Beer brewing process 1 Brewing beer 1.1 Ale (top-fermenting yeasts) 1.2 Lager (bottom-fermenting yeasts) 1.

3 Beers of Spontaneous Fermentation (wild yeasts) 1.4 Beers of mixed origin 2 The Brewing Process 2.1 Mashing 2.2 Lautering 2.2.1 Lauter tun 2.2.2 Mash Filter 2.3 Boiling 2.3.1 Boiling equipment 2.3.2 Energy recovery 2.3.3 Whirlpool 2.3.4 Wort cooling 2.4 Fermenting 2.5 Conditioning 2.6 Filtering 2.6.1 Sheet (pad) filters 2.6.2 Kieselguhr filters 2.7 Packaging 2.8 Secondary fermentation

1 Brewing beer All beers are brewed using a process based on a simple formula. Key to the beer making process is malted grain, depending on the region traditionally barley, wheat or sometimes rye. Malt is made by allowing a grain to germinate, after which it is then dried in a kiln and sometimes roasted. The germination process creates a number of enzymes, notably alfa-amylase and betaamylase, which will be used to convert the starch in the grain into sugar. Depending on the amount of roasting, the malt will take on dark colour and strongly influence the colour and flavor of the beer. Breweries buy malt and this is not a process that is done in-house. The malt is crushed in a malt mill to break apart the grain kernels, increase their surface area, and separate the smaller pieces from the husks. The resulting grist is mixed with heated water in a vat called a "mash tun" for a process known as "mashing". During this process, natural enzymes within the malt break down much of the starch into sugars which play a vital part in the fermentation process. Mashing usually takes 1 to 2 hours, and during this time various temperature rests (waiting periods) activate different enzymes depending upon the type of malt being used, its modification level, and the desires of the brewmaster. The activity of these enzymes convert the starches of the grains to dextrines and then to fermentable sugars such as maltose. A mash rest at 104 °F or 40 °C activates beta-glucanase, which breaks down gummy beta-glucans in the mash, making the sugars flow out more freely later in the process. A mash rest from 120 °F to 130 °F (49 °C to 55 °C) activates various proteinases, which break down proteins that might otherwise cause the beer to be hazy. But care is of the essence since the head on beer is also composed primarily of proteins, so too aggressive a protein rest can result in a beer that cannot hold a head. This rest is generally used only with undermodified (i.e. undermalted) malts which are popular in Germany and the Czech Republic, or non-malted grains such as corn and rice, which are widely used in North American beers. Finally, a mash rest temperature of 149 to 160 °F (65 to 71 °C) is used to convert the starches in the malt to sugar, which is then usable by the yeast later in the industrial brewing process. Doing the latter rest at the lower end of the range produces more low-order sugars which are more fermentable by the yeast. This in turn creates a beer lower in body and higher in

