ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

A Major Project Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for BBA (General) programme of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University , Delhi

Submitted by Aanchal Sharma BBA (Gen) Semester-VI Enrol. No.: 08012201709

Delhi College of Advanced Studies B-7,Shanker Garden, Vikaspuri New Delhi-110018

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the major project report, entitled “Advertising Effectiveness”, is based on my original study and has not been submitted earlier for award of any degree or diploma to any institute or university. The work of other author(s), wherever used, has been acknowledged at appropriate place(s).

Place: New Delhi Date:

Candidate’s signature Name: Aanchal Sharma Enroll. No.: 08012201709

Countersigned

Name : Mr. H.C. Joshi Supervisor Delhi College of Advanced Studies

Name : Prof.(Dr.) J.P. Varshney Director Delhi College of Advanced Studies

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organization. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to Prof.(Dr.) J.P. Varshney, Director of Delhi College of Advanced Studies, for providing an opportunity of doing this project and for kind co-operation and encouragement in completion of this project.

I would like to thank our supervisor for this project, Prof. H.C. Joshi, for the valuable guidance and advice. He inspired me greatly to work on this project. His willingness to motivate me contributed tremendously to my project. Besides, I would like to thank my institution „Delhi College of Advanced Studies‟ for providing us with a good environment and facilities to complete this project. Finally an honorable mention goes to my family and friends for their support in completing this project.

My topic for the major project is “ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS” and the purpose of this project is to know about the consumption of soft drinks. findings and suggestions was given based on study of secondary source as well as primary research. It also provides us an opportunity to understand the particular topic in depth. The object always is to bring to public notice some articles or service. The survey was conducted with the help of structured questionnaire.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As a part of our study curriculum it is necessary to conduct a major project. The research provides an opportunity to demonstrate application of knowledge. . After this concentration is given to the primary research. It includes the analysis and results of survey which focuses on consumer‟s behavior towards advertising effectiveness. To start with we will give brief information regarding the Coca-Cola Company then moving to the main topic we will explain what is topic is all about. to create a demand to stimulate buying and in general to bring together the man with something to sell and the man who has means or desires to buy. At last conclusion of report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS S. - Profile of the organization/Sector Objectives of study Scope of study Methodology Chapter-2: Conceptual Framework     Introduction Why measure advertising effectiveness Barriers to Great Advertising Designing advertising campaign 9 Chapter-3: Data Analysis and interpretation 10 Chapter-4: Summary and Conclusion    Results of the study Limitations of the project Suggestions &Recommendations - 11 12 Bibliography Appendices . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Declaration Acknowledgement Executive Summary List of Tables List of Figures List of Symbols Chapter-1: Introduction     8 Topic Page No.No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Title Consumption of cold drink Frequency Cold drinks available in the market Preference of cold drink Preference of flavor Seen the advertisement of the most preferred cold drink Media Types of advertisements Most preferred slogan Reason Effect of advertisement on consumption Best media for advertisement Necessity of advertisement for sale of cold drinks Effectiveness of expenditure incurred on advertisement Necessity of advertisement effectiveness Page No. 15 .LIST OF TABLES Table No.

15 .LIST OF FIGURES Table No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Title Consumption of cold drink Frequency Cold drinks available in the market Preference of cold drink Preference of flavor Seen the advertisement of the most preferred cold drink Media Types of advertisements Most preferred slogan Reason Effect of advertisement on consumption Best media for advertisement Necessity of advertisement for sale of cold drinks Effectiveness of expenditure incurred on advertisement Necessity of advertisement effectiveness Page No.

no 1 2 3 4 Title % / & Percentage Or And To Nomenclature & Meaning .LIST OF SYMBOLS S.

. The Coca-Cola Company owns its anchor bottler in North America. The company is best known for its flagship product Coca-Cola.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Profile of the organization/Sector- The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational beverage corporation and manufacturer. United States. Coca-Cola Refreshments. The Coca-Cola formula and brand was bought in 1889 by Asa Candler who incorporated The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. invented in 1886 by pharmacist John Stith Pemberton in Columbus. Georgia. The Coca-Cola Company is headquartered in Atlanta. The company operates a franchised distribution system dating from 1889 where The Coca-Cola Company only produces syrup concentrate which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the world who hold an exclusive territory. retailer and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. Georgia. Its current chairman and chief executive is Muhtar Kent. Its stock is listed on the NYSE and is part of DJIA.7 billion servings each day. Besides its namesake Coca-Cola beverage. the Russell 1000 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index. S&P 500 Index. Coca-Cola currently offers more than 500 brands in over 200 countries or territories and serves over 1.

