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4uX, /X'9&.

World Bank DiscussionPapers

Household Food
Security and the
Role of Women

J. Price Gittinger
with the collaboration of
Sidney Chernick
Nadine R. Horenstein
Katrine Saito

\

Recent
No.

37

World

Bank

Discussion

Papers

Income Distribution and EconomicDevelopment in Madagascar:Some Historical Perspectives.Frederic L. Pryor

No. 38

QualityControlsof TradedCommoditiesand Servicesin DevelopingCountries.Simon Rottenberg and Bruce Yandle

No. 39

LivestockProduction
in North Africaand the MiddleEast: Problemsand Perspectives.
John C. Glenn [Alsoavailablein
French (39F)]

No. 40

Nongovernmental
Organizations
and LocalDevelopment.Michael M. Cemea [Alsoavailablein Spanish (40S)]

No. 41

Patternsof Development:1950 to 1983. Moises Syrquin and Hollis Chenery

No. 42

Voluntary Debt-Reduction Operations: Bolivia, Mexico, and Beyond... Ruben Lamdany

No. 43

Fertilityin Sub-SaharanAfrica:Analysisand Explanation.Susan Cochrane and S.M. Farid

No. 44

AdjustmentPrograms
and Social Welfare. Elaine Zuckerman

No. 45

Primary School Teachers'Salaries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Manuel Zymelman andJoseph DeStefano

No. 46

Education and Its Relation to Economic Growth, Poverty, and Income Distribution: Past Evidence and Further Analysis.

Jandhyala B.G. Tilak
No.

47

International MacroeconomicAdjustment, 1987-1992.

Robert E. King and Helena Tang

No.

48

Contract Plans and Public EnterprisePeffonnance.John Nellis [Also available in French (48F)]

No.

49

Improving Nutrition in India: Policiesand Programsand Their Impact. K. Subbarao

No.

50

Lessons of Financial Liberalization in Asia: A Comparative Study. Yoon-Je Cho and Deena Khatkhate

No.

51

VocationalEducation and Training: A Review of World Bank Investment. John Middleton and Terry Dcmsky

No

52

The Market-Based Menu Approach in Action: The 1988 Brazil Financing Package. Ruben Lamdany

No.

53

Pathways to Change: Improving the Quality of Education in Developing Countries. Adriaan Verspoor

No. 54

EducationManagersforBusinessand Govemment.Samuel Paul, Jacob Levitsky,and John C. Ickis

No. 55

Subsidiesand Countervailing
Measures:CriticalIssuesforthe UruguayRound. Bela Balassa,editor

No.

Managing Public Expenditure: An Evolving World Bank Perspective.Robert M. Lacey

56

No. 57

The Managementof CommonPropertyNaturalResources.Daniel W. Bromley and Michael M. Cernea

No.

Making the Poor Creditworthy: A Case Study of the Integrated Rural Development Programin India. Robert Pulley

58

No. 59

ImprovingFamilyPlanning,Health,and NutritionOutreachin India:ExperiencefromSome WorldBank-AssistedPrograms.
Richard Heaver

No. 60

FightingMalnutrition:Evaluationof BrazilianFoodand NutritionPrograms.Philip Musgrove

No. 61

Stayingin theLoop: International
AlliancesforSharingTechnology.Ashoka Mody

No. 62

Do Caribbean
ExportersPayHigherFreightCosts?AlexanderJ. Yeats

No. 63

DevelopingEconomiesin Transition.VolumeI: GeneralTopics.F. Desmond McCarthy, editor

No.

64

Developing Economiesin Transition. Volume II: Country Studies. F. Desmond McCarthy, editor

No.

65

Developing Economies in Transition. Volume III: Country Studies. F. Desmond McCarthy, editor

No. 66

IllustrativeEffectsof VoluntaryDebt and Debt ServiceReductionOperations.Ruben Lamdany andJohn M. Underwood

(Continued on the inside back cover.)

96 1z1
~

World Bank DiscussionPapers

Household Food
Security and the
Role of Women

J. Price Gittinger
with the collaboration of
Sidney Chernick
Nadine R. Horenstein
Katrine Saito
The World Bank
Washington, D.C.

Copyright © 1990
The International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development/THE WORLD BANK
1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.
All rights reserved
Manufactured in the United States of America
First printing August 1990
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The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressedin this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and
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The complete backlist of publications from the World Bank is shown in the annual Index of Publications,
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ISSN: 0259-210X
J. Price Gittinger, Sidney Chernick, and Nadine R. Horenstein are consultants to, and Katrine Saito is
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication

Data

Gittinger,J. Price (JamesPrice), 1928Household food security and the role of women /J. Price
Gittenger, with the collaboration of Sidney Chemick, Nadine R.
Horenstein, Katrine Saito.
p. cm. - (World Bank discussionpapers ; 96)
Report of the Symposium on Household Food Security and the Role of
Women, held Jan. 21-24, 1990, in Kadoma, Zimbabwe, organized by the
Women in Development Division of the World Bank, and others.
ISBN 0-8213-1627-3
1. Women in agriculture-Africa-Congresses.
2. Food supply-Africa-Congresses. 3. Household supplies-Africa-Congresses.
4. Women-Africa-Economic
conditions-Congresses. I. Symposium on
Household Food Security and the Role of Women (1990: Kadoma,
Zimbabwe) 11.Title. III. Series.
HD6073.A292A354 1990
338.1'96-dc2O
90-12849
CIP

This pamphletreports on the Symposiumon HouseholdFood Securityand the
Role of Women in Kadoma, Zimbabwe, January 21 through 24, 1990. The
Symposiumwas organized by the Women in DevelopmentDivision of the World
Bankand the TrainingUnit of the African DevelopmentBankin collaborationwith the
Governmentof NetherlandsMinistryof ForeignAffairsandDevelopmentCooperation.
Funding and guidance were also provided by the Canadian International
DevelopmentAgency and the EconomicDevelopmentInstituteof the World bank.
The host was the HonorableHerbert Ushewokunze,Ministerof State for Political
Affairs,Governmentof Zimbabwe. The SymposiumCo-Directorswere KatrineSaito,
Senior Economist,Womenin DevelopmentDivision,World Bank; and KwekuAndah,
Director,TrainingUnit,African DevelopmentBank. Amon Nikoi,formerly Ministerof
Finance, Government of Ghana, was the moderator. Sidney Chernick was
SymposiumAdvisorand NadineR. Horensteinhelpedin the designand organization
of the Symposium.
Members of the Symposiumparticipatedin plenarydiscussions,heard major
paper presentations,listenedto panels,took part in a case study, and worked in
small groups to formulate policy and program recommendations. The two major
papers presentedto the Symposiumwere HouseholdFood Securityand the Roleof
Women: The EconomicPolicy Setting by Paul Collier, Unit for the Study of African
Economies,Oxford University;and HouseholdFoodSecurityandthe Roleof Women
by Misrak Elias, RegionalAdvisor, Women's Economic Activitiesand Integration,
UNICEF. This pamphlet draws liberallyfrom the members' deliberationsand the
papers presentedwithoutfurther attribution. It is an interpretationof the discussions
and presentations,not a proceedings.
This reportdoes not necessarilyreflectthe viewsof the sponsoringorganizations
but those of the Symposium.The report benefittedfrom commentsof BarbaraHerz,
Josette Murphy and MauriziaTovo. Virginiade Haven Hitchcockedited the report,
and Maria Abundo preparedthe text for publication.
A collection of papershas been publishedseparately. See List of Documents.
The photographs are courtesy of Curt Carnemark,Nicola de Palma, and the
World Bank photo library.

-

Hi

-

.

..................................................... Asymmetric Rights and Obligations within the Household ...................................................................................................................... Women's Limited Access to Resources and Information ............................................................................................... Enabling households to adopt risk-reducing strategies ......... 1 3 3 4 4 7 7 . Access to land ........................................................... Macro Policies to Enhance Women's Economic Activities .................. 7 8 ......... 8 8 9 9 10 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 19 . Raising the Level of Income ..................... Household Strategies to Improve Food Security .............. Constraints Women Face ....... Skewing ................... 19 20 21 21 22 25 25 25 26 ..... Different Role Models ............. Reducing risks outside the household . Women's Nonagricultural Activities ............................................................. Policies that Directly Increase Household Security ................................................. Learning to use credit through group projects in Zimbabwe .......................................................................... Women's Agricultural Contribution ................... Credit and Finance for Rural Women .. Work Women Do .................. Public Policies to Increase Household Food Security ...................................... Availability of appropriate agricultural technology .. Varying Assets to Smooth Consumption ......... The Cost of Strategies to Vulnerable Groups ................... Access to credit .... Diversification .. Changing the Structure of Income ..CONTENTS Prologue ............... Expanding lending to women in Uganda ................................... Gathering Information for Policymaking and Program Design .............................................................. Input parsimony ............................ Matching ... Programs to Increase Women's Access to Services and Resources ........................................... Women's Household Tasks . Access to education and agricultural extension services .......... The Burden of Reproduction .......................

............... ....... 39 Documents ...... 28 ImprovingWomen'sAccess to Technology....................... 37 List of Participants ........ 32 Economicsize ........ 45 -vi - .......... 31 Appropriatenessof technology ................... 32 Transport .... ............................................... 27 OrientingExtensiontowards Women'sNeeds ................................................... 31 Food technology ................................ Epilogue ... ......................................EnablingAfrican womento use commercialcredit ............. 33 Developingtechnologyfor-rural women ........... 33 34 Nutrition Programsfor Low-IncomeHouseholds......................... 33 Access to credit .................................... ................

healthy life."Women produce nearlythree-quartersof all food grown in Africa. One-quarterof Africa's population." The HonorableHerbertUshewokunze Ministerof Statefor PoliticalAffairs.Governmentof Zimbabwe in opening remarksto the Symposium -vii- ." "Africa'sfood situationis precarious.100 million people-donot have accessto sufficientfood at all times to ensure an active.