It is then stored for 30 days or longer close to the freezing point. some styles benefit from additional aging for several months or years. Lager yeast tends to collect at the bottom of the fermenter and is often referred to as "bottomfermenting" yeast. The wort is moved into a large tank known as a "cooking tun" or kettle where it is boiled with hops and sometimes other ingredients such as herbs or sugars. Today. the fresh (or "green") beer is cooled close to freezing temperature. The wort is then moved into a temperature controlled cylindrical-conical "fermenter" where yeast is added or "pitched" with it. [top of page] . The boiling process serves to terminate enzymatic processes. Pure ale yeasts form a foam on the surface of the fermenting beer. A rest closer to the higher end of the range creates more higher-order sugars which are less fermentable by the yeast. Czech Republic (Plzen in Czech language). around 10°C (50°F). After the mashing. precipitate proteins. At the end of the boil. Sulfur components developed during fermentation dissipate. At this point the liquid is known as wort. The lauter tun generally contains a slotted "false bottom" or other form of manifold which acts as a strainer allowing for the separation of the liquid from the grain. concentrate and sterilize the wort. Ales are generally ready to drink within three weeks after the beginning of fermentation. because of this they are often referred to as "top-fermenting" yeast . the beer is often filtered to remove remaining yeast and particulates. aroma and bitterness to the beer. After this conditioning for a week to several months. so a fuller-bodied beer with less alcohol is the result. the hopped wort settles to clarify using hop filters. lagers represent the vast majority of beers produced.alcohol. and occasionally as high as 24°C (75°F). however. yeast is purged and the beer is allowed to "lager" or rest. brewers in Bavaria had for centuries been selecting these cold-fermenting Lager yeasts by storing or "Lagern" their beers in cold alpine caves. SBM does not use the whirlpool system for hop separation.1 Ale (top-fermenting yeasts) Ale yeasts ferment at warmer temperatures between 15°C and 20°C (60°F to 68°F). carbon dioxide and other components through a process called fermentation or glycolysis. [top of page] 1. The yeast converts the sugars from the malt into alcohol. The popularity of lager was a major factor that led to the rapid introduction of refrigeration in the early 1900s. just like ales. After a week to three weeks.though there are some ale yeast strains that settle at the bottom. Lager is fermented at much lower temperatures. There are four main families of beer styles determined by the variety of yeast used in their brewing. [top of page] 1. Hops add flavor. Ales range in color from very pale to black opaque. Finally the mash temperature may be raised to 165 °F to 170 °F (about 75 °C) (known as a mashout) to deactivate enzymes. the beer mellows and flavors become smoother. Some of these Bavarian yeasts were stolen and brought back to the Carlsberg brewery around the time that Hansen did his famous work. The process of natural selection meant that the wild yeasts that were most cold tolerant would be the ones that would remain actively fermenting in the beer that was stored in the caves. During the storing or "lagering" process. compared to typical ale fermentation temperatures of 18°C (65°F). the most famous being a light lager called Pilsner which originated in Pilsen. isomerize hop resins.2 Lager (bottom-fermenting yeasts) While the nature of yeast was not fully understood until Emil Hansen of the Carlsberg brewery in Denmark isolated a single yeast cell in the 1800s. the mash is pumped to a lauter tun where the resulting liquid is strained from the grains in a process known as lautering. The "bright beer" is then ready for serving or packaging. It is a common misconception that all lagers are light in color: lagers can range from very light to deep black. Additional water may be sprinkled on the grains to extract additional sugars (a process known as sparging).

While the basic principle of its operation has remained the same since its first use. Lautering has two stages: first wort run-off. this system led to a lot of oxygen uptake.1. can raise and lower the rake arms depending on the turbidity (cloudiness) of the run-off. Fermenting. While visually stunning. and heating this mixture up with rests at certain temperatures to allow enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars. [top of page] 2. Cutting blades hang from these arms.2. with each zone having a ring-shaped collection pipe. and sparging. The false bottom in a lauter tun has thin slits to hold back the solids and allow liquids to pass through. Depending on the size of the lauter tun. and Filling. allowing the otherwise cloudy mash to run out of the lauter tun as a clear liquid. and the tightness of the grain bed. . typically maltose. [top of page] 1.2 Lautering Lautering is the separation of the extracts won during mashing from the spent grain. It is achieved in either a lauter tun. In the past the run-off tubes flowed through swan-neck valves into a wort collection grant. which can provide a free-flow surface in the bottom of the tun. a wide vessel with a false bottom. The solids. in which extract which remains with the grains is rinsed off with hot water. The brewer. a plate-and-frame filter designed for this kind of separation. Such a system has mostly been replaced either by a central wort-collection vessel or the arrangement of outlet ports into concentric zones.1 Mashing Mashing is the process of mixing milled grain (typically malted grain) with water. Boiling. as measured by the pressure difference between the top and bottom of the grain bed. These beers are also called Lambic beers. [top of page] 2.3 Beers of Spontaneous Fermentation (wild yeasts) These beers are nowadays primarily only brewed around Brussels. They are fermented by means of wild yeast strains that live in a part of the Zenne river which flows through Brussels. particularly those in brewpubs. A quality lauter tun has rotating rake arms with a central drive unit. often maintain the swan-neck valves and grant for their visual effect. [top of page] 2.1 Lauter tun A lauter tun is the traditional vessel used for separation of the extracted wort. form a filtration medium and hold back small solids. or better yet an automated system. [top of page] 2 The Brewing Process Work in the brewery is typically divided into 7 steps: Mashing. Each blade has its own path around the tun and often the whole rake assembly can be raised and lowered. Brewhouses in plain public view. Attached to each of these arms is a flap which can be raised and lowered for pushing the spend grains out of the tun. The blade is usually wavy and has a plough-like foot.4 Beers of mixed origin These beers are blends of spontaneous fermentation beers and ales or lagers or they are ales or lagers which are also fermented by wild yeasts. technological advances have led to better designed lauter tuns capable of quicker and more complete extraction of the sugars from the grain. Lautering. there can be between two and six rake arms. Belgium. Filtering. during which the extract is separated in an undiluted state from the spent grains. not the false bottom. or a mash filter. Conditioning. The false bottom of a lauter tun is today made of wedge wire.