which proved to be a hit. Similarly. Fanta's origins date back to World War II when Max Keith. Coca-Cola is the best-selling soft drink in most countries. and was recognized as the number one global brand in 2010. who managed Coca-Cola's operations in Germany during the war. Tab was Coca-Cola's first attempt to develop a diet soft drink. using saccharin as a sugar substitute. The German Fanta Klare Zitrone ("Clear Lemon Fanta") variety became Sprite. Fanta. Coca-Cola South Africa also released Valpre Bottled "still" and "sparkling" water. in Scotland.Products and brands: The Coca-Cola Company offers more than 500 brands in over 200 countries. although its sales have dwindled since the introduction of Diet Coke. Introduced in 1963. where the locally produced Irn-Bru was once more popular. and when Coke took over again after the war. it adopted the Fanta brand as well. the product is still sold today. . besides its namesake Coca-Cola beverage. While the Middle East is one of the only regions in the world where Coca-Cola is not the number one soda drink. 2005 figures show that both Coca-Cola and Diet Coke now outsell Irn-Bru. another of the company's bestsellers and its response to 7 Up. wanted to make money from Nazi Germany but did not want the negative publicity. The Coca-Cola Company also produces a number of other soft drinks including Fanta (introduced circa 1941) and Sprite. Coca-Cola nonetheless holds almost 25% marketshare (to Pepsi's 75%) and had double-digit growth in 2003. Keith resorted to producing a different soft drink.

the Coca-Cola Company's best selling brand there is not Coca-Cola. Ga. To find out the reasons for liking the advertisement of cold drinks. In Japan. As such. . the best selling soft drink is not cola. the "World of Coca-Cola" is a multi-storied exhibition of the many flavors sold by the company as well as a museum to the history of the company. but Georgia. the native Inca Kola has been more popular than Coca-Cola. To find out the most popular slogan of advertisement regarding cold drinks. 3. 2. which prompted Coca-Cola to enter in negotiations with the soft drink's company and buy 50% of its stakes.  Objectives of the study - Following are the objectives of the study: 1.In Peru. To know the most effective media of advertisement. Cola-Cola operates a soft drink themed tourist attraction in downtown Atlanta. as (canned) tea and coffee are more popular.

Different type of research designs is available depending upon the nature of research project.  Descriptive Research is used in this study as the main aim is to describe characteristics of the phenomenon or a situation. specific procedure and technical rather than philosophical means for getting and ordering the data prior to their logical analysis and manipulation. It is a master plan specifying the method and procedures for collecting and analyzing needed information. Research Design: The research design is the blueprint for the fulfillment of objectives and answering questions.  The study will help to know whether advertisement effectiveness is necessary for a company or not.  The study will help to know the preferences of the customers. availability of able manpower and circumstances. . Methodology 1. Scope of the study –  The scope of advertising effectiveness is very broad in nature.  Research Methodology - Research is a procedure of logical and systematic application of the fundamentals of science to the general and overall questions of a study and scientific technique which provide precise tools.  The customer‟s perception regarding advertising effectiveness.

Data Collection Methods: The source of data includes primary and secondary data sources. . Samples can be either probability samples or non-probability samples.  Primary Sources: Primary data has been collected directly from sample respondents through questionnaire and with the help of interview. Magazines & Internet. Sampling Technique: Convenience Sample Size: 50 Respondents Target population: The population for this research study consists of the residence of Delhi & NCR. 4. 3. Sample Design: Sample design is definite plan determine before any data is actually obtaining for a sample from a given population. The researcher must decide the way of selecting a sample. Research Instrument: Research instrument used for the primary data collection is Questionnaire. Newspapers. .2.  Secondary Sources: Secondary data has been collected from standard textbooks.

It always intentional openly sponsored by the sponsor and involves certain cost and hence is paid for. Publicity makes a thing or an idea known to people. if the product is widely polished to be audience the final consumers. As personal stimulation of demand for a product service or business unit by planting commercially significant news about it in a published medium or obtaining favorable presentation of it upon video television or stage that is not paid for by the sponsor. It is a method of publicity. In common parlance the term publicity and advertising are used synonymously.personal communication about an organization and or its products idea service etc. This is possible. It is a common form of non. On the other hand.CHAPTER II CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Introduction : The objectives of all business are to makes profits and a merchandising concern can do that by increasing its sales at remunerative prices. channel members and industrial users and through convincing arguments it is persuaded to buy it. advertising denotes a specific attempt to popularize a specific product or service at a certain cost. . It is a general term indicating efforts at mass appeal. that is transmitted to a target audiences through a mass medium.

