1. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2013 Mar;42(2):277-81.

[Be based on the morphological and histological changes to study optimal dose of TCDD induced cleft palate in mice embryo]. He X, Liu C, Pu Y, Gan L, Yuan X, Wei G, Fu Y. Source : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23654107 Plastic Surgery of Chongqing Medical University Affiliated Children's Hospital, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing 40014, China. xiaomengyouyou@126.com Abstract OBJECTIVE: To define the optimal 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) dose based on the morphological and histological changes of fetal mice cleft palate induced by different TCDD doses. METHODS: The pregnant mice were randomly divided into five groups and 6 in each grouop, and were gavaged on gestation day 10 (GD10). The control group were given 0.1 ml corn oil, and the experimental groups I, II , III, IV were given 32, 28, 24, 20 microg/kg TCDD respectively. To weight pregnant mice and embryos, record the number of live, cleft palate, dead and resorption fetal mice on GD 17.5. Another 15 pregnant mice were randomly divided into five groups (same as above) and 3 in each group. The coronal sections of the fetal mice heads were prepared at GD 13.5, 14.5 and 15.5 respectively, stained with haematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and observed by microscopy. RESULTS: No significant differences in embryonic weight and live fetuses weight in each group. Compared with the control group,experimental groups I - III had small palate shelves (PS) and delayed palae shelves lift; the palate development and elevation in experimental group IV was similar to the control group. The incidence of cleft palate in the experimental groups I - IV were 97.37%, 93.02%, 65.12%, 56.82%, and no cleft palate in the control group. CONCLUSION: The optimal dose of TCDD to induce cleft palate in C57BL/6J mice is 28 microg/kg.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1998;52(4):315-24.

Supplementary effect of spirulina on hematological status of rats during pregnancy and lactation.
Kapoor R, Mehta U. Source : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10426118
Department of Home Science, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

The effect of Spirulina on iron status was assessed based on hemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and ferritin levels of rats during pregnancy and lactation. Rats were fed 5 different kinds of diets (casein, Spirulina, wheat gluten, Spirulina + wheat gluten, Spirulina without additional vitamins and minerals) each providing 22 percent protein. Diets containing Spirulina alone or in combination with wheat gluten resulted in significantly higher iron storage and hemoglobin contents than casein and wheat gluten diets during the first half of pregnancy and lactation. Wheat gluten diet result in the smallest increase in hemoglobin levels and iron stores compared to other diets. The values of serum iron and iron binding capacity remained unchanged with different diets. Spirulina appears to be effective in improving the iron status of rats during pregnancy and lactation.

pengembangan palatum dan elevasi di kelompok eksperimen IV mirip dengan kelompok kontrol. Chongqing 40.02%. . 24. Ia X. Departemen Pendidikan Kunci Laboratorium Perkembangan Anak dan Gangguan.37%. Yuan X. kelompok eksperimen I III memiliki rak kecil langit-langit (PS) dan tertunda palae rak angkat. 20 microg / kg TCDD masing-masing. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu.014. 28. Insiden bibir sumbing dalam kelompok eksperimen I .82%. Sumber: http://www. 2013 Mar.com Abstrak TUJUAN: Untuk menentukan optimal 2. 42 (2) :277-81. dan kelompok eksperimen I. Fu Y. 3. 14.5. Bagian koronal dari janin tikus kepala disiapkan di GD 13. Lain 15 tikus hamil secara acak dibagi menjadi lima kelompok (sama seperti di atas) dan 3 di masing-masing kelompok. 93.5.nlm. Gan L. METODE: Tikus-tikus hamil secara acak dibagi menjadi lima kelompok dan 6 di setiap grouop. Liu C.gov/pubmed/23654107 Bedah Plastik Rumah Sakit University Medical Afiliasi Anak. mati dan resorpsi tikus janin pada GD 17.nih. III.ncbi. diwarnai dengan hematoksilin-eosin (HE) dan diamati dengan mikroskop. HASIL: Tidak ada perbedaan signifikan dalam berat embrio dan janin hidup berat dalam setiap kelompok. dan gavaged pada umur kebuntingan 10 hari (GD10). [Be didasarkan pada perubahan morfologi dan histologi untuk mempelajari dosis optimal TCDD diinduksi sumbing pada tikus embrio]. Untuk bobot tikus hamil dan embrio. 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) dosis didasarkan pada perubahan morfologi dan histologi dari janin tikus sumbing disebabkan oleh dosis TCDD berbeda. Cina Chongqing. Wei G.5 masing-masing. dan tidak ada langit-langit pada kelompok kontrol. Pu Y. 65. Kelompok kontrol diberi 0.1 ml minyak jagung. II.1. KESIMPULAN: Yang optimal dosis TCDD untuk menginduksi sumbing pada tikus C57BL/6J adalah 28 microg / kg.5 dan 15. mencatat jumlah hidup.12%. 56. IV diberi 32.IV adalah 97. Dibandingkan dengan kelompok kontrol. xiaomengyouyou@126. sumbing. 7.

Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning Anantapur.gov/pubmed/10426118 Departemen Dalam Ilmu. Andhra Pradesh.nih. Abstrak Pengaruh Spirulina status besi dinilai berdasarkan hemoglobin. volume yang dikemas sel.Tanaman Foods Hum Nutr. Spirulina + gluten gandum. Spirulina. Spirulina tanpa tambahan vitamin dan mineral) masing-masing memberikan 22 persen protein. gluten gandum. kapasitas total pengikatan zat besi dan tingkat feritin tikus selama kehamilan dan menyusui.nlm. Gluten gandum hasil diet dalam kenaikan terkecil dalam kadar hemoglobin dan zat besi dibandingkan dengan diet lainnya. Efek Tambahan spirulina status hematologi tikus selama kehamilan dan menyusui. 52 (4) :315-24. Diet yang mengandung Spirulina sendiri atau dalam kombinasi dengan gluten gandum mengakibatkan penyimpanan zat besi secara signifikan lebih tinggi dan isi hemoglobin daripada kasein dan gluten gandum diet selama paruh pertama kehamilan dan menyusui. Tikus-tikus diberi 5 jenis diet (kasein. Mehta U. 1998. .ncbi. Spirulina tampaknya efektif dalam meningkatkan status zat besi tikus selama kehamilan dan menyusui. India. Kapoor R. Nilai-nilai besi serum dan kapasitas pengikatan besi tetap tidak berubah dengan diet yang berbeda. Sumber: http://www. besi serum.

0. The palatal shelves were dissected from the embryos for RNA and DNA extraction on GD 13.0. 7. 0. while the mice in the control group received equivalent corn oil.5.174. Another 18 pregnant mice were randomly divided into two groups (treated group and control group) on GD 10 with 9 pregnant mice in each group. Then each group was divided into 3 subgroups: GD 13. Liu LL. The relative expression of Smad 7 mRNA was 0. GD 14.263 +/.Pencarian 1 Mechanism of cleft palate in mice induced by 2.396 +/.5 and GD 15.165 +/. Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of cleft palate in mice induced by 2.159 +/.016 and and 0.5.018 in control group. GD 14.453 +/.296 +/. 12 pregnant mice were randomly divided into two groups as the treated group and the control group with 6 mice in each group.0. 0. At last the expression of Smad 2-4 and Smad 7 mRNA was investigated by RT-PCR. China.042.035 in control group.180 +/. He XM. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders.0. 7.0. Gan LQ.0. Total frequency of clefts was 100% in TCDD group.0. with 3 pregnant mice in each subgroup.282 +/. The mice in the treated group received intragastric administration with 64 microg TCDD/kg.138.0.066 in TCDD group. 3.587 +/.029 and 0. 0. and the frequency of clefts was 0 in the control group.375 +/.5.551 +/. 0.5 and GD 15. RESULTS: The cleft palate mice model was established successfully by exposing pregnant C57BL/6J mice to TCDD.027 in TCDD group. 0. The relative expression of Smad 2 mRNA was 0.5. 0. Source Chongqing Children's Hospital. 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).153.441 +/.0.0.283 +/- . [Article in Chinese] Pu YL. Fu YX. The relative expression of Smad 4 mRNA was 0.0. 0.049 in TCDD group.0. and the TGF-beta3 promoter methylamine levels were investigated by methylation specific PCR (MSP).557 +/.259 +/.0.0.088. Chongqing Medical University.070 and 0.577 +/.0.054 in control group. The relative expression of Smad 3 mRNA was 0. 0.675 +/. Chongqing 400014. 3.080 and 0. 0. METHODS: On gestation day 10 (GD 10). The embryos were examined under stereomicroscope to detect the incidence of cleft palate on GD 18.5. Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders. 8tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin].510 +/.0.126.160 and 0.328 +/.

