IMMANUEL KANT Born: April 22, 1724 From: East Prussia Greatest Work: The Critique of Pure Reason Died

: 1804 ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY Concept of the good or moral will: ,orally right not because of its beneficial actions or the kind and generous motives which produce those actions, but because its maxims (rules governing actions) are adopted not only in accord with duty or morality but for the sake of morality We can be held responsible only for those things we can control Categorical imperative - treat persons as ends and never as means, or as subjects and never as objects Moral imperative - our unconditional obligation to act out of respect for the moral law Hypothetical imperative - Kant's term for an imperative that is binding only in relation to the achievement of some particular end or purpose; the proposition expressing what ought to be done if a particular result is desired Imperative - Kant's term for a prescriptive proposition, ethical principle, law or rule governing action, one that specifies what it is a person's duty to do in a given situation NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI Born: May 3, 1469 From: Florence, Italy Greatest Works: 1) The Prince - emphasis was on the need for an absolute monarch 2) The Discourses - about the Roman republic, expressing enthusiasm for the self-government and liberty Died: 1527 ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY: Machiavelli's Radical principle of governance: The end justifies the means and his view on cruelty, selfishness and the bad side of human nature. --- a leader should be prepared to do evil when necessary to gain power ( gaining and maintain political power and in the process creating a strong republic.) If his principles were intended for the greater good, then they are neither immoral nor unethical. However, when the same principles are to be used by people for personal gain, they become immoral and unethical. Machiavelli's main vision: the creation of a strong Italian Republic UTILITARIANISM - derived from the Latin word utile bonum or utilis which means usefulness. - makes utility a norm of morality - If an act administers to the empiral welfare and happiness of man, then it is good. But if an act obstructs or hinders or retards happiness, it is bad Two major proponents: Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill Utilitarian ethics - considered the most important consequential theory, whose principle is best explained by the maxim "Do whatever produces the greatest good for the greatest number." Or "what makes an act right is its consequences and not the motive of the action." JEREMY BENTHAM A child prodigy Greatest work: 1) Fragments of Government - a critique on Blackstone 2) Wrote daily commentaries on the need to bring reason, order, empirical evidence, and morality to British Law. Died: 1842 ETICAL PHILOSOPHY He advocated prison and educational reform, and the extension of voting rights. He wanted to create laws not just for the convenience of the elite but also for the best interest of the whole community The term utility , according to Bentham, has two meanings property in any object which tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good or happiness.

An action is considered right or wrong depending on the consequence Utilitarian principle . feeling of peace and security. Therefore. It is the lower form of pleasure and considered by Mill as animalistic or beastly since it appeals to the lower faculties of man) and the mental (intellectual. Positive definition: happiness is anything that is pleasurable to the greater number of people. with an advantage of a quarter of a century over my contemporaries. an act that promotes happiness is moral. . they should not be trusted to make decisions on their own. I may fairly say. According to Hobbes. and what is painful is bad.Human beings are basically selfish creatures who would do anything to improve their position. feeling of self-worth and respect. Mill's utilitarianism .He attributed his breakdown to his education which overemphasized the analytical and ignored the emotional values ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY: "Through the training bestowed on me." . intellect."the greatest good is the grEatest pleasure of the greatest number. why do they always carry arms and why do they have keys to lock their doors?" . drinking. each country is in constant battle for power and wealth hence he wrote "If men are naturally in a state of war. the physical (sensual indulgences to bodily gratification ex.was best.a government that gives all power to a king or queen . An action is bad or evil if it does otherwise. and others. I was never a boy. Motives are personal. then what constitutes good moral is happiness and pain constitutes moral evil. eating.He fell into a "dull state of nerves" . Negative definition: happiness is the absence of pain. Died: 1679 An absolute monarchy. Man's noble feelings. It is superior and is generally more difficult to achieve and pursuing them gives dignity to man. Unfortunately. and that which causes pain is immoral. social recognition. happiness can be defined positively and negatively. "What is pleasurable is good.Utilitarian ethics: puts emphasis and significance on the consequences as a result of an act and completely disregards the motive of an act. I started. imagination and moral sentiments). Pleasure. According to Mill.since man naturally seeks happiness and avoids pain.An action is considered to be good if it gives the peRson the greatest pleasure or happiness (in the view of Mill) to the majority of people affected by the action. JOHN STUART MILL Born: 1806 From: London Died: 1873 . then what constitutes good moral is happiness and avoids pain. hence. The concepts of pleasure and pain is central to the utilitarian theory." Human beings pursue happiness naturally and will avoid pain or suffering . according to John Mill has two forms. Therefore. what causes pleasure is moral. dancing and others. spiritual and moral pleasures ex. it is difficult or impossible to know this with high degree of certainty Utilitarian Principle can be coined in the praise -.For Hobbes.refers to the mental pleasures when it defines happiness as pleasure THOMAS HOBBES Born: 1588 From: London Greatest work: Leviathan . people would act on their evil impulses if left alone for themselves. It includes enjoyment of the freedom of the will. Sexual intercourse.disregards the importance of motive because motive is known only to the person who has it. ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY . what causes pain is immoral.people are naturally wicked and could not be trusted to govern.