"I turn" literally specific thing". or idea. sponsored message regarding a product. "advertero" "ad" meaning towards and "verto" meeting towards and "verto" meaning. service. Advertising has been defined by different experts. goods or services by an identified sponsor. from the cry of the street boy selling newspapers to the most celebrate attention attracts device. Simply stated advertising is the art "says green. .personal." Advertising is a general term for and all forms of publicity. oral or visual openly. Some of the quoted definition are : American marketing association has defined advertising as "any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas. Stanton deserves that "Advertising consists of all the activities involved in presenting to a group a non. The object always is to bring to public notice some articles or service. to create a demand to stimulate buying and in general to bring together the man with something to sell and the man who has means or desires to buy".What is Advertising : The word advertising is derived from the Latin word viz. This message called an advertisement is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by the identified sponsor. Advertising is any paid form of non – personal paid of presentation of ideas goods or services by an identified sponsor. The medium used are print broad cast and direct.

personal paid message of commercial significance about a product. service or company made to a market by an identified sponsor. It persuades buyers to purchase the goods advertised. . 5. one must always start by identifying the market needs and buyer motives and must make five major decisions commonly referred as 5M (mission. It is also called printed salesmanship because information is spread by means of the written and printed work and pictures so that people may be induced to act upon it. The communication media is diverse such as print (newspapers and magazines) 6.Advertising is a "non. 3. media and measurement) of advertising. Basic Features of Advertising On the basis of various definitions it has certain basic features such as : 1. In developing an advertising programme. It is a mass paid communication. It is a mass non-personal communication. 4. money message. 2. It is a matter of record.

non – prescription drugs.Functions of Advertising For many firms advertising is the dominant element of the promotional mix – particulars for those manufacturers who produce convenience goods such as detergent. . Advertising can also help to convince potential buyers that a firms product or service is superior to competitors product in make in quality. home appliances. soft drinks and grocery products. ii) When sales are increasing for all terms in an industry. iii) When a product is new and incorporates technological advance not strong and. to introduce new product and new product features its uses its attributes. in price etc. iv) When primary buying motive exists. cosmetics. Advertising is also used extensively by maters of automobiles. Advertising is particularly effective in certain other spheres too such as : i) When consumer awareness of products or service is at a minimum. it can create brand image and reduce the likelihood of brand switching even when competitors lower their prices or offer some attractive incentives. pt availability etc. etc.

The marketing mix consists of four basic elements called the four P‟s. . The last P stands for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to go out and buy the product. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer like distribution channels. The marketing mix was suggested by professor E. Product is the first P representing the actual product. Marketing mix - The marketing mix has been the key concept to advertising.It performance the following functions : i) Promotion of sales ii) Introduction of new product awareness. Price represents the process of determining the value of a product. Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. market coverage and movement organization. iii) Mass production facilitation iv) Carry out research v) Education of people.

ice he seeks a quick response to the advertisement which may be to order the product by mail. images and benefits of their services and products. Product advertising is sub-divided into direct action and indirect action advertising.. Direct action product advertising wages the buyer to take action at once. product and institutional advertising.Types of advertising - Broadly speaking. or mailing a coupon. trended products in such a manner as to make the brands seam more desirable. It is used by business government organization and private non-business organizations to promote the uses features. advertising may be classified into two categories viz.     Consumer Advertising American marketing association Direct mail campaign Product Advertising . a) Product Advertising : The main purpose of such advertising is to inform and stimulate the market about the advertisers products of services and to sell these. Thus type of advertising usually promote specific. or he may promptly purchase in a retail store in response to prince reduction during clearance sale.

public. i) In patronage institutional advertising the manufacturer tells his prospects and customer about himself his policies and lives personnel.Product advertising is sub-divided into direct & indirect action advertising & product advertising aims at informing persons about what a products is what it does. b) Institutional Advertising : It is designed to create a proper attitude towards the sellers to build company image or goodwill rather than to sell specific product or service. relations and public service institutional advertising. If successful. It is sub-divided into three categories : patronage. Its assignment is to make friends for the institution or organization. ii) Public relations institutional advertising is used to create a favorable image of the firm among employees. On the other hand selective advertising is made to meet the selective demand for a particular brand or type is product. how it is used and where it can be purchased. he convince buyers that his operation entitles him to the money spent by them. The appeals to the patronage motivation of buyers. stock-holders or the general public. iii) Public service institutional advertising wages public support. . Its purpose is to create a frame of mind and to implant feeling favorable to the advertisers company.

Among these objectives are the following : 1. But advertising is a highly versatile communications tools and may therefore by used for achieving various short and long term objectives. Most companies regard advertising as main objective as hat of proving support to personal selling and other forms of promotion. To introduce a new product (by building brand awareness among potential buyers). . To do the entire selling job (as in mail order marketing).c) Other Types : The other types are as follows : i) Consumer advertising ii) Comparative advertising iii) Reminder advertising iv) Reinforcement advertising Advertising objectives - The long term objectives of advertising are broad and general. and concern the contribution advertising should make to the achievement of overall company objectives. 2. To force middlemen to handle the product (pull strategy). 3.

It leads to cheaper prices. To publicize some change in marketing strategy (e. 7. a new model or an improvement in the product). To improve the moral of dealers and/or sales people (by showing that the company is doing its share of promotion). Socially acceptable excuses)." . To provide rationalization (i. may be discussion below : 1. "No advertiser could live in the highly competitive arena of modern business if his methods of selling were more costly than those of his rivals. 8.4. To build brand preference 9by making it more difficult for middleman to sell substitutes)..g. 9. To acquaint buyers and prospects with the new uses of the product (to extend the PLC). Benefits - The functions of advertisement. and that purpose its ethics. To remind users to buy the product (retentive strategy). 10. 5. a price change.e. To combat or neutralize competitors advertising. 6.