however.0. 0.indexed for MEDLINE] Pencarian 2 Scientific Name(s): Arthrospira platensis(Nordstedt) Gomont and Arthrospira maximaSetchell et Gardner. this has not been substantiated. dihe .288 +/.043. hypolipidemic.05). The TGF-beta3 promoters were at the un-methylation state both in the TCDD treated and control group. tecuitlatl Uses of Spirulina Spirulina is sold in the United States as a health food or supplement. but it is not through the TGFbeta/Smad signaling nor through the modification of TGF-beta3 promoter methylation. spirulina should be avoided during pregnancy. . Family: Phormidiaceae Common Name(s): Spirulina . PMID: 22292409 [PubMed .068 and 0. CONCLUSION: It suggests that TCDD could induce a stable formation of cleft palate. Diverse claims exist for its immunostimulatory. Spirulina Dosing Doses in clinical studies have ranged from 1 to 10 g/day. There was no significant difference between the TCDD treated mice and the control (P > 0. 0. Spirulina Interactions None well documented. Because of possible mercury and other heavy metal contamination.045 in TCDD group.169 +/. antiviral.155 +/0. Contraindications Phenylketonuria.320 +/. Pregnancy/Lactation Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking.050.051 and 0. however.040 in control group.207 +/. and anticancer effects. there is limited evidence to support these indications. 0.

and unlike many forms of plant iron. Toxicology Spirulina is considered nontoxic to humans at usual levels of consumption. History Spirulina has been described in literature since the 16th century. Spirulina. Spanish explorers observed the Aztecs harvesting a blue mud that probably consisted of spirulina. contamination of open pond cultures of spirulina by other microorganisms is usually slight. information is limited. 6 Due to its unique growth requirements. grows as microscopic. plantensis is found in Africa and Asia. However. 2 . 7 Chemistry Spirulina is composed of approximately 65% crude protein. A dosage of 10 g/day can contain 1. independently discovered and utilized the nutritional properties of spirulina. platensis . 19 Calcium spirulan. 8vitamin E. 2 Free growing. Thus. similar to that of standard ferrous sulfate. 16 Spirulina preparations contain 300 to 400 ppm iron (dry weight). was obtained from Lake Texcoco near Mexico City. however. maxima is found in Central America. high levels of B-complex vitamins. and zinc. but inferior to meat protein. spirulina-associated hepatotoxicity and reactions from heavy metal contamination are possible. which was dried to form chips or flavored loaves. spirulina is actively marketed by numerous companies as a nutritional supplement. 13 . 2 cultures approximately 10. 5 . was characterized from A. A. 1 .000 km apart. 2 The mud. a polyunsaturated fatty acid. 4 It is commercially grown in the United States and has been proposed as a primary foodstuff to be cultivated during long-term space missions because it withstands extreme conditions. 3 Spirulina is noted for its characteristic behavior in carbonated water and energetic growth in laboratory cultures. corkscrewshaped multicellular filaments and is now classified as a distinct genus.Spirulina Adverse Reactions Few reports of adverse reactions are available. potassium. Calcium. sometimes imparting a darkgreen color to bodies of water. 10 and zeaxanthin. 20 . where it was called dihe . are present. Spirulina was similarly harvested in the Sahara Desert from small lakes near Lake Chad. selenium. 14 High levels of gamma linolenic acid. with the alga growing as a relatively pure culture. 18 Trace elements present at high levels include manganese. spirulina exists only in high-salt alkaline water in subtropical and tropical areas. 4 . has high bioavailability when ingested by humans. 11 The protein content includes 22 essential amino acids. 2 The proteins C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin in spirulina have been the focus of much research. 2 Currently. 15 An assay for spirulina lipids using high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed. 17 . and magnesium are also concentrated in the organism. a sulfated polysaccharide. 12 and the total protein is nutritionally superior to legume protein. Arthrospora . and A. 9 beta-carotene. a blue-green algae (cyanophytes/cyanobacteria).5 to 2 mg of absorbable iron.