or sea monster. satisfaction in work. artistic inspiration.often used in ethical debates. "Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology" and "Philosophy. . the morality of reason.the theory which says that the promotion of one's own good is in accordance with morality. "For the New Intellectual".According to Hobbes. DIVINE COMMAND ETHICS . "The Virtue of Selfishness". who has set down a finite series of rules that adherents claim can provide guidance to most. hence. generally by disregarding the interest of others An ARROGANT OR CONCEITED PERSON. Atlas Shrugged. man is wolf unto his fellowmen (homo homini lupus) and the best government is one that has the greatest power of leviathan. Acoording to her Objectivism. The rest proceeds from these. love. man must hold three things as the ruling values of his life: Reason —Purpose—Self-esteem. the act or practice of magnifying one's self or parading one's own doings . "Atlas Shrugged". and much more. always himself Concerned with both his LONG-TERM AND SHORT TERM INTERESTS Egotism Egoism The PRACTICE of too frequently using the word I. The means to a happy life are the values of objectivism. as his inviolate certainty that his mind is competent to think and his person is worthy of happiness.one that does not give undeserved rewards to others. The objectivist ethics rebuilds morality from the ground up.it is the view that one ought to do what is in man's self-interest. self exaltation. Rand also considers "altruism" as a tool of evil and a manifestation of a false morality. if not all. "You cannot say "I love you" if you cannot say the "I". 1905 From: St. The attainment of happiness requires a morality of rational selfishness -. from their own self-ineterest self-praise. . These three values imply and require all of man's virtues… — Ayn Rand. AYN RAND Born: February 02. individual such as the Buddha which means "the enlightened" ETHICAL EGOISM . a The PRESCRIPTIVE DOCTRINE that all persons ought to act speaking or writing overmuch of one's self. if necessary to the exclusion of what is in other people's interests. he is a solipsist. "Fountainhead". as his only tool of knowledge—Purpose. education. moral decisions. a here-and-now type of fellow Egoist A person who thinks in terms of his OWN ADVANTAGE. as his choice of the happiness which that tool must proceed to achieve —Self-esteem. which means: worthy of living. Egotist A person who has very HIGH OPINION OF HIMSELF and whose language often consists of SELF PRAISE Someone who is SELF-CENTERED OR SELFISH. Reason. Petersburg.this theory says that there is a divine being. who Needs IT? ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY: My morality.a variant of divine command theory is a command theory based on a non-divine but morally exemplary. Russia Died: 1982 Greatest works.an important example is the Ten Commandments . wote Ayn Rand. He believed in the rule of the king and that democracy (allowing citizens to vote for government leaders) would never work . To live. is contained in a single axiom: existence exists —and in a single choice: to live. a person's own life and happiness is only ultimate god. They include such things as wealth. often without realizing it A person who is childishly concerned only with his most myopic. IMMEDIATE SELF-INTEREST.