2.

It acquaints the public with the features of the goods and advantages which buyers will enjoy.

3.

It increases demand for commodities and this results in increased production. Advertising :

a)

Creates and stimulates demand opens and expands the markets;

b)

Creates goodwill which loads to an increase in sales volume;

c)

Reduces marketing costs, particularly product selling costs.

d)

Satisfied consumer demands by placing in the market what he needs.

4.

It reduces distribution expenses in as much as it plays the part of thousands of salesman at a home. Information on a mass scale relieves the necessity of expenditure on sales promotion staff, and quicker and wider distribution leads to diminishing of the distribution costs.

5.

It ensures the consumers better quality of goods. A good name is the breath of the life to an advertiser.

6.

By paying the way for large scale production and increased industrialization, advertising contributes its quota to the profit of the companies the prosperity of the shareholder the uplifts of the wage earners and the solution of he unemployment problem.

7.

It raises the standard of living of the general public by impelling it to use to articles of modern types which may add to his material well being. "Modern advertising has made the luxuries of yesterday the necessities of today. It is a positive creative force in business. It makes two blades of grass grow in the business world where one grew before.

8.

It establishes the goodwill of the concern for the test articles produced by it and in course of time they sell like not cakes consumer search for satisfaction of their needs when they purchase goods what they want from its beauty, superiority, economy, comfort, approval, popularity, power, safety, convenience, sexual gratification and so on. The manufactures therefore tries to improve this goodwill and reputation by knowing the buyer behavior.

To sum up it may be said that advertising aims at committing the producers, educating the consumer, supplementing the salesman converting the producer and the dealer to eliminate the competitor, but above all it is a link between the produce and the consumer.

Why measure advertising effectiveness -

Measuring advertising effectiveness is not easy. Sometimes, the results of measuring are just better guesses. Still, it is much better this way than not to address this problem at all. There are dramatic differences in the effectiveness of various forms of advertising.

If you pay for advertising, then it is probably important for you see some results. But if you waste money on inefficient advertising, you are missing better opportunities and the results may not come at all.

The basics of measuring effectiveness :

Our main objective in measuring advertising effectiveness is to determine the effect of each advertising campaign from the results of our measuring and compare it with its price. Then we can decide which campaigns bring the best value for the money spent.

It is also important to realise the various factors influencing advertising.

The medium, ad copy (exact wording), the format, audience (is the ad well aimed to the people who use our products?) – all of this effects the final success of the campaign. Therefore, it is necessary to judge the effectiveness in context.

Before we start, we need to decide which criteria are we going to monitor. These will differ with respect to the medium used, our possibilities, the purpose of the ad etc.

Examples of possible criteria are:
     

customers tell how did they learn about us increase in sales of the promoted goods more calls to our toll-free line calls to a campaign-specific phone number specific codes applied by customers to receive offered discount (i.e. Tube) redeemed coupons or vouchers that were given out at a campaign

that we are not going to be able to measure everything. Especially if you run several campaigns in various media simultaneously. online campaigns are usually very easily traceable and can be measured well. you can simply judge the impact by how many people has the medium reached (viewers.  increased visits on our website other metrics from our website statistics (i. While the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals products advertise to doctors as well as to the general public. readers. orders amount) It is best to combine several criteria. listeners) and comparing how much did it cost to reach thousand people (this is called CPM). but also those whose opinions or authority is counted for example a manufacturer of marble tiles and building boards advertises not only to people who intend to build houses but also to architect and engineers. Also. This can be helped by careful choice of criteria or by running campaigns separately (though it is not always desirable). . Instead. it may be difficult to ascribe the measured effects to a specific campaign. This would be too costly for small advertisers. Why & when to advertise - Advertising as a tool to marketing not only reaches those who buy . Small companies will probably not use the methods of big corporations (ad recognition or recall) which are based on questioning samples of people once the campaign has ended.e. accept the fact. because a customer can for example either contact you by calling your line or by sending you an email. Contrary to traditional media.

At time it is necessary for a manufacturer or a concern to advertise things which it does not sell but which when sold stimulates the sales of its own product. . In our country certain publishers have found it less costly to sell their books by sending salesman from house to house among prospective buyers than to advertise them. There are goods for which much time and efforts are required in creating a demand by sending salesman to prospective buyers than by simply advertising them. Advertising should be used only when it promises to bring good result more economically and efficiently as compared to other means of selling. and that they urgently needed a cash register. There are concerns like electric heaters. iron etc. In the early days of the cash register in America it was sold by specially trained salesman who called on the prospective users and had the difficult task of convincing them that they could no longer carry on with the old methods. Naturals when there are good profits competitors will be attracted and they should be kicked out as and when sufficient capital is available by advertising on a large scale. In these two examples the cost of creating demand would be too high if attempted by advertising alone under such circumstances advertising is used to make the salesman acceptable to the people they call upon to increase the confidence of the public in the house. Immediate result may not justify the increased expenditure but it will no doubt secure future sales. because the use of these increases the demand for their products.