[top of page] 2. which contribute bitterness. also on the bottom of the tun. Upon return to the boil kettle. It works on basically the same principle as external units. The steam is delivered under pressure by an external boiler. which uses steam jackets in the kettle to boil the wort. The plates contain a support structure for the filter cloth The plates.3 Boiling Boiling the won extracts. The unit is usually a tall. through which wort is pumped. including dimethyl sulfide precursors. and aroma compounds to the beer. [top of page] 2. SBM does not produce direct-fired kettles but only steam heated kettles. Modern brewhouses can also be equipped with internal calandria. along with the heat of the boil. The stirring blades can be used as an ersatz rake. causing caramelization and making clean up difficult. causes proteins in the wort to coagulate and the pH of the wort to fall. The boil lasts between 50 and 120 minutes. Newer mash filters have bladders that can press the liquid out of the grains between spargings. and thus provides for excellent volatization. These tubes provide an enormous surface area on which vapor bubbles can nucleate. and filter cloths are arranged in a carrier frame like so: frame. with many tubes upward through it. and one outlet.2 Mash Filter A mash filter is a plate-and-frame filter. depending on its intensity. The boil must be conducted so that is it even and intense. and volume of wort the brewer expects to evaporate. raising the boiling point a few Celsius degrees. External boilers were originally designed to improve performance of kettles which did not provide adequate boiling effect. The higher temperature due to increased vaporization can reduce boil times up to 30%. and.2. Some small breweries use a combination mash/lauter tun. sometimes called a calandria. frames. which then must be helped along to a large extent by the brewer. Finally. and have a capacity of around one hectoliter. ensures its sterility. Some breweries have a boiling unit outside of the kettle. flavor. the vapors produced during the boil volatilize off flavors. The grain does not act like a filtration medium in a mash filter. and thus prevents a lot of infections. The wort is then boiled in the kettle at atmospheric pressure. including the spent grains. but typically they cannot be moved up and down. plate. an overpressure can be achieve in the external boiler. Large breweries have self-closing inlets on the bottom of the tun through which the mash is transferred to the lauter tun.A system will introducing sparge water into the lauter tun.3. a vigorous vaporization occurs. but have since been adopted by the industry as a sole means of boiling wort. but relies on convection to move wort through the .1 Boiling equipment Simplest boil kettles are direct-fired. the hop addition schedule. with plates at each end of the structure. and would disturb the bed too much were they used deep in the grain bed. Craft breweries often have manways on the side of the mash tun for spent grain removal. thin cylinder. insuring that the wort is evenly boiled by the end of the boil. with a burner underneath but are also apt to scorch the wort where the flame touches the kettle. into which the spent grains fall after lautering is complete. The watering system should not beat down on the grain bed and form a channel. cloth. and through careful control the inlets and outlets on the external boiler. The empty frames contain the mash. Most systems have a ring of spray heads that insure an even and gentle introduction of the sparge water. Most breweries use a steam-fired kettle. cloth. called wort. which requires no pump. [top of page] 2. During the boil hops are added. The total volume of wort is circulated seven to twelve times an hour through this external boiler. in which the rake system cannot be implemented because the mixing mechanism for mashing is of higher importance.