A small study in patients with mild to moderate asthma suggested that spirulina supplementation (1 g/day) produced improvement in lung function parameters. including herpes simplex. 32 Doxorubicin-resistant HepG2 liver cancer cells were inhibited by spirulina C-phycocyanin through an apoptotic mechanism. double-blind. indicating that NK cell activation was a key pathway. 28 Immune stimulation by phycocyanin and polysaccharides of spirulina led to an antifungal and antibacterial effect in mice. 41 Spirulina was chemopreventative in a dibutyl nitrosamine carcinogenesis model. measles. 10 mg/day of spirulina extract reduced dysplastic changes. 21 Allergic rhinitis and asthma Experimental data have suggested that C-phycocyanin can selectively inhibit release of histamine from mast cells and prevent increases in immunoglobulin E. 30 . 29 Cancer C-phycocyanin showed a dose-dependent inhibition of HeLa and human chronic myeloid leukemia cell growth and proliferation in vitro. One in vitro study found that the sulfated polysaccharide calcium spirulan interfered with the replication of several enveloped viruses. 35 Survival rates increased in mice with liver cancer treated with C-phycocyanin. Enterovirus is also susceptible to spirulina. 24 Antimicrobial activity A provocative suggestion has been made that human cultures in which large amounts of algae are consumed have lower levels of HIV infection. 25 This type of in vitro activity is common to acidic polysaccharides from a variety of sources. 39 In a hamster cheek pouch model of carcinogenesis. and the effect was abolished in MyD88 null/null mice. influenza A.Spirulina Uses and Pharmacology Clinical trials have investigated spirulina's potential but have been too small to support its purported effects. 27 Spirulina demonstrated some in vitro activity against common human bacterial pathogens but less than that of the standard comparator. 25 Spirulina and its extracts have been evaluated for antiviral activity. and tumor regression has been reported in animals with oral cancer. and HIV-1. 33 while water-soluble polysaccharides were implicated as the active agent against stomach cancer cells. mumps. 26 HIV-1 adsorption and penetration were inhibited by an aqueous extract of spirulina. 40 which was further confirmed by an immunohistochemical study. 37 . but no clinical outcomes were reported. 22 while a study evaluating spirulina in allergic rhinitis suggested a positive effect on laboratory values. 31 Induction of apoptosis was considered to be one of the mechanisms involved. 20 while another study described a slightly different range of viruses susceptible to the extract. 34 A combination of selenium and spirulina inhibited MCF-7 breast cancer cells via growth arrest and apoptosis. 43 Diabetes . 38 Activation of antitumor natural killer cells by spirulina enhanced antitumor efficacy in a B16 mouse melanoma model. while a crude hot water extract reduced HIV-1 replication. 23 A 6-month. and allophycocyanin was the active constituent. cytomegalovirus. 42 It also induced lesion regression in tobacco chewers with oral leukoplakia in a study conducted in India. 36 . placebo-controlled study enrolling 150 patients with allergic rhinitis found efficacy for 2 g/day of spirulina over placebo using diary-based symptom scores of nasal discharge.