So many variables are beyond our control. Most of us believe. It seems that none of us is smart enough to see advertising through the eyes of the target audience.Barriers to Great Advertising - Advertising testing could provide a reliable feedback loop and lead to much better advertising. as noted. they quickly lose interest in any objective evaluation. that we know what good advertising is and that there is no need for any kind of independent. based purely on our own judgment. after 40 years of testing advertising. Agencies and clients alike often think that they know how to create and judge good advertising. Unless the sales response to the advertising is immediate and overwhelming. but many obstacles stand in the way. Sure. we have opinions. but they are almost always wrong. in our heart-of-hearts. Besides. once agencies and clients start to fall in love with the new creative. A second barrier to better advertising is the belief that sales performance will tell if the advertising is working. that it‟s impossible to isolate the effects of media advertising alone. some advertising works in a few weeks. Case closed. advertising agencies and their clients are just as inept at judging advertising as we are. In our experience. we cannot tell you if a commercial is any good or not. and this . The first great barrier to better advertising is self-delusion. just by viewing it. Strangely. while other advertising might take many months to show positive effects. objective evaluation. Moreover. No need for advertising testing. it is almost impossible to use sales data to judge the effectiveness of the advertising.

Also. A third barrier to better advertising is a pervasive tendency of many (but not all) advertising agencies to delay.delayed response can confound our efforts to read the sales data. and thwart efforts to objectively test their creative “babies. advertising often has short-term effects that sales data might reflect. the patience. Agencies can be quite creative in coming up with reasons to avoid copy testing. The results can upset the creative folks. or media weight. the accurate databases. but it often takes millions of dollars and years of effort. Because of these limitations. again. and requires the building of pristine databases of sales information along with all of the marketing input variables. marketing mix modeling does not tell us why the advertising worked. Even so. marketing mix modeling cannot answer these types of questions. and the technical knowledge necessary to succeed at marketing mix modeling. or failed to work. The agency can lose control. marketing mix modeling does not help us evaluate the contribution of a single commercial but rather the cumulative effects of many different commercials over a long period of time. sales data tends to be confusing and unreliable as an indicator of advertising effectiveness. and long-term (years later) effects that most of us might easily overlook in subsequent sales data.” Who wants a report card on the quality of their work? It‟s very threatening. undermine. or media mix that made the advertising effective? Generally. sales data is of limited value when you make critical decisions about your advertising. So. . Was it message. The results can upset clients. Also. Few companies have the budget. Sophisticated marketing mix modeling is one way to measure these advertising effects on sales.

We have to be on air in five days.  We have so much equity in this campaign that it doesn‟t matter what the testing results are. artful subtleties.  These are image ads. with new media and new messages. and you can‟t test imagery with standard advertising testing techniques. but let‟s remove those questions about purchase intent and persuasion from the questionnaire. The fourth barrier to more effective advertising is the big creative ego.  We are in a new age.  We‟re in favor of testing. and none of the old copy testing measures apply any more. We can‟t afford to change. and you can‟t measure such delicate.  We‟ve already tested the ads with a focus group during the development process.Some of our favorites:  There‟s no time. . so we‟ll just have to skip the testing.  These ads are built on emotion and feelings.

had great advertising. We recently had a client who was about to copy the advertising strategy of a major competitor. but we were able to persuade the client to test all major competitive commercials as a precaution before blindly copying the competitor‟s advertising approach. and tinkering based on objective feedback from target consumers. A fifth barrier to better advertising is the widespread belief that one‟s major competitors know what they are doing. . We have seen great campaigns abandoned because agencies would not accept minor tweaks to the advertising. Great advertising tends to evolve over time. or having a poor strategy. just copy the advertising approaches of the competition. in contrast. big egos are not limited to advertising agencies. fine-tuning. The sixth barrier to better advertising is lack of strategy. Needless to say. and success will surely follow. the client‟s desire to copy the industry leader quickly vanished. Big egos lead to bad advertising. and consumer feedback. with lots of hard work. Big egos create barriers because emotion is driving advertising decision making instead of logic. Big creative egos tend to resist such evolutionary improvements. The testing also revealed that another competitor. To be fair. So.The belief that only the "creative‟s" in the agency can create advertising and the conviction that creativity is their exclusive domain constitute a major barrier. reason. Our testing quickly revealed that this industry leader was the industry leader in spite of its bad advertising. Big client egos can also be a barrier to good advertising. The client is most often at fault here. This competitor was the industry leader in market share and profitability. Research firm egos are yet another problem.