Carnemark) -viii - .Womencarrying goods to market in WestAfrica (C.

To exchangepracticalexperiencesin dealingwith these issues amongthe various participants.Prologue Improvinghouseholdfood securityin Africa meansfocusing on the role of women because they play a critical role as food producers and as income earners for their families.and women's access to credit.Ethiopia.Tanzania. The symposiumparticipantsweredrawnfrom sevencountriesin Eastand Southern Africa--Bostwana. The Symposium'sobjectiveswere: To help promotea better understandingof the key issuespertainingto the issue of householdfood securityand the role of women.in January 1990. increasing production and productivity of women farmers and entrepreneursmeansremovingthe obstaclesthey face in doing theirwork. 47 senior African policymakers. women must not be marginalized. To come to grips with this problem.but must be brought into the mainstreamof economic and social life so that they can use fullytheir productivecapacityand contributemore to the welfareof their familiesand nation. and improving their access to resources and informationso that they can help themselves. the symposium participantsfocused on the constraintsthat women face and the practical measuresto reducethem. In short. Among the issuesaddressedwere nutritionprogramsfor lowincome households. In overviewpresentations.effortsto improve householdfood securityin Africa will not succeed. extensionadvice and technology. Zimbabwe. Unlessthe productionand productivityof these women is increased. In turn. Malawi. The key is to recognize that women are an integral part of the solution to increasing agriculturalproductivityand householdfood security.academicspecialists.program administrators.panel discussionsand structuredworking groups.and staff of internationalagenciesgatheredtogether for the Symposiumon Household Food Security and the Role of Women in Kadoma. -1- . Kenya.Uganda and Zimbabwe--butthe issues discussedand recommendationsmade could apply to any African country. To identifyappropriatepoliciesand programsthat could be implementedin specific countriesand supported by the internationalcommunity.

Plantinggroundnutsat a seed multiplicationfarm in Nigeria(WorldBank) -2- .

With the increasing recognition of women's central role in the provision of householdfood security. As a result of cultural factors and bad policies. The true proportion is likelyto be even higher. Since officialgovernmentdata have often seriously underestimatedthe number of women active in agriculture.Work Women Do It is now well-knownthat the African farmer is usuallya woman. Somepoliciesof governmentsand developmentassistanceagencieshave actually increasedthe socialand economicgap betweenwomenand men. among the poor---who are the majority in all Africancountries---womentend to own the least propertyand goods. handle60 percentof the marketing.and guaranteethat each householdmember has an adequatesupply of food throughoutthe year.but more effort is neededto incorporatewomen's special needs and concernsinto ongoing programs.after more carefulexaminationof the data. in Malawi officialfigures in 1972 reported that only 12 percent of women were active in agriculture. that figure was raisedto 52 percent---morethan four times the numberonlyfive years before. This is true not only of food production---long recognized as a women's activity---but also of other agricultural activities.fetch most of the water and fuelwood. In addition they work extensivelyon cash crop production. and do at least half of the tasks involvedin storing food and raisinganimals.this recognitionhas yet to be translatedinto concretepoliciesand programsthatwould promotea more equitable distributionof resources.the importanceof increasingtheir productionand productivityhas not beenfully recognized.enhancewomen'sproductivityin agriculture.increasetheir ability to earnincomefrom nonagriculturalsources. Women's Agricultural Contribution Women play a pivotal role in African agriculture. and be the most overworked. Unfortunately. They also do nonagricultura!work to earn extra money and still find time to take an activerole in communityself-helpactivities. By failingto recognize the centralrole of womenas producersaswell as householdmanagersand thus ignoring their special needs becauseof these roles. In many African societieswomen do all of the food processing. becauseaccess to resources. In 1977. developmentefforts have often misdirected resourcesto men. The InternationalLabour Organizationestimatesthat 78 percent of the women in Africa are active in agriculture compared with only 64 percent of the men. is even more limited.laboring on other peoples'crops to earn much-neededcash for their families. have the poorest nutritionalstatus.produce 70 percentof the food. women produce nearly three-quartersof all food grown in Africa. -3 - . such as cash cropping and livestock production. The situationis evenworse in householdsheaded by women. This is a welcome development.manygovernmentsanddevelopmentagenciesareimplementing programs that focus on women. For example.including the labor of others.

and brewing.these are small projects that are outside the mainstreamof economicactivities. however. shelter. and especiallythose headedby a woman. has come a realization that households headed by women are increasingthroughout Africa. They grind or pound grain.women traditionallyhave the central role in managing households and do most of the work needed for the householdto function.African rural women must supplementhousehold agricultural production with income earned through nonagriculturalactivities. fetching water and wood. lack of opportunitiesto learn new skills and to acquire affordabletechnology. Womenheadone-thirdof the rural households in Malawi. such as keepingsmall animalsor bees. and caring for children and elders---thatit is often a struggle to find the time for other activitiesthat provideextra income. To save time and energyfor activitiesthat produce cash. other capital. and medicalexpenses. this surplus can be sold to provide cash. The number of farms managedby womenis. however. Women's Nonagricultural Activities Since the agricultural crops produced by households rarely provide all the requirementsof the family.Alongwith a growing recognitionof the importanceof womenin Africanagriculture. and development assistance agencies have undertakenmany initiativesin Africa to support women's efforts to earn more income. Governments. In addition. Womenface manyproblems in trying to earn extra income: lack of direct access to resources such as land. What is reallyneeded is to bring women's economic activitieson a par with other (men's)economicactivities. and limited access to markets for inputs.clothing. nongovernmental organizations. Womenprocess and prepareall the food for the household. For manyhouseholds. In most cases. Women's Household Tasks In addition to agriculturaland nonagriculturalactivities. production. and sales.most womenare trapped in a vicious cycle of low income and low productivitydespitelong hours of toil. cash income is necessaryto meet the other basic needs. women often reduce the frequency of cooking and increasethe amount of food cooked each time. and thus their critical role in improvinghouseholdfood security. growing rapidly. makinghandicrafts. fetch water and firewood. in fact. their daily schedule is so overloaded with all the traditional female chores---preparingfood.the World Bankestimatesat least 40 percent of small holdings are managedby women. in -4 - .and cook the meals---allarduous and time-consuming activities. schoolfees. Morethan halfthe rural householdsin the communal areas of Zimbabweare headed by women. Becausethey operate at the lowest strata of the informalsector. If a household produces more food crops than it can use.theseare the main sourcesof incomefor food. however. More often. In Kenya. and credit. This is why effortsshould focus on removingthe obstaclesfaced by women ratherthan on setting up special programs for women. This.

which directly reducesthe levelof householdnutrition. In additionto the fact that this adds to women'swork load. Women are the principal providers of care for household members. women are unableto providethe food neededto adequatelyfeed themselvesand their households. This is particularly true of vegetablesand fruits. Many development programs involving water approachit as a healthissue and ignorethe fact that women must carry most of the water themselves.most medicalcare in Africa is done in the home. RuralAfricanwomengenerallycollectfirewoodfor cooking. This task is becoming evenmoredifficultbecauseof deforestationandenvironmentaldegradation. the lack of cleanwateraffects the health of household members. which rural women have little opportunityto store for use in the dry seasons because they lack informationand technology on how to store as well as the time during the harvestseasonto do so. Difficultiesin preservingand storing food make things worse. Many women spend anothertwo hours a day fetching water for household use. The scarcity of firewood and lack of alternativesourcesof energycompelwomento reducefurthertheir frequencyof cooking. particularly children and elders.Womenhave to walk increasinglylong distancesto find wood. It also increasesthe chance of spoilage. has an adverseeffect on the nutritionalstatusof the family. and it is not uncommon for them to spend up to two hours a day collectingfirewood.turn. -5 - .especiallysmallchildren who need more frequentfeeding. principallyby women. They are also responsible for caring for ill members of the household. Thus. for manyweeks during the year.

Woegrndn maz inMlw v NePla Ats I~~~-6 .

women become confined to economic activities in which the uncertaintyof being able to work is relativelyunimportant. Four distinct underlyingmechanismsaccount for this: * The burden of reproduction Asymmetricrights and obligationswithin the household Differentrole models Women's limited accessto resourcesand information.in rural Kenyathe most significant factor in explainingthe decisionto investin privatesecondaryeducationfor childrenis the number of fertileyears remainingto their mother.however. In addition.to raise their incomes in the long run. The Burden of Reproduction The physicaldemandsof childbearingand breast-feedingstrain health. but when the mother reachesage 44. Thereis evidence that certain investmentsmay be discouraged if the mother is young. Because child-rearingresponsibilitieslimit the ability to continue formal employment. to weed all crops. These four factors largely account for the different allocation of labor between women and men.7- . If the mother has severalfertileyears remaining. Asymmetric Rights and Obligations within the Household In rural Africa.andthereforesomeof them may be postponed. They also explainwhy women'stime tends to be confinedto activities that produce lower returns and that cannot be easily shifted in responseto changes in incentives. For example. This deteriorationcan be reversed.women are expectedto grow subsistencefood crops.if womenbecomeinvolvedin incomeearning opportunities. This suggeststhat the adoption of birth control would have a rapid and powerfuleffecton the capacityof householdsto undertakelonger-term investmentsin education.such as microenterprises.and.and recent studiesclearlyshowthat women'shealthgoesthrough a trough in the child-rearingyears.privateformal employment. parents will be less likely to pay for their children's secondary education. to cook. women are usually concentratedin food production and smallscale marketingand aresubstantiallyunderrepresentedin the publicsector. In return. men provide cash for the householdand usuallyare responsiblefor the allocationof land.Constraints Women Face Womenface differentconstraintson their economicactivitiesthan do men. hence.and formal export agriculture. in the absence of birth control it is difficultfor a householdto plan for long-terminvestments. to gather fuel and water. because of the need to keep money aside in case other children are born. and to rear children. This pattern of reciprocalobligationsoften is unequalin the sensethat women'sobligationsare more . there is no further increasein probability. Thus the probability of a child being sent to a private secondaryschool rises with the age of the mother at the time the decisionis made. As a result. because of the possibilityof an increasein family size.

