acceleration a. and the resolved accelerometer measurement will include a gravity component gδθ.48: Single-Axis tuned Schuler System The measured specific force is resolved into the reference frame stored within the INU. the string will be deflected by an angle θ = arctan[a/g] and therefore no longer providing correct information. In the event that the stored attitude reference is in error by a factor δθ. Its dynamics are governed by a simple harmonic 59 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. This signal is then used to modify the stored attitude reference as the inertial system moves around the Earth.5. a cura di Mario Innocenti . this hypothetical pendulum is called Schuler pendulum from the name of his inventor. This could be solved if we were to design a pendulum having the string of length equal to the radius of the Earth.48 shows the possible mechanization of a single-axis navigation system known as a Schuler tuned system. Figure 3. we obtain yet another representation as in figure 3.2: Schuler Period The direction of the local vertical on the surface of the Earth can be determined using a simple pendulum consisting of a mass suspended by a string. Referring to figure 3. the resulting closed loop (Schuler loop) is unstable because of the presence of the two integrators.47.2. Figure 3.⎡ δry ⎤ ⎢− ⎥ ⎢ R ⎥ ⎢ δr ⎥ δθ = ⎢ x ⎥ R ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ δθz ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Using equation (101). Transport rate is computed by dividing the indicated velocity by the radius of the Earth. The resolved component is integrated twice to get velocity and position.

Consider as an example.49: 2D INU Simulation Diagram 60 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.46. ⎧ g = 0.5. In the preceding section. the error dynamics were described in terms of linearized equations. Sensor performance.4 sec ⎪ ωs ⎩ (102) Therefore. provided it has been initially aligned to it. resolved in different reference frames. δνo. tuned to the Schuler frequency will always indicate the vertical on a moving vehicle. A pendulum.motion with natural frequency called Schuler frequency and a period called Schuler period.3. the Schuler oscillation can be considered as the motion of a hypothetical pendulum with length equal to the radius of the Earth.45. and integration algorithms are all concurring to the error characteristics.48. Figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Error Sources A precise evaluation of errors is critical to the precision of any INU.47).00124 rad / sec ⎪ωs = ⎪ R ⎨ ⎪Ts = 2π = 84. The propagation of these errors can be computed by direct integration of the linearized error equations in one of the mechanizations (see figs. 3. 3.49 shows the Schuler pendulum component in a 2D INU simulation. δfxb). 3. the Schuler pendulum mechanization from figure 3. δxo) and fixed biases in the sensors (δωyb. Figure 3. sensor models. 3. The frequency of oscillation will be excited by the presence of errors in the initial estimates (δθo.

scale-factor asymmetry are usually included at time of purchase. however. Figure 3.Sensor errors due to fixed biases. a cura di Mario Innocenti . according to the vendor’s data sheets. tolerance. An example is shown in figures 3. g-sensitive drift.50 and 3.51 for gyros and accelerometers respectively. Other errors can.51: General Accelerometer Sensor Model An example of navigation simulation with error propagation due to biases in the sensors is shown in figure 3. 61 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.50: General Gyro Sensor Model Figure 3. be modelled in a rather general form using random constant and random process dynamic models.52.

and they use different principles.Figure 3.6.52: Navigation Error Propagation Example 3. Among the many. we can mention: • Doppler velocity sensors • Tactical air navigation range • Forward looking and LOS radars • Global Positioning Systems 3. redundant information. A stationary observer is met by N waves over a time period ∆t. In addition. external navigational aids can be used as backup during partial or total failures of the inertial unit. Navigational aids are several. a cura di Mario Innocenti .6. Consider a source emitting waves with period τ. ∆t N= τ For an observer moving towards a stationary source with velocity V. Doppler Velocity Sensors These devices use the same Doppler Effect principle. however they may have different mechanizations depending on the vehicle and medium. Navigation Aids The precision of an INU can be improved by independent.1. the number of additional oscillations is 62 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.