measures advertising effectiveness. and people tend to discourage the creation of great advertising. Again. . For instance. and inconsistency tend to be the hallmarks of these “agency killer” clients. A seventh barrier to better advertising is client ineptness. Bad clients rarely stimulate or tolerate great advertising. and has not developed and tested strategy alternatives. while completely ignoring many other very important variables.The client has not done his homework. Many advertising testing systems are limited to a few markets (and cannot provide representative samples). persuasion measures or recall measures? The truth is that both are important. or in combination. has not thought deeply about his brand and its future. ignorance. Arrogance. the agency cannot create great advertising. but of greater import is the fact that neither of these measures alone. The agency is left to guess and speculate about strategy. Some clients‟ processes. without providing any strategy guidelines. The eighth and last barrier to better advertising is poor copy testing by research companies. The client tells the agency to go forth and create great advertising. policies. the responsibility for strategy falls squarely on the client. impatience. If the client cannot define a sound strategy. for several years research companies argued publicly over which was more important. ambiguity. Some systems are so expensive that the cost of testing exceeds the value of the results. risk aversion. Great advertising is rarely created in a strategy vacuum. Research companies have been guilty of relying on one or two simplistic measures of advertising effectiveness.

When the term “testing” is used in this article. the more likely it is that great advertising will emerge. it is a shorthand term for “pretesting. and research company work together to create more effective advertising? 1. The client must craft a sound strategy for its brand. and/or before final production. the strategy should be locked down and rarely changed thereafter. based on facts. Once strategy and positioning alternatives are identified and tested. . agency. how can client. The client must carefully define the role of advertising in the marketing plan and set precise communication objectives for the advertising. As creative executions are developed against the strategy. Testing the creative provides a reliable feedback loop that helps agency and client alike become smarter over time. What exactly does the client want the advertising to convey. each execution should be pretested among members of the target audience (pretesting refers to testing advertising before it is aired. not wishful thinking and self-delusion.”) The greater the number of executions pretested. 2. many different variables must be measured and considered simultaneously. Creating Better Advertising Given all of these barriers to better advertising. to accomplish? Agencies are too often asked to create advertising in an informational vacuum.To judge the effectiveness of an ad. Agencies are not miracle workers.

Early-stage testing tends to be highly predictive of finished commercial scores. There is no perfect advertising pretesting system. Long-term continuity of advertising message is essential to maximizing effectiveness. then the campaign should be locked down. The secret is to use one system over and over. Build your own “action standards” over time. and researchers) learns how to interpret the pretesting results for the category and the specific brand. so that everyone (client.3. as quickly as possible. 7. test the advertising at an early stage in the creative process (i. you will begin to learn what works and what doesn‟t work. develop your own norms for your . Early-stage testing allows rough commercials to be tweaked and fine-tuned before you spend the big dollars on final production. 5. agency. But. Use the same pretesting system consistently.e. but any system will help improve your advertising. 6.. Think of the pretesting company‟s norms as very crude. but not always. If budget permits. the “storyboard” or “animatic” stage) and also test at the finished commercial stage. Some are better than others. rough indicators to help you get started with a testing program. Once a conceptual family of commercials is identified as the optimal campaign of the future. 4. Testing the finished commercials gives you extra assurance that your advertising is “on strategy” and working. As you test every execution.

. Base your decisions on this comprehensive assessment of the results. as an indicator. What you are searching for. It doesn‟t matter that an ad increases short-term purchase interest if it will damage the brand‟s quality reputation over time. Informed human judgment remains important. It doesn‟t matter that an ad registers the brand name if no one will notice the commercial itself. Read all of the open-ended questions carefully. and leave yourself some wiggle room. or give a 100% perfect solution every time. Make sure you really understand the underlying reasons. 9. This means that every execution is tested and tweaked based on scientific evidence from the target audience. all of the advertising effectiveness measures vary by product category and brand). So. Use the pretesting results as a guide. all of the key variables must be put together intelligently to come up with a composite or overall measure of advertising effectiveness. are not norms. the knowledge that certain advertising testing scores will translate into actual sales increases). long-term. 8. Use a mathematical model to derive an overall score for each execution. It doesn‟t matter that an ad has great persuasion if it does not register the brand name. but action standards (that is. No model or system can anticipate every marketing situation.category and your brand (yes. 10. Client and agency need to accept that “continuous improvement” of the advertising is an important goal. but do not become a slave to the mathematical model.