Unlike the other constraints faced by women. is a universalfeature of human behavior. in turn.which limits their access to resources and information. Different Role Models Another mechanismis the differentdirectionsin which the tendencyto imitaterole modelsattracts men and women. The most likely explanationis that in householdsheaded by men. women generallyhave to work considerably more hours than men. the status of women. One of the consequencesof this arrangementis that women have less time for other activities.one study showedthat whilein householdsheadedby women theseweedings raised yields by 56 percent. each copied only the parent of the same gender. women had little incentiveto do a thorough job. Role models tend to be gender specific: girls copy women and boys copy men.tea. It is a key way in which innovationsspread through the population. This impliesthat if some new economicopportunityis initiallytaken up by men. The best land is usedto producethesecrops. leavingonly the poorest land to women for subsistencefood crops. To be influencedby what other people do. in householdsheaded by men the yield increased only 15 percent. which may be deeply embedded in socialcustom. For example. Both householdsand governmentsgive priority to cash crops such as coffee. but it is also a reason for the lasting of traditions. especially those we admire. For example. On a nationalscale this disincentiveeffectis about equalto the gain in yield from applying phosphateand nitrogenfertilizers. Women's traditional role in food production has been further undermined by .in Kenyawomen are responsiblefor weeding maize.time-consumingthan men's. or cotton. However. There are two weedingsa season.in urban Cote d'lvoire. Accessto land In most African countriesthe legalsystemand traditionalpracticesgive ownership and control of land to men. crops for which men controlthe profits. Thus women must work without knowingfor certainwhetherthey will get somethingout of it for themselvesor their children. As a result.includingthose that could provideincome.girls were not influencedby their father's occupation nor boys by their mother's. Part of this work is on men's crops.8- . that is. Women's Limited Access to Resources and Information Women often encounter discriminationoutside the household. Another is that they havelittle incentiveto do a good job. and each weeding significantlyraisesyields. or male relatives. it may be automaticallydiffused to other men but not to women. Thus mechanizationand cash crop production have increasinglymarginalizedfood crops and. becausethey would gain nothing for their time and effort. However. Women's accessto land is mostly through their husbands. sons. discriminationoutside the household is somethingthat policiesand programscan help change. peoplewere much more likelyto enterformal wage employmentif their parents had done so.

reducesthe availabilityof credit. an investmentcan be financedthrough borrowing. Becausewomen usually have less income than men. among contiguous groups of 200 -9- . Even public credit programs depend to a large extent on physical collateraland so are heavily biased toward male heads of households. because deficit financing usually results in an inflation tax. however.there will be less intermediation. it will be harder for them to save enough for a particularinvestment. Public limitationof interestratesin the privatesector tends to reducethe incentive to investin savingsaccountsand thus reducesthe mobilizationof savingsby the banking system. governments have typically imposed high implicit taxation on savings. This. For example. this educationalbias seriouslyinhibitsthe pace of development. This tax. If there is a well-functioningcredit market. One of the main sources of informationis formal education. Even where credit is available. in turn.policies that keep food prices low for urban dwellers. Within the agriculturalsector.and a person will have to save the money needed for investment. Whenfinancialmarketsare rudimentary. Recentwork indicates that the imitation process is very powerful. In many countrieswomen have tumed their attention to household gardens where they raise vegetables and small animals---thatis. access requires collateral---eitherassets or reputation. Thereis evidencethat better educated farmers are more likely to enter into export agriculture because education appearsto increasethe ability and willingnessto reallocateresources efficientlywhen prices or technology change. Accessto education and agriculturalextensionservices Entry into activities that provide higher returns depends on dissemination of informationabout such opportunitiesand on well-functioninglabor and capital markets. women need access to more resources. because women have significantlyless educationthan men and constitutethe majorityof agriculturallabor. Women's limited autonomy implies that they control far fewer marketable assets and thus may lack the opportunity to build independent reputations for creditworthiness. falls disproportionatelyon those who must rely on cash savingsratherthan the credit market to financetheir investments. Access to credit To expandtheir economicactivitiesand earn moremoneyto supporttheir families. informationabout newtechniquesis spreadthough both public extension services and private imitation. in turn. Finally. to activitiesand incomesources that they can control. and thus those with relativelypoor creditworthiness---disproportionately women---tendto be squeezed out of the credit market. Such clubs are likely to be formed in responseto women's lack of access to formal credit. A symptom of women's difficultiesin obtainingprivatesavings and credit is that informalsavingsclubs seem to be predominantlymade up of women. In rural Africa.and women are preciselyin that position.

Frequently. concentratemore on subjectssuch as food processingand crafts. and locationof training programs do not consider women's agriculturalroles or their multipleresponsibilitiesfor food processingand storage and caretakingwithin the family. Women extensionagents also generallyhave lower status.who target women. such as plowing rather than weeding.men often take them over. on average every two households that began to grow coffee induced a third householdto follow suit. This is becauseof the erroneousbeliefthat men are the main decision-makersin agriculture. but not certain. Furthermore. as discussed earlier. This was exactly what happened when pump irrigation was introducedfor rice productionin West Africa. When technologicalinnovationsdo addresswomens'tasks andmakethem moreprofitable. timing. that this also applies to agriculture. Overall.farmer trainingcentersdo not have facilitiesfor women and their children and do not address the needfor childcare. then households headed by women have a lower likelihood of entering sectors in which they were initiallyunderrepresented.particularlythe severeconstraintson their time and mobility. Agriculturalextensionservicesin manyAfricancountriesstilldesigntheir programs as if all farmers were men. It is logical.the timing and location of programs must take account of women's multiple roles and responsibilities. As a result male agriculturalextensionagents tend to provideproductioninformationto malefarmers.most of the technicalimprovementsare geared to tasks largely performed by men. - 10- .andlesslogisticalsupport---particularlytransport---to perform their services. Availabilityof appropriateagriculturaltechnology Evenif the agriculturalextensionserviceputs more emphasison reachingwomen farmers. Moreover. if it does. even though they may providesome of the labor. which traditionallyprovides no benefits for women. The design. It also reflects the fact that the extension service is overwhelminglystaffed by men. it may lack the appropriate technology to recommend.households in Kenya. The technological improvements in agricultural production are mostly intended to improve cash crop production.whilefemalehome economicsextension agents. less influencein the extensionservicehierarchy.in the formal labor marketthere is evidencethat this imitation process is gender specific: men copy men and women copy women.

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Womanexamininghercorn in the LilongweLandDevelopment schemein Malawi(WorldBank) .12 - .

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ru !~~~~~~~~W... As developmentraises incomes... More ActiitTes ProuceMore... ~~~~~~~~~~~... Changing the Structure of Income The typical household can generate income many differentways..... at the other it may sell all its production and purchase all its food...and limiting input parsimony...the more liquid assets the household has and the better its access to credit.. This is obvious but importantbecause it impliesthat in many cases the problem of food insecuritydoes not need to be separatelyaddressed but can be solved in the process of raising incomes. ."'ho d 1td - 14 -~~~~~~P-OU4 oshlsta o-n . diversifiedincome sources will reducefluctuations as long as the incomes from the differentactivitiesdo not all vary in the same direction at the same time. Varying Assets to Smooth Consumption For given fluctuations in income. doubledh. Another factor is the range of activitiesin which the householdis engaged.Raising the Level of Income For a given variabilityof income. .. Income::::::.The r a orrta n te .. . ..... .. At one extremethe householdmight function purely at the subsistencelevel. At one extremeit might be completelyspecializedand get its incomeall from one source.... .. ..I. matching.. One factor is how much the householdparticipatesin markets.the lower the risk that income will fall below the level necessaryto ensure an adequate level of food consumption.. . including household members who work at other locations....''' .. the higher the income is on average.. Diversification For a given expected income... at the other it may have many different agricultural activities as well as nonagriculturalsources of income.""'. the core problem of food insecuritygradually changesfrom being one of overcoming long-term povertyto one of riding out short-termadverseeconomicshocks. . the safer it is... The economic structure that provides the least risk is the outcome of four distinct considerations: diversification..... Hence...skewing.. .. on' ki-'entfalae' so!urceof-income.. food consumption can be stabilizedthrough changesin assets and debts.

But it usuallywill be best to limit skewingso that the householdretainsat least a few high-risk activities.Evenif allthe activitiesaresomewhatrisky.althoughat a diminishedlevel. Someexposureto high-riskactivitieswill actually reduce overall risk as long as the incomesfrom high-risk activitiesdo not all vary in the same directionat the sametime. A third reason for matching is that food is stored by the household instead of by centralized agencies.and the result is sociallycostly. but it does raisethe minimumoutput. Skewing Not all activitiesare equally risky.for a given expectednet income. There is an important exception. Oftenin Africa the spreadsbetweenthe farmgateand export prices of crops and between urban and rural prices of consumergoods are very wide.resultingfrom the fact that in any village or small locality only a very few will buy export crops or sell food. Thus growing maize on one plot may be viewed as a distinct activityfrom growing maizeon another plot some distanceaway if. becauseof this distance.and partly becausemarketingchannelsare frequentlyuncompetitive.disease or bird damagewill b-esubstantiallydifferenton the two plots. Hence a household may reduce the fluctuation in its income by skewing its resourcesaway from high-risk activities.the more inputsthe householduses. The Cost of Strategies to Vulnerable Groups Generally. When food-crop marketingagenciesare given privilegedaccessto bank borrowingat negative real interestrates. however. For example.and there is probablymore scope for the governmentto reduce storagecosts at the householdlevelthan through promotingcentralizedpest-resistantfacilities.reflectingpoor infrastructure. Input parsimony Generally. spraying for coffee berry disease does not raise maximumoutput.it is subjectto price risks arisingfrom a sudden increasein the price of food it buys or a sudden fall in price of the output it sells. Matching If a householddoes not produce any of the food it consumes. Holding assets in a liquid form will . that is.they can store food for later sale (evento producers)at a relativelylow cost so that matchingis discouraged. Thus the household can reduce its exposure to price risks by matching its production structure more closelyto its consumptionstructure. as long as the risks are at least partially independent of each other. but the rains fail. Hence the householdcan reducefluctuationsin net income by restrictingthe use of inputs. A second reasonfor matchingis that it avoids transactioncosts. This is partlybecausetransportcosts arefrequentlyhigh. This might happenwhen fertilizeris applied. the more it is exposedto risk.15 - . however.these strategieshave some cost. by producing more of the food it consumes. because some inputs reduce the variation in output. the household increasesits safety by undertaking more activities.