the number doubles (reflected moving source at observer) 2V ∆t ∆N = λ The frequency change is the number of additional oscillations during the time interval: ∆N = ∆N 2V 2νV = = c ∆t λ If there is a slant angle q between emitter/observer’s velocity and reflecting source. scale factor-bore sight. In general applications. a cura di Mario Innocenti . there is bias. The Doppler divergence is defined as: ∆νDOP = νINU − νDOP (105) 63 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.5. the output from Doppler systems is combined with INU data for additional processing by a Kalman filter. bias and noise. noise components. computing the vehicle’s velocity from their frequency changes.51. Errors in the Doppler unit (usually body-fixed) are due to scale factors. ⎡dBx ⎤ ⎡dSFx dBSxy dBSxz ⎤ ⎥ b ⎥ ⎢ b (104) δνDOP =⎢ ⎢dBy ⎥ + ⎢dBSyx dSFy dBSxy ⎥ νDOP + dW ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ dBz ⎥ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣dBSzx dBSxy dSFz ⎦ In (104).3. A representation of these errors can be given in a manner similar to figures 3.V ∆t λ If the source is emitted from the observer and reflected back. and installation misalignment.53: Doppler Effect Example Usually a 4-beam configuration (Janus) is used.50 and 3. 2νV cos θ c (103) Figure 3. the Doppler frequency shift is given by: ∆ν = ∆ν = As shown in figure 3.

Figure 3.55: GPS Satellite Constellation

GPS was conceived in the 1970s, and is controlled by the United States Department of Defense. Although GPS was initially envisioned for military use, the Government realized early on that there would be numerous civilian applications as well. Subsequently, the Department of Defense (DOD) created two transmission codes; the P code (Precision code) for military use, and the C/A code (Civilian Access code) for civilian use. The highest accuracy levels were to be reserved for the military so as to prevent hostile enemy attacks against the U.S. using our own navigational system. However, once in operation, the civilian GPS receivers using the C/A code proved to be more accurate than the DOD had intended. Consequently, the military developed a system for randomly degrading the accuracy of the signals being transmitted to civilian GPS
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receivers. This intentional degradation in accuracy is called Selective Availability or S/A. This reduced the civilian GPS accuracy levels to being within 100 meters or less, 95% of the time. However, typical accuracy for most users averaged between 20 and 50 meters the majority of the time. You could easily see the effects of S/A on a GPS receiver when you were not moving. Typically, there would be random movements in speed, altitude and position readings, along with slow position "wandering" on the plotter trail. This was easily seen when you were on a .1 or .2 mile zoom range, and not moving. For example, while parked at the dock in your boat, you would see unexplainable changes in your digital speed readings up to a few miles per hour, even though you were not moving.

Figure 3.56: Early GPS Military and Civilian Codes

Effective May 2, 2000 selective availability (S/A) has been eliminated. The United States Department of Defense now has the technology to localize the control system to deny GPS signals to selected areas. It is not often that your electronics products increase in value after you've purchased them. Now boaters, aviators, drivers, hikers, hunters and outdoor enthusiasts of all types can locate their position up to ten times more precisely (within 10 to 20 meters) and navigate their way through unfamiliar terrain. Anglers can now return to their favorite spot on a lake or river instead of just their favorite area.

Figure 3.57: Current and Future GPS Precision
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The decision to allow civilians so much accuracy in location information was finally made because GPS is continually playing a more important role in the lives of people around the world - it's becoming an international utility. GPS is the global standard in navigation because it is completely free of charge to the public.