" In other words. . co-ordinate series of promotional efforts built around a central theme and designed to reach a specified goals. Designing advertising campaign : An advertising is an organized series of advertising messages. The ultimate goal of testing is an advertising success formula that works.We are not talking about changing the strategy or changing the campaign. That is. In short run. all campaign want pre-determined psychological reaction in the long run. is to identify the elements/ideas essential to advertising effectiveness. and then to make sure that those elements/ideas are consistently communicated by all advertising executions. Thus. 11. "a unified theme of content provides psychological continuity throughout the campaign while visual and oral similarity provide physical continuity. the goal of advertising creative development. The series of advertisements used in the campaign must be integrated with the sales promotional efforts and with the activities of the sales force. but making sure that every execution is “on strategy” and working as hard as possible. It has been defined as "a planned. practically all campaigns have sales goal. it has single theme or keynote idea and a single objective or goal. and the goal of advertising testing. The campaign may appear in one more media . it is an orderly planned effort consisting of related but self – contained and independent advertisements.

other for weeks. yet other for a season or the entire year. iv) To teach consumers how to use product.Campaign vary in length some may run only for a few days. campaign objectives and the nature of the advertisers marketing program. policies. ii) To hold consumers patronage against intensified campaign use. v) To promote a contest or a premium offer. especially those connected with the consumers aims at achieving these objectives : i) To announce a new product or improve product. Many factors influences campaign length such as competitors advertising media. vi) To establish a new trade regional. Usually a range of 3 to 6 months includes many campaigns. . seasonal falls curves of the product involved. Objectives of campaign - The advertising campaign. iii) To inform consumers about a new product use. the size of the advertising funds. and vii) To help solve a coca regional problem.

which have services to sell. ii) To build a company prestige. The word campaign is used because advertising agencies approach their task with a sum Blanca of military fanfare in which one frequently hears words like target audience logistics. . i) To create a corporate personality or image. This requires the services of statistical trained in survey techniques and of others trained in social psychology.The institutional advertising campaign on the other hand. zero in and tactics and strategy etc. Developing the campaign programmes. The creation of an advertising campaign starts with an exploration of consumers habits and psychology in relation to the product. v) To enable company salesman to see top executive consistently when making sales calls. which work an behalf of their clients who manufacture product or service enterprises. iv) To emphasize company services and facilities. iii) To keep the company name before the public. have these objectives. The advertising campaigns are prepared by the advertising agencies. The account executive co-ordinates the work in a campaign. and vi) To increase friendliness and goodwill towards the company.

For instance bathing soap may come in several new colors or cigarette in a new packet or talcum powder in another size. form this voting come one of Helena Rubinstein's most successful face creams. After getting the data the account executive puts together the essential elements of his clients brief. pasteurized for purity. included in the sample and ask question to find out about their taste and habits. Such interviews are often quite essential to find out the appeal of advertising message for a product that would be most effective with consumers. smooth our wrinkles Ogilvy concludes. "is a complete beauty treatment. This enquiry often leads to a change in a familiar product. The largest preference as given to "Cleans deep into pores" followed in order of importance by prevent dryness. interprets the research findings and draws up what he calls the "advertising strategy". recommended by skin doctors" makes skin look younger' contains estrogenic hormones. prevent skin form aging.Statisticians select samples for survey which are done by trained interviewers who visits individuals. thus. building the winning form into name of the product. . David Ogilvy describes a consumers survey to find out the most meaningful benefit in which women are interested when they buy a face cream. We christened it deep cleanser.

Evaluating the effectiveness of advertising. Determining the advertising appropriation. . Selection media plan. Creating the advertising platform. 7. Identifying and analyzing the advertising. The major stages/steps are : 1. 2. 5. Defining advertising objects. 4.Stages in advertising campaign - Several steps are required to developed an advertising campaign the number of stages & exact order in which they are carried out may vary according to an organizations resources. the nature of its product and the types of audiences to be reached. 3. 8. Creating the advertising message. 6. Organizing of advertising campaign.

" The goals of advertising may be to : i) Create a favorable company image by acquainting the public with the services offered available to the employees and its achievements.e. the location and geographical location of the people. and consumers attitudes regarding purchase and use both of the advertising product and competing products is needed with better knowledge of market target. income.1. Identifying & Analyzing the Advertising target : Under this step it is to decided as to whom is the firm trying to reach with the message. . educational level. effective advertising campaign can be developed on the other hand. Determining the advertising objectives : The objectives of advertisement must be specifically and clearly defined in measurable terms such as "to communicate specific qualities about a particulars product to gain a certain degree of penetration in a definite audience of a given size during a given period of time". if the advertising target is not properly identified and analyzed the campaign is does likely to be effective. The advertising target is the group of people towards which advertisements are aimed at four this purpose complete information about the market target i. the distribution of age. increase sales by a certain percentage or increase the firms market shares. 2. sex.

and indicating how product (or services) can be used. iv) It secures action by the reader through associating ideas. Creating the Advertising platform : An advertising platform consists of the basic issues or selling points that an advertiser wishes to include in the advertising campaign. repetition of the same name in different contexts. providing information about the benefits to be gained from use of the company's products or services. immediate action appeal. . A single advertisement in an advertising campaign may contain one or more issues in the platform. getting recommendation of professional people about company's products etc. A motorcycle producers advertising platform should contain issues which are of importance to consumers filling and such issues also be those which the competitive product do not posses.ii) Create consumers or distributor awareness by encouraging requests providing information about the types of products sold. 3. iii) Encourage immediate sales by encouraging potential purchasers through special sales contests.