For example. The lower the value of liquid assets a householdpossesses.which will differfor each household. matching. and input parsimony will generally conflict.the householdthat aims to be self-sufficientin food. Vulnerablehouseholdsalso tend to be insufficientlydiversified.a rural householdincreases its incomeby graduallyaccumulatingmore remunerativeactivities. - 16 - .or institutional. thus avoiding price risk. two of these illustrate the importance of asset-based3trategies. First. Householdswith few liquid assetstypically have no livestockor securetitle to land.threecharacteristicswere found significantlyto reduce the likelihood a household would need famine relief. Governm3ntpolicyshouldthus aimto improvethe healthof women because this contributes significantlyto increasinghouseholdfood security. Diversification. Input parsimonyand skewingwill reduceexpectedincome.ownershipof livestockreducedthe likelihoodof needing food aid by nearly a third. may be so heavily orientedto food productionthat it is excessivelyexposedto quantity risk.the less able it is to smooth consumptionby selling assets in bad times or by borrowing against them as collateral. The most important difference between households is the ability to use these strategies to cope with food insecurity.usuallyinvolvea lower return. Both these characteristicstend to describefemale-headedhouseholds.skewing.the quantity risksvary substantiallybetweenhouseholdsand betweenpersons.Householdsheadedby womentend to be especiallydisadvantagedin their capacityto overcome such barriers and so are more likelyto be poor. During 1983 there was an incipient problem of food insecurityin Zimbabwe. whereasthere is no such differencefor other age groups.few liquid assets. Vulnerable groups will have the same three characteristicsthat the strategiesare meantto overcome: low income. There is a strong relationbetweenhouseholdincomeand the range of activitiesin which the householdparticipates.with the most vulnerablehouseholds heavilyreliant on subsistencefor their income.in both KenyaandTanzaniawomen betweenthe ages of 16 and 49 are too ill to work for twice as many days as men. reduced th. On the whole. and few options to adopt a risk-minimizingstructure of income.informational. This is illustrated by survey data from Zimbabwe. Therewill be some ideal balanceamong the various strategies. access to credit. Householdsthat stay poor are the ones unableto overcomethe barriersto enteringthese activities---whether they be financial. For example. either because of collateralor reputation. A household may be especiallyvulnerableto food insecurityif it has an unusually high incidenceof the various kinds of risk or if it has an unusuallyhigh cost of achieving security. and all householdsface the same prices.elikelihood of needing food aid by three-quarters. price risksdo not differ. Among households with roughlycomparableincomes. in otherwiseidenticalhouseholds.and the governmentvery effectivelyavoided severehardshipby distributingfamine reliefto householdsperceivedto be in hardship. To a considerableextent. Second. However. The third significantinfluenceon reducing the need for food aid was the degree o diversificationof activities.

but it also lowers yield.are unableto diversify. Usingfewer inputs reducesrisk. The most extremeexampleof this is the householdthat is confinedto a single low-returnactivity---usuallysubsistencefood production---andcan do nothingelsebut limit inputs. must resort to strategiesthat reducerisk but also r'educe income. The householdreduces its insecurity.householdsthat.and thereby reduce risk and raise income at the sametime.Furthermore. . but it locks itself into a low income and continues to be excessively vulnerable.17 - .

(N.de Palma) Weavingforthemarketin Madagascar - 18- .

the proportionof that wereheadedbywomenbut incomecontrolledby womenwashigherin households thatdid not producesugar.and on their health and nutritionalstatus.Thusthe resultsof researchinto the effectof cashcroppingon householdfood securityand on womenare extremelyimportant. households headedby womenearneda higher incomefrom sugarcaneproductionthan didhouseholdsheadedby men.Absoluteincomesof womenwerehigherinsugar-producing householdsregardlessof whetherthe householdwas headedby a man or a woman becausewomenwereableto diversifytheirincomesources. Kenya. Bothabsolute householdincomeandthe proportionof that incomecontrolledby womenare important for ensuringhouseholdfood security. The results showed that householdsthat producedsugarcanehad higherincomesthan similarhouseholdsthat didnot producesugarcane. Resultsfromeachof the casestudiesshowedthat the incomesof the households participating inthe cashcroppingschemesincreasedsignificantly comparedwiththe noncash-croppinghouseholds. The data from Kenyawereusedto studythe effectof sugarcaneproductionon women'sincome. Interestingly.Public Policies to Increase Household Food Security Becauseall effortsto increasehouseholdfood securityandto reduceinequitable burdenson womentakeplacein the contextof macroeconomic policies.but the improvement was lessthan proportionalto the increase in income.which indicatedthat childrenfrom households headedby womenwere less likely to be moderatelyor severelymalnourishedthan childrenfrom householdsheadedby men becausea greaterproportionof incremental householdcalorieswas allocatedto preschoolchildren.Fivesimilarstudieswereconductedin TheGambia.therearepolicy measuresthat governmentscan adoptto improvethe situation. This conclusion is supportedby the data from Kenya.as well as on the individuals withinthe households.householdexpenditure.Philippines.on howthey allocatedtheirtime (includingtime spent on sugarcane production).A part of this incrementalincomewas spenton additional food for the household. In the early1980sthe International FoodPolicyResearchInstitutedid a seriesof studieson the effectsof the commercialization of agriculture---or cash cropping---on householdincome.and agriculturalproduction.19 - .Thisoccurreddespitethe factthatalmostallthe households wereconsuming fewercaloriesthanthe numberneededto provideadequatenutrition. and Rwanda. Guatemala. Thesurveysindicatedthatwomenspendvirtuallyno timein sugarcaneproduction . Macro Policiesto EnhanceWomen's EconomicActivities Manygovernments inAfricaareundertaking structuraladjustment programs.which put substantialemphasison cashcroppingfor exportor for importsubstitution.the cashcroppingstudiesshowthatthe incomecontrolledby women is morelikelyto be spentfor food than the incomecontrolledby men. In addition.However.

In order to understand the determinants of household food security. More curious was the fact that as income controlled by women increased. Plannersneedto look at the range of policiespursuedby governments and attemptto assess the effectsof these policies on householdsand on the women in these households. If this policy were to change.omefrom cash-croppingmadea statisticallysignificantbut modest contributionto reducing hunger in each of the case study areas. Incrementsin inc. it is crucial to understandthe links betweenthe macro and micro levels.because sugarcaneis perceivedto be a men's crop.their nutritionalstatusdeclinedslightly.policies aimed directly at improving household food security shouldtry to improvethe abilityof vulnerablehouseholdsto adopt risk-reducingstrategies rather than try to redu .increased income by itselfwas less successfulin alleviatingmalnutrition. This may be in part explainedby the fact that the increased income was controlled by men and becausewomen may not haveaccess to or perceivethe benefitsof healthcare which could reduce morbidity.e price fluctuationsor to increasejob security. However.the health and nutritional status of women in Kenyadid not improveas householdincome increased. women in sugarcane-producing householdsand those in householdsthat did not produce cane spent the same amount of time on other agriculturalactivities.the micro-leveleffectswould very likelyalso be different. and women are not compensated for time spent working on sugarcane. . such as weeding. Contrary to what might have been expected.and that the increasedexpenditureof energywas not compensatedfor by the increasein caloric intake. For example. Based on this assessment. To have dramatic effects on the nutritionalstatus of individuals---atleast in the short term---programsto increase agriculturalproductionmust be linkedto programsto improve householdnutrition.the increasedincomeassociated with cash-croppingwas due in largepart to the government'spricing policyon sugarcane. PoliciesThat Directly IncreaseHouseholdFood Security Macroeconomic. Agriculturalpoliciesand programswill not have positiveeffects on women unless women are specificallyincorporatedinto the planningand implementationof schemesto generateincome.20 - . Three lessonsemerge from these data: There is a very close link betweenmacroeconomicpoliciesand their effects at the householdlevel. Increasedhousehold incomewas not associatedwith a decreasein women's illnessbecausethe incremental incomewas spent on a mix of goods and servicesthat did not lessenwomen's morbidity. It was discoveredthat most of the additional income was generated from very energy-intensiveactivities.in the Kenyacase study.positive effects can be enhanced and negativeones reduced. However.