Figure 3.58: Differential GPS Precision

Differential GPS, or DGPS, has been developed to improve GPS accuracy to within a few meters. DGPS was originally initiated by the U.S. Coast Guard to counter the accuracy degradation caused by Selective Availability. Even with S/A now eliminated, DGPS continues to be a key tool for highly precise navigation on land and sea. DGPS technology adds a land-based reference receiver – located at an accurately surveyed site – to the other GPS components. This non-moving DGPS reference station knows where the satellites are located in space at any given moment, as well as its own exact location. This allows the station to compute theoretical distance and signal travel times between itself and each satellite. When those theoretical measurements are compared to actual satellite transmissions, any differences represent the error in the satellite's signal. All the DGPS reference station has to do is transmit the error factors to your DGPS receiver, which gives the information to the GPS receiver so it can use the data to correct its own measurements and calculations. GPS errors are a combination of noise, bias, and blunders. Noise errors are the combined effect of PRN code noise (around 1 meter) and noise within the receiver noise (around 1 meter). Bias errors result from Selective Availability and other factors. The potential accuracy of the C/A code of around 30 meters is reduced to 100 meters (two standard deviations). The SA bias on each satellite signal is different, and so the resulting position solution is a function of the combined SA bias from each SV used in the navigation solution. Because SA is a changing bias with low frequency terms in excess of a few hours, position solutions or individual SV pseudo-ranges cannot be effectively averaged over periods shorter than a few hours. Differential corrections must be updated at a rate less than the correlation time of SA (and other bias errors). Other Bias Error sources;
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User mistakes.59: GPS Error Sources Figure 3.SV clock errors uncorrected by Control Segment can result in one meter errors. and humidity associated with weather changes. Ephemeris data errors: 1 meter.60: DGPS Error Reduction The predicted precision increase using differential and real-time data link is shown in the next figure: 68 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Troposphere delays: 1 meter. The transmitted model can only remove about half of the possible 70 ns of delay leaving a ten meter un-modelled residual. Multipath: 0. resulting in typical ranging errors of around fifteen meters for each satellite used in the position solution. Complex models of troposphere delay require estimates or measurements of these parameters. The ionosphere is the layer of the atmosphere from 50 to 500 km that consists of ionized air. including incorrect geodetic datum selection. Figure 3. Multipath is caused by reflected signals from surfaces near the receiver that can either interfere with or be mistaken for the signal that follows the straight line path from the satellite. Multipath is difficult to detect and sometime hard to avoid. Noise and bias errors combine. Unmodelled ionosphere delays: 10 meters. Blunders can result in errors of hundred of kilometers. Receiver errors from software or hardware failures can cause blunder errors of any size. can cause errors from 1 to hundreds of meters. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Control segment mistakes due to computer or human error can cause errors from one meter to hundreds of kilometers. The troposphere is the lower part (ground level to from 8 to 13 km) of the atmosphere that experiences the changes in temperature. pressure.5 meters.

61: GPS Usage Projections 3.2. The satellite motion model used by a generic GPS receiver is based on central motion approximation as shown in figure 3.6. Some units have additional capability of providing the information in local geodetic (latitude and longitude) or ECEF coordinates.61: Current and Predicted RT Kinematics Figure 3.2.6. this leads to Keplerian orbits and equations: µ ⎧ 2 ⎪r − r θ = − 2 r ⎨ ⎪ ⎩r θ + 2r θ = 0 69 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti .4. GPS Functionality GPS data can be given in different formats: typically they consist of time difference and Doppler Effect in terms of pseudo range and delta range between GPS receiver and GPS satellites.Figure 3.

63: Mean and Eccentric Anomalies 70 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Figure 3.Figure 3.62: Central Force Motion This yields the following solution: r = p 1 + e cos ν 2 p = a⎡ ⎣1 − e ⎤ ⎦ (107) M = E − e sin E M= µ 2π t= a3 τ µ = G [M + m ] Where M is the Mean Anomaly and E is the Eccentric Anomaly.

One parameter selected for visibility is the elevation angle. a cura di Mario Innocenti . which is determined by geometric considerations from figure 3. The previous table and figure 3. Figure 3.64: Satellite Selection Parameters 71 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a unique set of parameters that identify its position at any given time.64 give the standard definition of orbital parameters. the position in ECEF coordinates can be computed: ⎧ x ECEF = r [cos θ cos Ω − sin θ cos ι sin Ω ] ⎪ ECEF = r [cos θ sin Ω + sin θ cos ι cos Ω ] ⎪y ⎨ ECEF = r sin θ sin ι ⎪z ⎪ ⎩θ = ω + ν (108) Provided that 4 satellites are needed for complete 3D information. the choice depends mainly on their visibility with respect to the user.64.The GPS satellite position is defined in terms of its “Orbital Elements”.63: Orbital Elements With the orbital parameters known. Figure 3.