but is not so steep as to take up too much vertical space. Newer whirlpools often have "Denk rings" suspended in the middle of the whirlpool. the wort must be brought down to fermentation temperatures before yeast is added. The bottom of the whirlpool is often slightly sloped toward the outlet. These rings are aligned horizontally and have about 75% of the diameter of the whirlpool. An better alternative to a whirlpool are hop filters. The last few plates often use a cooling medium which can be cooled to below the freezing point.3. [top of page] 2. The simplest was to recover this energy is with a kettle vapor condenser (German: Pfaduko.boiler.4 Fermenting Modern fermenting tanks Fermentation. oxygen is often dissolved into the wort to revitalize the yeast and aid its reproduction.3 Whirlpool At the end of the boil. The cooling medium. The main advantages of his system are better hop filtrations. The wort is pumped into the heat exchanger. CCTs can handle both fermenting and conditioning in the same tank. This is also the point at which the product is first called beer. which allows a finer control over the wort-out temperature. usually water. Hops are removed from the bitter wort using stainless steel filters. the yeast and other solids which have fallen to the cones apex can be simply flushed out a port at the apex. A good heat exchanger can drop 95 °C wort to 20 °C while warming the cooling medium from about 10 °C to 80 °C. [top of page] 2. These tanks have a large diameter to encourage settling. The so-called teacup effect forces the more dense solids (coagulated proteins. have a conical bottom and a cylindrical top. A plate heat exchanger has many ridged plates. The cone's aperture is typically 60°. there is a separate tank for whirlpooling. a tangential inlet near the bottom of the whirlpool. . At the end of fermentation.3. This can prevent overboiling. or CCTs. a flat bottom.4 Wort cooling After the hop filtration. lower equipment cost and less floor surface. Smaller breweries often use the brewkettle as a whirlpool. In modern breweries this is achieved through a plate heat exchanger. as a deflector above the boiler reduces foaming. A whirlpool should have no internal protrusions that might slow down the rotation of the liquid. to five gallon glass carboys in a homebrewer's closet.2 Energy recovery Boiling wort takes a lot of energy. Fermentation tanks come in all sorts of forms. which form two separate paths. as a step in the brewing process. After cooling. It is during this stage that sugars won from the malt are metabolized into alcohol and carbon dioxide. and also enables cooling to around 10 °C. vegetable matter from hops) into a cone in the center of the whirlpool tank. [top of page] 2. and it is wasteful to let this energy escape into the atmosphere. from enormous tanks which can look like storage silos. [top of page] 2. from the much longer Pfannendunstkondensator). encouraging the formation of a cohesive trub cone in the middle of the whirlpool.3. the wort is set into a whirlpool. Internal calandria are generally difficult to clean. In most large breweries. and also reduces evaporation. an angle that will allow the yeast to flow toward the cones apex. The Denk rings prevent the formation of secondary eddies in the whirlpool. The ridges in the plates ensure turbulent flow. starts as soon as yeast is added to the cooled wort. and goes through every other gap between the plates. goes through the other gaps. and an outlet on the bottom near the outer edge of the whirlpool. A kettle vapor condenser is often nothing more than a plate heat exchanger. Most breweries today use cylindroconical tanks.

At this stage. and gives beer its polished shine and brilliance. Fermentation tanks are typically made of stainless steel. hops. which makes harvesting top fermenting yeasts easy but the open tops of the vessels make the risk of infection a lot greater. Otherwise separate tanks (in a separate cellar) must be employed. Filters come in many types. Rough filtration leaves some cloudiness in the beer. The sheets are manufactured to allow only particles smaller than a given size through. with no noticeable cloudiness. Not all beer is filtered. Filtering the beer stabilizes the flavor. Filters range from rough filters that remove much of the yeast and any solids (e. The more pressure the bung holds back.Open fermentation vessels are also used. A very few breweries still use wooden vats for fermentation as wood is difficult to keep clean and infection-free and must be repitched more or less yearly. If they are simple cylindrical tanks with beveled ends. as opposed to the whole fermentation cellar being cooled.6. the beer is cooled to around freezing. the fermentation slows down and the yeast starts to settle to the bottom of the tank. Finally. sterile filtration is fine enough that almost all microorganisms in the beer are removed during the filtration process. often for show in brewpubs. and the brewer is free to choose how finely to filter the beer. which encourages settling of the yeast. Many use pre-made filtration media such as sheets or candles. The sheets can be flushed if the filter becomes blocked. During this time pressure is maintained on the tanks to prevent the beer from going flat. If the fermentation tanks have cooling jackets on them. for example. and usually the sheets are disposable and are replaced between filtration sessions. After high kraeusen a bung device (German: Spundapparat) is often put on the tanks to allow the CO2 produced by the yeast to naturally carbonate the beer. Fine filtration gives a glass of beer that you could read a newspaper through. This bung device can be set to a given pressure to match the type of beer being produced. conditioning can take place in the same tank as fermentation.1 Sheet (pad) filters These filters use pre-made media and are relatively straightforward. and in Europe in wheat beer fermentation. but it is noticeably clearer than unfiltered beer.5 Conditioning When the sugars in the fermenting beer have been almost completely digested.g. Unpleasant flavors such as phenolic compounds become insoluble in the cold beer. which is introduced into the beer and recirculated past screens to form a filtration bed. These vessels have no tops. [top of page] 2. Normally used filtration ratings are divided into rough. Often the sheets contain powdered filtration media to aid in filtration.6 Filtering A mixture of diatomaceous earth and yeast after filtering. grain particles) left in the beer. while others use a fine powder made of. . fine and sterile. [top of page] 2. sterilized (with hot water. The sheets are placed into the filtering frame. for example) and then used to filter the beer. to filters tight enough to strain color and body from the beer. the more carbonated the beer becomes. they are arranged vertically. also called kieselguhr. and causes proteins to coagulate and settle out with the yeast. as opposed to conditioning tanks which are usually laid out horizontally. diatomaceous earth. and the beer's flavor becomes smoother. as its name implies. [top of page] 2.