Aristotle later on went back to Athens and founded his school called Lyceum. . Plato followed the trial of his friend and mentor -. Vice (moral evil) is identical with ignorance (lack of moral knowledge) c. It is based on the Greek concept of hdonth-hédoné or sensous pleasure. The Hedonism consider further that the quantity of .the "moral" doctrine called "hedonism" is indeed one of the so-calle major positions among different kinds of eudaimonism(a Greek word for happiness). Doing wrong arises out of ignorance.g.focuses on the character of the person and the virtues he manifests. the sole distinction is that of "quantity.An EXAGGERATED SENSE of self -importance: CONCEIT EXCESSIVE CONCERN for oneself with or without exaggerated feelings of self-imprtance VIRTUE ETHICS .the main proponents of virtue ethics are Socrates. He died due to stomach complications in Chalcis . no food-starvation. Any excess or deficit in the food intake would cause problem to our health. We must not only develop our mind. ARISTOTLE His parents decided to send himto Plato's Academy. live life of moderation. and contends that happiness I the goal of our human life that must be searched for and pain must be avoided. he earned the reputation as the "mind of the university. Accordingly. THE CONCEPTS OF GOOD AND EVIL IN EPICUREANIST AND HEDONIST PHILOSOPHIES HEDONIST PHILOSOPHIES Hedonism . in taking food. virtue comes from the means between these extremes. Virtue (moral excellence) is identical with knowledge b. we must avoid extremes. No one comits an evil act knowingly.Socrates ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY: Knowing the Forms -. Plato and Aristotle SOCRATES . too much food-gluttony. Aristotle also rejected al forms of imbalance. PLATO His given name was Aristocles but he earned the name "Plato" which means "broad" or wide due to his physical attributes like his wide forehead and wide shoulders. The Golden Mean Principle simple states that "to be happy. ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY According to Aristotle. e." Aristole became the teacher of the son of King Philip of Macedonia." therefore it matters how much "quantity) we enjoy pleasure. Any extreme would lead to vice.these are eternal or universal principles and perfect ideas. . but also our body. to a hedonist. Virtue comes from the ability to govern excessive or lack of feelings. we must take the "middle way" or the mean between two extremes. For example. people are only doing evil acts because they are acting due to ignorance." In everything that we do. the world is not the true reality. ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY: Socrates posited three (3 )special tenets in his moral philosophy a. since there is no qualitative difference among pleasures. But since these forms are symbols. the pleasure derived from the satisfaction for a delicious food is not different from the pleasure derived from search of wisdom or the pursuit of knowledge.According to Plato. who later on became Alexander the Great. Because of Aristotle's prolific intelligence.he was known to have an "ugly" physical appearance but he saw not his physical defects and believed that the inner beauty is that of the soul. Thus. Plato maintained that all things in the physical world are symbols of these perfect Forms. Thus..

EPICUREANIST PHILOSOPHY Epicurus' philosophy deals with one's very own practical concerns. PRAGMATISM . therefore.founded the Garden. These pleasures involve an active titillation of the senses. Movingl Pleasure .the main proponents of this philosophy are: Charles Sanders Peirce (pronounced Purce). Pierce) > Ideas or theories without results are nonsense. Terms such as God. like. (Dewey called his version of Pragmatism "Instrumentalism" or "Experimentalism. Perhapts it may be said that the greatest appeal of Epicurus' philosophy lies in its simplicity and common sense.a philosophy that attempts to clarify our ideas and to emphasize the practical usefulness of ideas and beliefs as the criteria of their meaning of truth. intellectual pleasures which last longer than bodily pleasures. James). sensuous pleasures.. or you may call it a pursuit of pleasure guide by reason and intelligence in that a person is the master of his/her pleasure rather than being blindly enslaved by the intensity and glamour of the immediate. After Epicurus' death. is itself pleasurable. Static pleasure . is really a travesty of Epicureanism as a philosophy." ) > Ideas are clear and distinct only if they are translated into meaningful actions (C. when one is full after eating). matter and the absolute must have cash value that is. for tomorrow you may die". Epicureanism went into decline with the rise of Christianity. pleasure is our first and kindred good. the finest intellectual pleasure is the study of philosophy. a combination of philosophical community and school in Athens. a way of living. eating hamburger when one is hungry. the happier we shall be. It is the starting point of every choice and every aversion. the more quantitatively (intensive) pleasure we have. "Eat. In other words. And for Epicurus. Types of Pleasure: 1. Epicureanism continued to flourish as a philosophical movement. and these feelings are what most people call "pleasure" 2.occur after one's desires have been satisfied (e..g. For Epicurus. The saying. Epicurus died of kidney stones around 271 or 270 BCE. not an abstract system of thought. . William James. and John Dewey. we call pleasure the Alpha and the Omega of a blessed life.g. the real meaning of pleasure was not the pursuit of worldly goods and happiness but the search for a more profound and lasting pleasure. According to Epicurus.pleasure must be understood and explained by the intensity of pleasure. . they must possess practical worth if they are to be true (W.S. drink and be merry.occur when one is in the process of satisfying a desire. According to hedonism. EPICUREANISM: The Doctrine of Pleasure EPICURUS . e. of no longer being in need or want. the state of satiety. Epicurus' moral doctrine or his doctrine of how to live is rightly called the philosophy of living. and to it we come back and make feeling the rule by which to judge every good thing. Assumptions of Pragmatism as a Philosophy > All theories must be put into practice. Therefore. The residents of the Garden put Epicurus' teachings into practice.