Various GDOP terms can be computed from the navigation covariance matrix. ECEF XYZ DOP terms can be rotated into a North-East Down (NED) system to produce local horizontal and vertical DOP terms. we can compute the linearized value of pseudo-range error (normalized to the pseudo-range) δρi for the 4 satellites: 72 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. This geometry is defined by the “geometric dilution of precision parameter” or GDOP. ranging errors from the SV signals are multiplied by the appropriate GDOP term to estimate the resulting position or time error. Define the i-th satellite LOS unit vector with respect to the local horizontal navigation frame: L L e eLOS = Ce eLOS Assume that the ranges are biased by a user’s clock error b. for example. sometimes the Spherical DOP. the relative pseudo-range is given by: ρi = ( xi − p1 ) 2 + ( y i − p2 ) + ( zi − p3 ) + b 2 2 (109) If the receiver’s antenna position has an error δp . The standard GDOP Components are: • PDOP = Position Dilution of Precision (3-D).65: Qualitative Locations for poor and good DGOP For a selected group of satellites. • VDOP = Vertical Dilution of Precision (Height). Figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti .In addition to selecting a satellite based on its elevation angle. While each of these GDOP terms can be individually computed. will cause receiver clock errors which will eventually result in increased position errors. they are formed from covariances and so are not independent of each other. Longitude). In general. A high TDOP (time dilution of precision). the chosen quadruple is the one having the lowest GDOP. satellites are chosen based on their quadruple relative geometry with respect to the receiver’s antenna. • TDOP = Time Dilution of Precision (Time). • HDOP = Horizontal Dilution of Precision (Latitude.

the expected error in position and time is given by its covariance: ⎧Cov { x } = E x ⋅ x T = H −1E z ⋅ z T H −T ⎪ ⎨ T 2 ⎪ ⎩E z ⋅ z = σPSEUDO × I4 x 4 { } { } { } (110) Where equal pseudo-range variance for all 4 satellites rewritten: LT ⎡eLOS 1 ⎢ T L ⎢eLOS −1 2 2 T ⎡ ⎤ H H σ = γ = ( ) ⎢ LT ⎣ ⎦ PSEUDO ⎢eLOS 3 ⎢ LT ⎣eLOS 4 From Ξ = ⎡( γ ) ⎣ T is assumed. resulting from variable satellite positions. (112) Figure 3. we can compute for instance: 4 ⎧ GDOP = Ξ ii ⎪ ∑ i =1 ⎪ ⎨ 2 ⎪ HDOP = Ξ ii ∑ ⎪ i =1 ⎩ A summary of the previous derivations is shown in figure 3.66: GPS Measurement Model 73 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. Eq. (110) can be 1⎤ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎥ 1⎦ (111) ( γ )⎤ ⎦ −1 .⎡ δρ1 ⎤ ⎡ δp1 ⎤ ⎢ δρ ⎥ ⎢ δp ⎥ 2⎥ ⎢ = H4 x 4 ⎢ 2 ⎥ = H4 x 4 x z= ⎢ δρ3 ⎥ ⎢ δp3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ δb ⎦ ⎣δρ4 ⎦ If the assumed corrections to position and time are random.6.6. a cura di Mario Innocenti .