considered a food item for centuries in many countries. 50 Similar results have been demonstrated among children who are HIV-positive. Suggested mechanisms of action include hypoglycemia caused by fiber content or possible insulin-stimulating action of peptides and polypeptides of spirulina proteins. 49 A study of spirulina supplementation for 8 weeks demonstrated clinical improvement in weight gain and increased hemoglobin levels in malnourished children in the West African nation of Burkina Faso. 5 Skeletal muscle protein (myosin) was increased in young rats fed spirulina as the sole dietary protein source compared with casein. double-blind. the control group in 1 experiment also showed improvement. 48 Suggestions that spirulina is a valuable source of vitamin B 12 have been similarly disputed. but a US Food and Drug Administration review found no evidence to support this claim. 5 Spirulina consumption was purported to aid in weight loss because of its high phenylalanine content. leading to an increase in exercise performance. and increased fat oxidation rate. 54 In rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.A study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats revealed that spirulina at 10 mg/kg orally for 30 days lowered glucose levels. 51 In elderly Koreans.56 . with improvement noted in fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles. decreased carbohydrate oxidation rate. 46 Dietary supplement Spirulina. however. 58 In normal volunteers. 25 An ex vivo study of NK cells from spirulina-treated healthy patients showed increased NK activity. 55 Two small clinical studies examined the role of spirulina in hyperlipidemia secondary to nephrotic syndrome. spirulina (1% or 5% in diet) lowered serum triglycerides. 64 Intestinal epithelial lymphocytes of aged mice treated with spirulina were increased compared with the control aged group. and increased HDL. 60 Immune system effects Most in vitro and animal experiments have suggested immunostimulatory effects. 44 Two small clinical studies investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation in type 2 diabetes. 4. 47 . total cholesterol. have been demonstrated. LDL. which was confirmed by a second study in which NK cell and T-cell markers were increased by spirulina.63 . 53 Hyperlipidemia Experiments in rats suggest that C-phycocyanin exhibits hypercholesterolemic action. interleukin [IL]-2 and IL-6 levels) observed in a randomized. however. 67The immunostimulatory effects appear to be largely mediated by spirulina polysaccharides. 52 In a study of athletic training. 62 . is now popularly thought of as a dietary supplement. 63 as well as augmentation of interleukin and interferon production. placebo-controlled study. 1 study found a spirulina extract to be immunosuppressive. The actions on lipids have been attributed to gamma linolenic acid content. 57 A study in type 2 diabetes patients reported a reduction in triglycerides with 8 g/day of spirulina. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) was markedly increased.5 g/day of spirulina for 6 weeks lowered blood pressure. while slightly elevating insulin. 61 Activation of monocytes and macrophages. spirulina increased time to fatigue. total cholesterol. antioxidant status. 65 A clinical study in healthy men found that oral administration of spirulina for 3 months resulted in enhanced interferon production and natural killer (NK) cell capacity. 45 . Both populations showed an improved lipid profile with spirulina supplementation. 66 A clinical trial in elderly patients showed positive effects on anemia and immunosenescence after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation. spirulina 8 g/day for 16 weeks had a variety of positive effects (cholesterol. The gamma linolenic acid content of spirulina may have played a role in the mechanism of action. and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) at 8 weeks. 59 . 62 .