with themilk. but it might include cans or bulk tanks for high-volume customers. Some beers may have three fermentations. or soda and cream of tartar. the beaten whites of the eggs. and typically 90% of particles larger than the nominal rating are caught by the sheet.Sheets are sold in nominal ratings. Bottle fermentation Some beers undergo a fermentation in the bottle. Care in Baking.. [top of page] 2. and perlite. [top of page] 2.8 Secondary fermentation Secondary fermentation is an additional fermentation after the first or primary fermentation. a slow oven is necessary. and because it is more easily spoiled thanbreadand other foods usually cooked in an oven. giving natural carbonation. is put in.7 Packaging Packaging is putting the beer into the containers in which it will leave the brewery. or one which will slightly brown a loaf in twenty minutes. If there is no residual fermentable sugar left. then the flour. This may be a second or third fermentation. into which thecreamof tartar and soda have been well mixed by sifting them together several times. remaining in solution and providing natural carbonation. One is obliged to exercise a new judgment every time cake is made. sugar. Common media include diatomaceous earth. Typically this means in bottles and kegs. and flour are used. one of 300° Fahr. First the butter and sugar are creamed together. [top of page] The Process Op Cake Making All ordinarycakesare made in much the same way as to the order in which their ingredients are mixed. For butter cakes a temperature somewhere between 350° and 380° will not fail. to the butter and sugar. Cask conditioning Beer in casks are managed carefully to allow some of the carbonation to escape. or kieselguhr. but can filter much more beer before needing to be regenerated. an oven moderately heated will be required .2 Kieselguhr filters Filters that use a powder medium are considerably more complicated to operate. Even thermometers are only a partial help. The baking of cake is the most difficult part of the process.6. For sponge cake made without raising material. [top of page] 2.that is. in which only eggs. . sugar may be added. The resulting fermentation generates CO2 which is trapped in the bottle. for if an oven has a temperature of 300° Fahr. They are bottled with a viable yeast population in suspension. For sponge cake made withbaking-powder. at a certain time. such as the old-fashioned kind. and last. on account of the constantly variable condition of ovens in commonironstoves. then the yolks of theeggsare beaten and added.

there is no means of being sure what the temperature will be half an hour from then. Read more:http://chestofbooks. and arranging the stove dampers does not lessen the heat. Do not stop to scrape every bit from the bowl. that can be attended to afterward. Should the cake be cooking too fast. letting it overlap the sides for about an inch to assist in lifting out the cake. or thin cakes. one may gain considerable skill in managingfires. Bake as soon as possible after the flour is in. for carbonic acid begins to be formed as soon as the soda and cream of tartar come in contact with the and will notstick. Pans for baking cake should be lined with buttered paper (the buttered side up). a piece of buttered paper laid over the top will protect it. Get everything ready before beginning to mix cake. and a little patty-cake made of what is left. the oven first of all. require a hotter oven than loaves. However. An earthenware bowl and a wooden spoon should be used for mixing.html#ixzz1kCOL2NnV . and some of it will escape unless the mixture is baked at once. by giving attention and some practice to it. Layer.