savingshave often beenthe only financialassetavailableto poor peoplein ruralareas. Financialassets have the enormousadvantageof being sociallycostless. Reducingrisks outsidethe household In the past. Hence. Of course it takes time for poor householdsto put aside enough money out of their earnings. the macroeconomicpoliciesof manyAfrican governmentsto improve household food security have concentrated directly on reducing three kinds of risk: variations in crop prices through stabilizationschemes. Constraintsthat prevent householdsfrom restructuringtheir income also inhibit the economyfrom restructuring. Thus in Kenya the tea sector is characterizedby three apparentlyincompatiblefacts: women do most of the work on tea. The obvious liquid assets for householdsto hold are financial.21 - . households headed by women have only half the propensity to adopt tea enterprisesas those headed by men.this nationaldiminishedpropensityis substantial. The governmentcan encourage development of a rural banking system that offers a range of appropriate savings instrumentswith after-taxpositivereal rates of return. and yet householdsheaded by women are far less likelyto do so.but even very low savings rates of 2 or 3 percent of income would.and to alter the structure of their income. In turn. householdswith morewomen are more likelyto adopt the crop. The governmentcan encouragesavingsby tax policy and by institution building.variations in consumer prices through price controls.to raisetheir incomes.extra male labor has no effect on the likelihoodof adoptingtea. Since around 40 percent of rural households in Kenyaare headed by women. and job loss through legal job security (for wages employeesin the privatesector)and subsidizedunprofitableactivities(for wageemployeesin the public . whereasan additionalwoman in an otherwiseaverage householdraisesthe propensityto adopt tea growingby around a quarter. In Kenya. In parts of Africa much governmentexpenditurehas been financedby the inflationtax.tea is the most important export activitywith potentialfor expansionbecause it is not subject to those headed internationalquotas. leave them in a radicallymore secureposition. Further.Enablinghouseholdsto adopt risk-reducingstrategies Governmentpolicycan help vulnerablehouseholdsreducetheir risksby increasing their capacityto hold more liquid income.they do not use up real resources. policiesto help vulnerablegroups to overcome constraints improve the mobility of resources in the economy as a whole and thereby contribute to structural adjustment. Since financialassets are just a network of offsettingclaimsand liabilities. Governments can also help vulnerable households expand into higher-return activitiesthrough carefullydesigned policy measures. which is a tax on savings. In householdsotherwisevery similar. Yet the ability of vulnerablehouseholds---especially by women---to add tea production to their income-generatingactivities is severely restricted. the case of Kenyantea is particularlyrevealingbecausemost of the labor of tea picking is done by women. over a decade. for example.

commissioningspecial studies. whereasthe governmentdid not. adding more household and micro-level studies.Kenyancoffee growers saved around 70 percent of their windfall income.to cover their administrativecosts. the classic case being the cocoa board of Ghana. Pricecontrols on consumergoods were used extensivelyin Tanzaniauntil 1984. First. In Kenya. By holding prices below the point at which supply would equaldemand. Such a framework helps identifythe roles of women and men and the differentways policiesand programs affectthem. Peoplehad to wastetime searchingor queuingfor consumer goods---timethat could have been used to generatemore income. Second.sector). it can help them identify factors that cause or contribute to specific cases of food insecurity or inequitabletreatment of women and the relevant actors or decisionmakersin each area. However.two things happened. but this is paid for by those who do not.public expenditureincreased by KSh 1. a conscious effort is needed to ensure that this information is used to modify policies. either in the form of taxes to financethe subsidy of public enterprises or the form of reduced employmentopportunitieswhen privatefirms restrict recruitment to providejob security.it can help design policy and program - 22 - .however. In addition. This can be provided by modifying their current survey instruments.the poor farmers seemed to be able to handle the most common kind of large price shock rather well. A framework can be useful to policymakersand project designers for several different reasons. Stabilizing crop prices has a long. they created acute excess demandand severelyuncertainsupply. None of these is a good use of resources. First. Gathering Information for Policymaking and Program Design To enable governmentsto better design macro policies to enhance women's economic activities. In practice. these benefitsare very poorly targeted. Accurate information about the status of women and about how policies and programs affect women plays an important role in efforts to increase householdfood security and to raise the incomes of low-incomewomen. for example. unhappy history.for every shillingof windfall revenuethe governmentreceived. Job security confers real benefits on those who have it. however. Marketing boards were supposed to build up surpluses when world prices were high and then use these to subsidizedomesticprices when world priceswere low.35.and seeking informationfrom nongovernmental organizationsand internationalagencies. but they seemedto increaseratherthan decreaseoverallrisk. Hence. Second. An interministerialcommittee could regularly examinethe effect of policies on low-incomehouseholds and women. revenue fluctuationstended to destabilizethe governmentbudget. Becausethose with wage employmentare the least vulnerable group in the society. Duringthe coffee boom of the late 1970s. marketingboard marginstended to become greater. a framework is necessaryto gather and analyzethat information. a better information base is needed. and a lead agency could be assignedto interpretthis informationfor policymakers.

23 - . it can help screen policy or program interventionsand their likelyeffect on individualsand householdsand help monitor the effectsof changes.and the consumption and nutritionof householdmembers. By treating the household as an undifferentiatedunit. and. governmentscan structure more effective policies and programs to improve householdfood security. household income sources and expenditures.the status of women. thus. A strictlyeconomicanalysiswill revealfactors affectingpricesof inputs. Agriculturestudies tend to focus on production.whilehealth and nutritionstudiesmay focus only on women and children. and consumption. their contributionto household food security. One such information-gatheringframework is organized around three separate aspects of household food security: food produced and consumed directly by the household. or their contributionto householdand individualfood security.it will maskthe roles of differentdecisionmakersand actors. however. Based on this. outputs. this frameworkfocuses on the human dimension of food securityand women'sdailylife---theactivities.task and time allocation. third.and decisionmaking. In contrast. The three aspects of analysisproposed by this frameworkhighlight the elements amenableto policy or program interventionsto improvehouseholdfood securityand the statusof women. .interventionsand identifythe appropriatetarget populationor participants.resources. The information analyzedin this frameworkcould come from sectoralreports or from researchat the householdlevel. And. Within each aspect the factors affectingfood security and the status of women fall in to three areas of analysis: access to and control of resources.anddecisionsinvolvedin the use of incomeor output and made by womenand men as producersand consumers.the constraintsthey face.

Women'sdual responsibilitiesin Madagascar(N. de Palma) .24 - .

To match their fixed capital. Ruralwomenalso needfixed capitalfor household improvements. However. pesticides. Womencannot be expectedto obtain credit at reasonablerates and conditionsthrough any other channel. including various kinds of containersand storage buildings. Africanwomen face many difficultiesin obtainingcredit to start or to enlargetheir enterprises.25 - .and smoking and drying equipment. production inputs.capital items to process and market their agricultural output.the Central Bank is working with two commercial banks. For off-farmactivitiesthey need fixed capital for market stalls and buildings as well as tools and machineryfor cottage industries. such as stoves or refrigerationequipment. fertilizer. one cooperative bank. rent for storage space.but more action is needed in agricultural extension. Central to this effort is the underlyingassumptionthat lending to women must be institutionalized.Programs to Increase Women's Access to Services and Resources Governmentsshould reassesstheir programsin rural areas to make adjustments that will increasewomen's accessto the resourcesand informationthey needto increase their incomesand thus the food securityof their households. initiatives are now under way in several African countries to increasewomen's access to credit. such as seeds and fertilizer. If the obstaclesto women's accessto credit could be removed. Basedon field researchthat evaluatedwomen's participationin the credit market. Expandinglendingto women in Uganda An effort is underwayin Uganda to open credit channelsto women. and transport services.and fees and licenses. Programsorientedtowards women's needs are now being implementedin severalcountriesin credit and finance. tractor or animal hire. Womenwould then be able to competeon an equal footing with men for credit.transportation services. axes. For agriculturalproductionthey need fixed capitalfor tools.and transportationvehicles. ratherit is to look at the factors inhibitingwomen's access to credit from existing institutionsand to redressthem.no special interestsubsidywould be needed. it is important to learn from this experience. rural women also need working capital for such agricultural production inputs as hired labor. In their offfarm activitiesruralwomenneedworking capitalfor raw materials. The effort is not to establisha separatecredit program.oxen and associatedplows and weeders. such as grinding mills. their constraints. bags. Credit and Finance for Rural Women Women need both fixed and working capital for agricultural production and for their off-farmactivitiesthat produce income.equipment. and one nongovernmentalorganization to increase .technology.and wheelbarrows. hulling machines. water storage facilities. storage facilities. improved seed.and their strengths. and durable appliances. churns for ghee and butter.peelers. such as hoes. and nutrition.

select their own members. and include both men and women. The program has met with considerablesuccess. The projectgrewfrom a critiquepreparedby the Ministry of Community Development. which found that programsfor womenwere oftensmall.there remainproblems. and oxen and often did not control the income from their farming activities. Usually. and Women's Affairs. The research found that when banks did lend to women. The FAO project addresses the problem of credit availabilityby working with groups. In some cases loans were made to women's groups. Since so many women had been denied access to institutionalizedcredit. especially those who were illiterate.access to resourceswas through men. One. however. The project considerscredit to be a farming input and believesthat farmers must understandthat borrowing money is a commercialtransaction. The program suggests that more than half the group be women to reflect the reality of extensivemale emigration.women's access to credit. inputs. They waivedthe requirementfor collateral.but members also have individualplots. were given extra assistance in making their applications. Applicationswere simplified. Not unexpectedly. In turn.marginalizedwomenin lower-incomeactivities. and repaymentrecords have been good.and drew womenaway from higher-incomeactivities. This disturbedthe borrower's plansand forcedthe womanto work more than plannedat other activities. Womenlacked access to land. drawing on traditions of labor sharing. which assumed collectiveliabilityand receivedspecialtraining in the use of credit and record keeping. The group jointly plans .26 - . the lending institutionsimprovedthe quality of their lendingfor womenby modifyingthe conditionsthat were reducingwomen's access. of course. they were so cautious that they tended to underfinancethe proposed enterprise and were not willing to lend even up to the approvedlimits. the banks also waived the requirement that women borrowers be previous customers.Cooperatives. Learningto use credit through group projects in Zimbabwe The Food and AgricultureOrganization(FAO)is supporting a project to expand lendingto women in Zimbabwe..and women. this reducedthe anticipatedincomefrom the new enterpriseand led to difficultiesrepayingthe loan.the program has led to a "breakthroughin lending"---somuch so that now the most difficult problemis the availabilityof loanablefunds. credit. With the help of the Central Bank. is extendingthe reachof the program. Another is trying to incorporatea strongersavingselementin what has to date been largely a credit effort. To encouragelendingto prioritytargets---suchas women--the CentralBank grants favorable rediscountfacilitiesfor loans. Groups undertakecollectivefarming activities. The groups usually have between 10 and 20 people. One goal of the effortis to increasethe qualityof lendingto women.usingthe reputationof the woman'scharacter and an analysisof the proposed enterpriseinstead. In the view of the Central Bank. and women had little direct access to agriculturalextensioninformation.