5 g/day of spirulina for 3 months improved ALT values and lipid profiles. 89 and 1 small clinical study showed spirulina to be without effect on plasma antioxidant status. placebo-controlled trial. 81 In cellular assays of antioxidant activity. as measured by liver histopathology. 102 . 93 In rats. 79 In a small. 92 Similar experiments with complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis found 800 mg/kg of oral spirulina effective in reducing inflammation. 80 Antioxidant The spirulina protein phycocyanin in pure form was active in 4 different cell-free radical-scavenging assays. an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) support network did not find the evidence compelling for use in ALS. 95 A rat study showed evidence that spirulina could protect neural stem cells and promote their growth 96 . rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet were protected from oxidative stress by 4 to 8 weeks of spirulina in feed at 1% or 5%. 87 . 68 In a case series of 3 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.77 In pregnant mice. teratogenicity due to cadmium was reduced by 125 to 500 mg/kg of spirulina by intragastric administration for 17 days of gestation. however. 91 In mice with zymosaninduced arthritis. 87 but clinical importance has not been demonstrated. 97Spirulina supplementation (3 g/day) was ineffective against idiopathic chronic fatigue in a small study. randomized. 84 C-phycocyanin from spirulina reduced oxidative stress in hamsters fed an atherogenic diet. 75 Spirulina decreased cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. phycocyanin-containing selenium was more effective. however. 98 Pretreatment with spirulina 180 mg/kg orally in a rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model reduced neurologic deficits and histological changes. 100 Spirulina also has been reported to protect mouse and human bone marrow cells against gamma radiation. 85 Similarly. 101 . 23 . 74 Liver and kidney enzyme markers of toxicity were reduced by spirulina following 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide insult to rats. 72 A protein extract and purified phycocyanin protected neuroblastoma cells from iron-induced toxicity. 88 . 71 Lead acetate damage to rats was minimized by spirulina via normalizing plasma and liver lipid levels. collagen-induced arthritis was inhibited by 400 mg/kg of spirulina. 69 Cadmium toxicity in rats was reduced by spirulina.Prevention of toxicity due to metals or organic compounds A 5% spirulina-supplemented diet prevented carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver in rats. 78 Mutagenicity of cyclophosphamide in mice pretreated with spirulina was reduced. 86 Other studies suggest spirulina as an antioxidant. 82 Spirulina supplementation of rats did not increase plasma or liver alpha-tocopherol levels 83 . 4. 99 A polysaccharide extract of spirulina was antiangiogenic in a mouse corneal model. 90 Other uses C-phycocyanin inhibited platelet aggregation in ex vivo experiments. another study reported effective antioxidant activity using combinations of whey protein and spirulina. 4 commercial spirulina preparations were also active. 70 Mercuric chloride-induced oxidative stress in mice was blocked by spirulina at 800 mg/kg orally for 40 days. spirulina plus zinc increased urinary excretion of arsenic and decreased arsenic hair-content in people with long-term exposure to arsenic. 76 . 76Gentamicin-induced kidney damage in rats was reversed by intraperitoneal spirulina 1 g/kg daily. 94 Osteoporosis was inhibited in rosiglitazone-treated rats by 500 mg/kg/day of oral spirulina.103 . 73 Spirulina pretreatment protected mice against acetaminophen and galactosamineinduced liver damage. however. phycocyanin exerted a scavenging action against reactive oxygen species and antiinflammatory activity. as well as via its antioxidant effect. an effect attributed to an antioxidant action.

doctor. Bhadauriya P. Dubacq JP .39:503-526. people with phenylketonuria should avoid spirulina. Kulshreshtha A. Nutritional value of the alga Spirulina . Bhadouria P. 1985. Dillon JC .77:32-46. Robb-Nicholson C . By the way. the edible microorganism . Bibliography 1. Tiboni O . 22 . Curr Pharm Biotechnol . Zacharia AJ. 3. 91 Adverse Reactions Few reports of adverse reactions are available. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) may contain the amino acid phenylalanine. Case reports of immunoblistering 104 and rhabdomyolysis 105 linked to spirulina have been published. The biochemistry and industrial potential of Spirulina . . What can you tell me about it? Harv Womens Health Watch . Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina. J Biotechnol . and lead. I read that spirulina is the next wonder vitamin. information is limited. Annu Rev Microbiol . World Rev Nutr Diet . 5 A case of spirulina-associated hepatotoxicity has been reported. Bisen PS. 106 Hepatotoxic microcystins and neurotoxic anatoxin-a are produced by a number of cyanobacteria and have been reported as spirulina contaminants. MELISSA: a loop of interconnected bioreactors to develop life support in space . Interactions None well documented.19 . 4. 2008. 1995. 2002.99(3):319-330. 1983. 110 Toxicology Spirulina is considered nontoxic to humans at usual amounts of consumption. 108 Other contaminants include the heavy metals mercury. Albiol J .Dosage There is insufficient clinical data to guide dosing of spirulina for therapeutic effect.14(3):8. Khan Z. 2. Spirulina has typically been studied in daily dosage of 1 to 10 g. arsenic. Spirulina. Jarouliya U. Montesinos JL .6(5):373-379. 2005. Ciferri O . 50 Pregnancy/Lactation Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. 109 Questions have been raised regarding the potential for adverse reactions in people with autoimmune disorders who consume immunostimulatory herbal preparations. 6. Spirulina may contain more than 180 mcg of mercury per 20 g 19 and should be avoided. 2006. Ciferri O . Prasad GB.9(5):400-405. Curr Pharm Biotechnol . Godia F .47(4):551-578. cadmium. Bisen PS. An antiplatelet effect has been demonstrated in vitro but was not clinically evaluated. however. 107 . Phuc AP . 7. therefore. 5. as well as microbes cultivated on fermented animal waste. Microbiol Rev . et al. Spirulina in health care management.

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