independent redundant sources of navigation information are combined with a reference navigation solution. INS is not. a cura di Mario Innocenti . GPS provides accurate estimates of aircraft position. INS solutions are generally computed 100 times per second. Some of the benefits and properties of integration are: • • • • • INS gives accurate estimates of aircraft orientation. GPS in subject to jamming. 74 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione.. In certain instances. GPS solutions are computed once per second. INS-GPS Systems The use of state estimation with static filtering techniques (Least-Squares. the navigation solution coming from different device can also be integrated in order to compensate errors due to drift (INU) and/or loss of signal (GPS). With the application of Kalman filtering. to obtain optimal estimate of navigation states and other variables contributing to navigation solution error.) is common practice in order to improve INU performance.A simulation of GPS performance in navigation setting is shown below. weighted LS) and dynamic estimators (KF. Integrated INS-KF.7. EKF..67: GPS Navigation Example 3. Figure 3.

the state and covariance matrix are propagated in time to the next step (k-4). At this time instant. In a graphical format. Both translational and rotational motions are required to locate targets on the ground from the aircraft. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Figure 3. the 75 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. The equations describing the filter are given by: Figure 3. combined with Kalman filtering estimation is shown in figure 3.• • Combining GPS and INS provides accurate and robust determination of both translational and rotational motion of the aircraft.68: INS-GPS integration with KF The Kalman filter structure is standard.68. INS-GPS integration. and operates on the covariance matrix update.69: Kalman Filter Equations The filter processing flow begins at some time instant (k-5).

and one or more measurements may be processed by the state vector and covariance matrix measurement update equations. With the measurement update completed. Figure 3.7.measurements are available for use in updating. The process is summarized in figure 3. and an example of simulation is shown in figure 3.71.70: Processing Flow of KF Update Figure 3.71: KF Estimate Simulation 76 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. a cura di Mario Innocenti . there is a further time propagation to the time (k-3).

72: Feedforward KF Mechanization An alternate solution is the feedback mechanization shown in figure 3. This simplified implementation may have problems in the long run. the Kalman filter has no influence on the INU and operates on the output only.In practice. the Kalman Filter is capable of estimating a variety of signals characterized by non zero mean biases in the sensors measurements and GPS data. Figure 3. a cura di Mario Innocenti .73: Feedback KF Mechanization 77 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. In the feedforward mechanization.73. Figure 3. the KF implementation can be mechanized in two ways: feedforward and feedback mechanizations. In this case.

to verify how the integrated INU/GPS system is capable of dealing with changing noise characteristics. Figure 3.Simulations can be carried out. Examples and Applications Two examples are described on separate files: 3. there is another technique which inertial sensor parameters are estimated by least square method using velocity errors obtained from so called single-axis Schuler calibration test in navigation mode. a cura di Mario Innocenti . And. our proposed calibration technique has led to enhanced accuracy in the instrument errors estimation while reducing the calibration test time. INU Calibration The performance of inertial navigation system (INS) is largely dependent on calibration errors of gyroscopes and accelerometers. These have led to lengthy calibration procedures. (Fast Calibration Technique for a Gimballed Inertial 78 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. In this study.1.74: Feedback KF Mechanization Simulations 3. we propose the fast calibration technique by Kalman filtering with the modified level axis Schuler error loop in which the Schuler factor is introduced in order to be able to change the Schuler period. The simulation results show that the calibration accuracy is improved as the Schuler period is decreased. A typical gimballed INS is calibrated while stationary by multi-position rotating the inertial platform relative to the earth’s spin axis and local gravity vector in order to excite the gyroscope and accelerometer parameters. Furthermore. Consequently.8. fast calibration results from reducing the Schuler period.8.

79 30/01/2004 Sistemi di guida e navigazione. (Progetto e Realizzazione di na piattaforma Inerzile low-cost di tipo Strapdown. Cheon-Joong Kim. Korea. a cura di Mario Innocenti . Design of a 3DOF Sensor Unit The scope of the application is to describe the design procedure of a low-cost strapdown inertial unit capable of giving motion information on a plane. Mati roberto.Box 113. Korea Aerospace Research Institute.2.Navigation System. ICAS2002) 3. 305 600 Daejeon. Università di Pisa. 2004). Cellini Manuele.8. Yong-Jin Shin.O. Jeong-Hwa Park. Yuseong P. DSEA.