so women membersretain much more control over their share of the income.but they become more sophisticatedduring a four-yearperiod as the group becomesmore experienced.which matchesthe group's own assets and is made on the basis of an agreed cropping plan.the Kenya Women Finance Trust (KWFT).trainedwomentraders in the two largest markets in the country in business management.the FAOconsidersit to be reasonably successful. the farmers themselvesdo not have to makethe payment. Loans are made at going rates of interest with normal commercialconditions. If their first year is successful. normal commercial credit is unavailable. The group agrees that the marketingboard for the crop will deduct the loan from the proceeds of the crop sale and will remit it to the Agricultural Finance Corporation. Although the scheme is in its early stages. For example. Thus. The program has been in operation about six years and has sufferedonly one default. a group is eligiblefor a specialsubsidizedloan. No collateralis needed other than the growing crop. the nationalaffiliateguarantees25 percent. Because women tend to have few assets.for example. The Agricultural Finance Corporation is a credit agency. The bank has recently renewedits loan guaranteeagreementwith the KWFTand is expandingits lending. An advantage of the group-based approach is that to some degree the group is removedfrom the household.27 - .The WWB breaksthis stalemateby guaranteeingloans made to women by commercialbanks. Groupsare encouragedto save through postal savings or a building society. The individualmemberslearnfrom their group participationhowto use credit productively in their own individual enterprises.and the connectionbetweeninputs and the use of credit is emphasized. One weaknessthat remains.the group is encouragedto expand their enterprisesby borrowingfrom the AgriculturalFinanceCorporationat the goingrate of 13 percent. The small groups develop a group cohesion as a result of their joint production. In Kenya.is that the programfocuseslargelyon credit and is not concerned with savings.and the commercialbank assumesthe remaining25 percent of the risk.using fundsfrom the SwedishInternationalDevelopmentAgency (SIDA). and marketingand then guaranteedloans from a commercialbank.where severalcommercialbanks are cooperatingwith the WWB.accounting. The program has affiliatesin 24 African countries. Simplerecords are introducedfrom the beginning. In the first year. . The loan is managed by the group as a whole. WWB affiliatesput considerableemphasison training women in economicskills and the use of credit. not a full-servicebank.the internationaloffice of the WWB guarantees50 percent of a loan.all aspectsof its production. EnablingAfrican women to use commercialcredit Women'sWorld Banking(WWB)has institutedan internationaleffortto helpwomen learneconomicallyproductiveskillsandto obtaincommercialcreditto establishor expand enterprises.however. but it would be preferableif the lending institutionalso mobilized savings.

.The KWFTis embarkingon anotherguaranteeschemewith the commercialbank havingthe most rural branches... . Furthermore....... for example. .. Such informationshould cover not only agriculturalproduction. ...--.. Orienting Extension toward Women's Needs Many African specialistsbelievethat agricultural extensionservices in Africa do not adequatelyaddress the needs of womenfarmers...and sorghum. Moreover..iE. ....l'OrganisationCanadienpour la solidarite dans le developpement.but also food processing... bananas..-!ii----Sii -E-E adtinnovationsmor qikyha areome n -mayames :E--EE--EEEi --EE oups -ar To improve their outreach to women. . ... which often are produced by women..iE .. such as yams.. abou60pernt ofthe --limostentirely mde-up ofwomen .among others. UNICEF... ... thorough periodic meetingswith extensionstaff (a prominentfeatureof the trainingandvisitagriculturalextensionsystem - 28 - .. ...Fi........ In Africa...and SIDA..women have limited accessto agriculturalinputs.... ........ in part due to their lack of credit... .~i... Extensionactivitiesare mostly addressedto men becauseof an erroneous belief that men are the main decisionmakersin agriculture.. . ~~~~ i~ Afrira ..extensionstaff are mostly male...... -i...-E-..~~~~~~~~~~t ~i...-..~ii ~: EEi~ ~ ~E. . They can do this through surveysthat disaggregateinformationby gender... For these reasonsextensionmessagesdo not addressthe fact that women are generallyinvolvedin a muchwider range of agriculturalactivitiesthan men and hence requirea wider range of informationand technology.. it has cooperated with the World Bank.i..-.......... ers reachedby the extension en the Inv"v m'ainly chnh-nprcie r inepeniv....i.g: . Wo'T2men-Ar'Maj:r-Use'rs"-ofEtension in frc 1 A ...... ..more than 60percentofthecontact f arm...... the African Development Bank.storage and utilization............-. The program is targetedto rural women and conducts training courses at many locationsthroughout Kenya.and small animal raising.. . i ... of lextension i servies LasMmoreanm mn se off-farm e. The WWB has attracted considerablesupport from internationalagencies. In terms of developingthe extensionmessage.there ~E ~ ras: oReetl:f~i..... i ... r ..... ... ... .elal ..njnts men...1Za3QV :..Ej i .. agriculturalextensionserviceswill needto better identifythe informationneededby womenfarmers..E..e woman0 often farm ais -n Kenyasfor example.-i. TheKenyan extension sevc i idngtat oe At]fielddemo aons... E ~b..there has been inadequateresearch on traditional... S...or "minor"food crops. ..

. food processing. Moreover. The extensionservicesin both Nigeriaand Kenya are making considerableprogress in better diagnosingthe extensionneeds of women farmers. in some countries.researchagencies and agricultural extensionservicesshould consult extensivelywith their counterpartsin other countries. much work with women farmers will continue to be the responsibilityof men. To speed developmentof appropriatetechnologies.provincial. Farmer training centers should be improved to include residential facilities for women and to provide child care.found in many African countries). and the agent becomes comfortableworkingwith the women.they will need to strengthentheir abilityto disseminatethat information. To enable men to work more effectivelywith women's groups. Care should be taken not to createa parallelextensionsystemfor womenfarmers.agricultureshould be added to primaryschool curriculumsso that girls have the opportunityto study this topic and hopefullycontinueat higher levels of education.a woman agent introduces the men who will be working with the groups. targets should be set---atleast 30 percent of the contact farmers should be women within a reasonablyshort time. such as weeding.women should be involvedin evaluatingthe results of the trials.such as Cameroon. As agencies increase their store of informationsuited to the needs of women farmers. Work should be expandedwith women'sgroups and with ruralyouth groups that includegirls. Existinghome economistsshould be providedwith additionalagriculturaltraining and be fully integratedinto the regular extensionprogram.the womanagentmoveson to introduceother male agentsto other women's groups.and through consultationwith central. Existing extensionstaff---mostlymen---shouldenhancetheir abilityto work effectivelywith women farmers (which likelywill also increasetheir effectivenessin working with men). This will involve organizing sessions at which the needs of women farmers are discussed and appointingspecialistswith expertiseon the topics appropriateto women farmers (such as food storage and processing)and the technologiessuited to their needs.29 - .and local agenciesdealingwith women's affairs. Of course.the Nigerianextensionsystem has been notably successful in this regard. To ensure that the results are interpretedaccurately. Researchersshould be encouragedto focus more on-farmresearch on tasks typicallyperformedby women. given the staffing structure of agricultural extensionservices. To speed this. more and more contact farmers should be women.and storage. On-farmtrials at farms operatedby womencan increase the effectivenessof research and extensionwork. More women agricultural agents need to be recruited and trained and women promotedto managementresponsibilitiesat all levels. Technology and informationpackages suited to women farmerswill need to be developedin manyAfricancountries. mobile trainingunits can also be used. Once the women farmers become familiarwith the extensionsystem and with the agent. As programs to serve women farmers are extended. Since women often find it harder than men to attend these centers. A much strongerlink betweenthe extensionservice and research agencies needs to be fostered.

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and strongerextensioninformationsupport. Reportspreparedby extensionagents should describeseparatelythe adoptionratesandother activitiesundertakenby menandwomen farmers.better accessto credit. The importantthing is to make a wide range of productsavailableand then to let the market sort things out. but women take their maizeto the millsto save hours of pounding---hoursthat can then be devoted to economicallymore productiveactivities. which was highly drought resistantand little troubled by bird pests becauseof the high tannin content. And. any proposed technologicalintroductionshould be appropriateto the social and economic setting where it is to be introduced. of course. Those who feel the more palatableproduct is worth the extracost can continuewith the higher-pricedproduct. For example. and. Rather. It was a classiccase of a failureof researchersto talk with users.To ensure that their programs are moving on schedule and are effective.then the price differencewill induce some users to accept the less palatablesubstitute. . Policymakers. they will not be acceptable. It should also be appropriate for the intendedusers. agriculturalextensionserviceswill needto adapt their monitoringand evaluationactivities to includedata disaggregatedby gender. ImprovingWomen's Access to Technology If Africanwomen areto be able to improvehouseholdfood securityandto enhance their incomes by taking advantageof improved technologies.they will need improved technicalskills.the tannin also made the taste bitter for humans. Surveysundertakento assesseffectivenesswill needto disaggregatethe results for men and women farmers.but producesa somewhatless palatableproduct. furthermore. Many of these changes are already being made by the extensionsystem in Nigeria. food technology.31 - . However. the need for economic-sizedenterprises. transportation technology. If the newtechnologyreduces cost andthus the retailprice.they should search for any way to increase women's efficiency. Unlessproposedtechnologicalinnovationsare better than what is already in use. in some cases users must meet newtechnologicalinnovationshalfway.however. it tied up the protein in the sorghum and reduced its absorptionby the body. There was also an effort to introduce a red sorghum.shouldnot focus too narrowlyon technologicalinnovation controlled by women. Whiletechnology must be relevantto end users."improved"fish smoking ovens in West Africa produced a taste people did not like. those responsible for administering extension services will want to review their programs regularlyto ensure that women farmers are being effectivelyreached. Appropriatenessof technology Of course. The issue of technology involvesfive major concerns: appropriatenessof technology.and accessto credit.mechanicalmaizemills are often controlledby men. For example.

This is the equivalentof a full-timejob in the formal sector. Furthermore.32 - . Most emphasishas been placed on road transport betweenurban centers or between urban centers and rural areas. walkingfor crop marketingpurposes is surprisinglylittle---only10 percent of total walking in Tanzania. A related examplecomes from the Iringa Districtin Tanzaniaalready mentioned in connectionwith food technology. In addition to being more energy-densethan traditionalweaningfood. the technique of using a simple chart to monitor growth was introducedfor virtuallyall children under five years of age. So the program produced a film called"Sharethe Responsibility"and encouragedwivesto talk aboutthe fuel problemwith their husbands.000 hours a year to put into more productiveeconomic activity. One widely known advancein food technologyis the success in reducing infant mortalityby introducing better weaningfood and growth monitoringin the Iringa District of Tanzania. the familywould have some 2. much remains to be done to reduce storage losses. Overtime. When walking is broken into tasks (suchas walkingto collectfirewood. Transport Technologicalimprovementsin transportshould haveadditionaldimensions. FAO data show that about 15 to 20 percent of the cereals produced in Africa are lost through bad storage.85 percentof the walkingis done by women. Those who showed signs of being malnourishedreceivedsupplementalfood at feeding posts establishedin 60 of the 68 villagesin the district. and the like). In 1984. They revealedthat in some areas family members spend 2. "Powerflour"was introducedas a compositeweaning food.Food technology Despite advances in mechanicalgrain milling and fuel-efficient stoves. They were conductedby following selectedmen and womenin their dailywork. Recent surveys have led to an additionalfocus. This led community leadersto ask men to help gather firewood. At the same time. If somethingcan be done to releasethat time.walking to the fields. An innovationwas to make the village head responsiblefor checking everychild and for being sure that parents were awareof childrenfailing to grow normally.700 hours a year walking to fetch water or fuelwood. For vegetables. Growthmonitoringshowedthat manychildrenwere undernourishedbecausemothers had to spend too much time gatheringfuel and thus conserved fuel by cooking less often. storage losses may run as high as 40 to 50 percent. men beganto help collectfuelwood---andevenintroducedthe new technologyof wheelbarrowsto increasetheir efficiency. At first there was seriousresistance.by 1989it had droppednearly a third to 106per thousand.when the program began. The technique of germinatingseedsfor processingwas alreadywell-knownto womenin the districtsince they use it to make beer.the infant mortality rate in the regionwas 152per thousand. . an interestinginnovationwas to introduceflour made from germinatedseed to increasenutrient density.

" Likely. This would be done through discussionwith womenwho would use the technologiesin their agriculturalproductionactivities. probably would be the responsibilityof a lead institutionin cooperationwith institutionsin varioussectors.however. Developingtechnologyfor rural women There is a need for explicit national programs to develop technology for rural women. the terms and conditionsof bank lendingneed to be changedto enablewomento becomecommercial borrowers. Actual implementation of the program. For larger economicenterprisesundertakenby groups of womento be successful. Largerfood-processingenterpriseshave run into the problemsof meetingpublic healthhygienestandardsand of acquiringappropriate packagingmaterials. the coordinating ministry would need to . The first task would be to identify the needs for better technologies and the problems of providingthem.or to reduce the burden of household work.for off-farmenterprises. If women are to have access to new technologythat involvescapital expenditure---asso many do---then they must have access to capital. coordinatedby a ministrywith "clout. and the group must have accessto sufficientcredit.most often new technology will require access to credit. responsibilityfor developing the technology could be assigned to a national agency working in that area. Access to credit The availabilityof credit is an underlyingconcern in any discussionof technology.33 - . not discourage.the enterprisemust be able to maintainits equipmentproperly. however.Economicsize An important issue in any discussion about technology is the need to make enterpriseslarge enough so that they can be efficientand generatesubstantialincome. Although some agencies are consideringschemesto enablegroups of womento leasecapital equipment. That agencywould haveto determineif the technologicalinnovation should be based in the householdor whetherit might be better to developit at the village level. since a program to increase technology suited to the needs of rural women and to disseminateinformationabout availabletechnology would involve many sectors and agencies.have problems of their own: women must receivemanagementtraining. As discussed earlier.good informationmust be availablefrom extensionor similar sources.the informal sector. These larger enterprises.this would have to be the prime minister's office. they must be nurtured by national economic policiesthat support. Once the technological needs were identified. Once the technology was available. Several agencies are now trying to bring women together into groups to establish enterpriseswith a greater surplus value than can be achievedby the individualwomen working alone.

and to ensurethat children were immunizedagainstcommondiseases. If it was more complicated. Such programs would . accessibilityof health and other supportingservices. insufficientknowledge about nutrition and health.and simple irrigation.the coordinatingagencyor the lead institution would want to monitor its use through feedbackfrom the women who had adopted it. better crop varieties.landlessruralhouseholds. Programstargeted to subsistencefarmers and landlessrural householdswould focus first on helpingthem increasetheir incomes. Accessto creditfor new userswould needto be assuredif the technologyinvolvedsignificantcapital expenditure. low income.national nutrition programs should be developedthat wouldfocus on subsistencefarmers. and establish communitycooperatives.organize dissemination.acceptability.however.the program's obvious usefulnesswould justify its support from domesticresources. If the new technologywas simple to use. and the urban poor. Facilitiesfor production---locallywhere possible---anda sales and maintenance structurewould have to be established.and affordabilityof the newtechnology. insufficient food supply at the household level. The extension service would also be responsible for ensuring that rural women learned about the availabilityof the new technology and its use. Once in place. As the technologywas disseminated. That informationwould be forwardedto the researchand developmentagenciesto help them improvethe technologyor to be used to develop other relatedtechnologies.moreefficientimplements.intercropping. Specialeffortswould be directedto low-incomehouseholdsto help them improve family health through campaignsto improve health and nutrition education. A pilot program among target users would determine the effectiveness. Programsto improve the nutritional status of the urban poor would also begin with efforts to help them adopt strategiesto increase income. establishing a national program to increase the technologyavailableto rural women would most likely need outside support from donor agencies. heavy labor. The program would help women in low-income rural householdsadopt labor-savingtechnology.diversificationinto other agriculturalactivities such as horticulture.34 - . Many factors contributeto nutritionalstatus: morbidity. competing demands for women's time. then printed instruction in local languages might be enough for new users to adopt the technology. however. In most African countries. Betterwatersuppliesandimprovedenvironmental sanitationwould also directly improvehealth and nutritionalstatus.trainingwould needto be organized. They would receiveinformationabout improvedtechnology.to inform householdsabout family planning.and price policies. organize child-carefacilities. Nutrition Programs for Low-Income Households To improvefood security in low-incomehouseholds. perhaps by the agricultural extension service. The program would also seek to improve the markets for inputs and outputs serving lowincome rural households.

and knowledgeabout health and nutrition and family planning. environmental sanitation. programsto improve the nutritionalstatus of low-incomehouseholds would need careful monitoringand evaluationto assure efficientimplementation.establishtechnicalinfrastructure support such as worksheds and workshops.help improve markets serving urban poor households. . Urban poor familieswould also receive particular attention to help them improve their shelter.35 - . and work closely with nongovernmentalorganizationsassistingthe urbanpoor. offer training in management and record keeping.organizechild care. Of course. This would begin with baseline surveysand developmentof indexes such as those used in growth monitoring. increase access to credit for economic activities in the informal sector. The program would then monitor changes in nutritionalstatus and diseaseincidence. provideinformationabout potentialopportunities.

Womancarryingwheatfrom the field in Ethiopia(WorldBank) .36 - .

As one participantgracefullyput it. it is also important that considerationbe givento increasingthe benefitsthat women receiveand improvingtheir decision-makingauthority. and to repeat this symposiumat the sub-regionallevel in West Africa.Vice Presidentfor Africa at the World Bankencouragedparticipantsto follow-upwith nationallevelworkshopson this importanttopic.Epilogue The presentationof the issues and the wide-rangingdiscussions in the working groups helped identify a number of differentactions that householdsthemselvesmust take to enhance their food security. was the consensusresponseof the symposium participants. becauseboth men and womengain." In his closing remarksto the symposium. Increasingwomen's rights would expand opportunitiesfor both men and women.Mr. increasingwomen'seconomicopportunitiesis not a "zerosum" game. But the deliberationsalso led participants to formulate guidelinesfor African policymakersand donors so that they can continue to recognizeand address the economicand social costs of the inequitabledivisionof work and responsibilitiesbetween men and women. the aim is "to move forward hand in hand. Care must be taken that new policies and programsdo not add to women's alreadylarge burden of providingfood and care for their households. - 37 - . Jaycox. Would men's rights be reduced if women gain a more important position in economicand socialdevelopment?No. In economicjargon. In seeking to improve householdfood securityin Africa.

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not as representativesof agenciesor governments.PARTICIPANTS Members of the Symposium Membersof the Symposiumparticipatedin their individualcapacities.39 - .Socio-EconomicResearch Division Planningand Programming Department Ministryof Agriculture Ethiopia MarilynCarr SeniorAdvisor on Technologyand Small BusinessEnterprise Development United Nations DevelopmentFund for Women Zimbabwe Joyce Chanetsa Senior Nutritionist NutritionUnit Ministryof Health Zimbabwe ManasseaChihota PrincipalPlanner NationalPlanningAgency Ministryof Finance.Women's Credit Desk Bank of Uganda Timothy Banda NationalFood SecurityOfficer Ministryof Agriculture Tanzania SitotawBerhanu Head.Economic Developmentand Planning Zimbabwe . Name Affiliation AdanechAddisu Expert.Planningand Programming AgriculturalMarketingCorporation Ethiopia MaryAmajo Head.

Gatheru DeputyDirector of Agriculture Ministryof Agriculture Kenya ChristineHayanga RegionalCoordinator Women'sWorld Banking/Africa Kenya FlavianM. Falusi Head. Chikore AssistantSecretary Departmentof Women'sAffairs Ministryof PoliticalAffairs Zimbabwe Paul Collier Unit for the Study of African Economies Oxford University Great Britain Misrak Elias RegionalAdvisor.Women's EconomicActivitiesand Integration United NationsChildrensFund (UNICEF) Kenya LeopoldinaDaliaDias Fakir Head. Kalikandar PrincipalEconomist Ministryof Agriculture Kenya FrancisJoseph Kasiirye PermanentSecretary Ministryof Womenin Development Uganda EileenKennedy InternationalFood PolicyResearch Institute United States .40 - .Judith C.MarketingDepartment Ministryof Agriculture Mozambique Olu A. FederalAgricultural CoordinatingUnit Nigeria Hilary Sims Feldstein Director Gender in AgricultureProject United States John K.

Mhango Agricultural Assistant Chief Economist Economic Planning and Development Malawi G. K. M. Mthindi Senior Deputy Secretary Ministry of Agriculture Malawi Festus Z. B. Agritex Ministry of Agriculture Zimbabwe Sam B. Lorri Director. Omoro Senior Economist/Statistician Ministry of Planning and National Development Kenya Simon Pazvakavambwa Director.Peter M. Food Science and Technology Department Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre Tanzania Richard Tendai Masundire Agricultural Economist Southern Africa Development Coordinating Conference Food Security Unit Zimbabwe Getachaw T. Rutega Permanent Secretary Ministry of Cooperatives and Marketing Uganda -41 - . Lewa Chief Supply Management Officer Ministry of Supplies and Marketing Kenya Wilbald S. Medhin Head. Department of Agriculture Office of National Committee on Central Planning Ethiopia Joseph C.

PrincipalAgronomist. R.42 - .Zimbabwe C. Spencer.Officer in Charge--Women in DevelopmentUnit . K. T. Head. Sangu Senior Economist PlanningCommission Tanzania Howard K. Senior Advisor to the Presidentof the African DevelopmentBank George R.Agricultureand Rural Resettlement Sponsoring Agencies African DevelopmentBank KwekuAndah. Deputy Ministerof Lands.P. Sigwele PrincipalAgriculturalEconomist Ministryof Agriculture Botswana Anna Tibaijuka Researcher EconomicResearchBureau Universityof Dar es Salaam Tanzania KateTruscott Senior ProjectAdvisor Food and Agricultural Organization Zimbabwe EmmanuelTumusiime-Mutebile PermanentSecretary Ministryof Planningand Economic Development Uganda Host Country The HonorableHerbert Ushewokunze. PrincipalAgriculturalEconomist. MemberCountriesTraining Unit ElizabethMary Okelo. Onaba.Ministerof State for PoliticalAffairs The HonorableJock Kay.

Jaycox. Vice President.Women in DevelopmentDivision SymposiumStaff SidneyChernick.Africa Region Mahmud Burney.Zimbabwe Nadine R.SymposiumAdvisor J. Moderator .ResidentRepresentative.Rapporteur Amon Nikoi.Womenin DevelopmentDivision KatrineA. Horenstein. PriceGittinger.43 - . K. Senior Economist.Consultant. Saito.World Bank EdwardV.

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April. Paul 1990. and Hilary Sims Feldstein 1990.D. Herbert 1990. Opening Remarks. Katrineand others. October. 20433. January. 1990. Saito.World Bank. Falusi.January. Misrak 1990.Zimbabwe." Economic Developmentand CulturalChange.and RosemaryMcCarney1990. 1990. Zimbabwe. forthcoming.PopulationandHumanResourcesDepartment." Paper presentedto the Symposium on Household Food Security and the Role of Women. N. Kadoma. January. Kadoma. Tibaijuka.W.LISTOF DOCUMENTS The documents listed below were distributedto participantsattendingthe Symposium.C. Kadoma.. Anna K.A.Zimbabwe.January.45 - .. Agricultural Extensionfor Women Farmers in Africa. Singlecopies and the collected papersfrom the Symposium are availablefrom the Women in DevelopmentDivision.C. Zimbabwe. Washington. Washington.RoomS-9-131.A.and Jean Weidemann. . 13. "TheStateof Supportto Womenin Nigeria'sAgricultural DevelopmentProjects.Zimbabwe. Katrine.S.U. 0. Ushewokunze. World Bank. No. D.Symposiumon HouseholdFood Security: The Role of Women: Collected Papers.: Women in DevelopmentDivision.C. Saito. Paper preparedfor the Symposiumon Household Food Securityand the Roleof Women. Address to the Symposiumon Household Food Security and Role of Women." Paper presentedto the Symposiumon HouseholdFood Securityand the Roleof Women. Washington. Collier." Paper presented at the Symposium on HouseholdFood Securityandthe Roleof Women. "HouseholdFood Securityand the Roleof Women:The Economic Policy Setting.January." Paperpresentedto the Symposiumon Household Food Securityand the Roleof Women. "HouseholdFood Securityand the Role of Women. Eileen.Katrine. BackgroundIssuesPapers. 'The Effects of the Commercializationof Agriculture on Women's Control of Income and Health and Nutritional Status: The Case of Sugarcanein Kenya.WorldBank. Kadoma. 1818H Street. Elias. Kadoma.Zimbabwe.January. "Gender Analysis Framework for Food Security. Kennedy.: Discussion Paper (forthcoming). WWBAfrica (Nairobi)1989.and Kadoma. Population and HumanResourcesDepartment. D. Saito.

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S. Shilling. 81 Latin America'sBankingSystemsin the 1980s:A CrossCountryComparison. and Kenneth G.James F.Esra BCnnathan with LuisEscobar and George Panagakos No. 71 HowAdjustmentProgramsCan Help the Poor:The World Bank's Experience. Eshiwani No. 83 Comparative AfricanExperiencesin ImplementingEducationalPolicies. Galabawa No. Odaet No. Achola No. Sohl Thelejani No. 80 EnvironmentalManagementin Development:The Evolutionof Paradigms. 85 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Kenya. 88 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Swaziland. 93 Assessmentof thePrivateSector:A CaseStudy and Its Methodological Implications. 84 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Ethiopia. Jose Pedro Ortiz. 74 Costsand Benefitsof Rent Controlin Kumasi. 87 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Lesotho.Martin Ravallion No. 95 Educationand Development:EvidenceforNew Priorities. Colby No. and others. Kiros No.Helena Ribe. 77 HigherEducationin LatinAmerica:Issuesof Efficiencyand Equity. Davis. E. 76 Debt Equity ConversionAnalysis:A CaseStudy of the PhilippineProgram. 78 The GreenhouseEffect:Implicationsfor EconomicDevelopment. 75 Ecuador'sAmazon Region:DevelopmentIssuesand Options.Ramesh Chander No. . Peter Nicholas. 69 A MultilevelModelof SchoolEffectiveness in a DevelopingCountry. Haddad and others. Daly. and Elaine Zuckerman No. PublicSectorPayand EmploymentReform:A Reviewof WorldBank Experience.Barbara Nunberg 68 No.A. 92 InstitutionalReformsin SectorAdjustment Operations:The WorldBank's Experience.0.Cisco Magalula No. Soniya Carvalho.Stephen Malpezzi.Recent World Bank Discussion Papers (continued) No.Felipe Morris. Maravanyika No. Mark Dorfman. W. 94 Reachingthe PoorthroughRural PublicEmployment:A Survey of Theoryand Evidence. Graham Tipple. Cernea No. and Woonki Sung No.Yung Whee Rhee and Therese Belot No. No. Herman E. 70 UserGroupsasProducersin Participatory AfforestationStrategies. 67 Deregulation of Shipping:What Is to Be LearnedfromChile. 82 Why EducationalPoliciesCan Fail:An Overviewof SelectedAfricanExperiences. Donald R.Michael E. Waltz No. Lockheed and Nicholas T.T.FassilR. Robert Liebenthal.Erik Arrhenius and Thomas W. 90 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Zambia.Michael M.G. Shelton H.Cooper F. 73 InformationSystemsand BasicStatisticsin Sub-SaharanAfrica:A Reviewand StrategyforImprovement. 86 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Tanzania. Willis No.Anthony Toft.Samuel Paul No.C. Winkler No.John Craig No.Marlaine E. Longford No.George Psacharopoulos No. J. Ghana.Samuel Paul No. Wadi D. 79 Analyzing Taxeson BusinessIncomewith theMarginalEffectiveTax Rate Model. and Maria de Lourdes de Freitas [Alsoavailablein Spanish (75S)] No. John D. 89 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Uganda. 72 Export Catalystsin Low-IncomeCountries:A Reviewof ElevenSuccessStories.Paul P. David Dunn and Anthony Pellechio No. Hicks. 91 ImplementingEducationalPoliciesin Zimbabwe.

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