5. then the amount of the campaign budget is determined by estimating the proposed campaigns effectiveness in attaining them. Small town.4. For advertising for a specific time period. Determining the campaign budget involves estimating now much it will cost to achieve the campaigns objectives. Determining the Advertising Appropriation: The advertising appropriation is the total amount of money which marketer allocates. the most fundamental being the nature of the target market segment. weekly. Fortnightly. If campaigns object is to build a particular type of company image. i) Press Advertising or Print Newspapers Form City. the type of the product and the cost involved. Media 1. Sundays. . Daily. English. Selecting the Media : Media selection is an important since it costs time space and money various factors influence this selection. financial and annuals. quarterlies. then there is little basis for predicting either the campaigns effectiveness or determining the budget required. If the campaign objectives are profit relating and stated quantitatively. The distinctive characteristics of various media are also important. Therefore management should focus its attention on media compatibility with advertising objectives.

Sectional or national trade cost 5. Hindi. references books & annuals. Regional language. Publicity Movie Slides and films non theatrical and documentary films metal plates and signs attaches to trees. 4. leaflets. English. . ii) Magazines General or special. House to house Sampling . booklets. blotters. railways stations platforms outside public buildings trains. 3. folders. free gifts. Direct Mail Circulars. directories. brochures. iii) Trade & Technical Journals. telephone.vernacular or regional languages. diaries & other printed material. buses.V. Broadcast or radio and T. couponing. among the industrialist and business magnates. Industrial year Circulated all over the country and books. commercial. Directories. colanders. Spot. catalogues. illustrated or otherwise. Outdoor or Traffic Poster and bills on walls. 2. 6.

Internet is a big spot for advertising. symbols and illustration that are meaningful. The contents of the message has to be very carefully drafted in the advertisement.novelties. Creating the Advertising Messages : This is an important stage of advertising campaign. An advertisers must use words. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Advertising : The effectiveness of advertising is measured for a variety of reasons : a) To determine whether a campaign accomplished its advertising objects. illustrations or layout is best. 6. Internet Today. Characteristics of person in the advertising target influence the message content and form. 7. familiar and attractive to those persons. The type of media also influence the content and form of the message. . So these are the media of the advertising campaign of the selecting of the media. demonst-rations. 7. b) To evaluate the relative effectiveness of several advertisements to ascertain which copy.

In accomplishing these purposes. the advertising manager requires a basic understanding of the medium that is going to carry it. measuring advertising effectiveness is needed to determine whether proposed advertisement should be used and if they will be now they might be improved. . pretests and post test are conducted. The former tests before exposing target consumers to advertisements and the letter after consumers have been exposed to advertisements and the letter after consumers have been exposed to advertisements. In other words. and whether going campaign should be stopped. continued or changed.c) To determine the strengths and weaknesses of various media and media plans. For an effective advertising programme.

CHAPTER III DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION Q1. . of respondents 50 50 Percentage 100 100 Table no. 1: Consumption of cold drink Yes 100% Figure no. 1: Consumption of cold drink It reveals that all the respondents are drinking cold drinks. Do you take cold drinks ? Do you take cold drinks Yes No Total No.

Q2. How frequently you take cold drink ? How frequently you take cold drink Once a day Twice a day More than twice Not regular drunker Total 15 2 1 32 50 30 4 2 64 100 No. 2: Frequency Once a day 30% Not regular drunker 64% Twice a day 4% More than twice 2% Figure no. of respondents Percentage Table no. 2: Frequency .

Q3. 2% more than twice and 32% drink it no regularly. 4% twice a day.It reveals that 30% of the respondents drink it once a day. of respondents 50 50 Percentage 100 100 Table no. Which are the different cold drinks available in the market ? Name of cold drinks Coca cola Pepsi Fanta Limca Mirinda Thums-up Maaza All of above Total No. 3: cold drinks available in the market .

Q4. Which cold drink you like most ? Which cold drink you like most Coca cola Pepsi Fanta Limca Mirinda No.ALL OF THE ABOVE 100% Figure no. of respondents Percentage 12 12 1 7 1 24 24 2 14 2 . 3: cold drinks available in the market It reveals that all of the respondents are of the view that all the above mentioned cold drinks are available in the market.

10 like Thums-up. 1 like Mirinda. 4: Preference of cold drink It indicate that out of 50 respondents 12 like Coca cola.Thums-up Canada dry Maaza Total 10 4 3 50 20 8 6 100 Table no. 12 like Pepsi. 7 like Limca. . 1 like Fanta. 4: Preference of cold drink Maaza 6% Canada dry 8% Coca cola 24% Thums-up 20% Pepsi 24% Limca 14% Mirinda 2% Fanta 2% Figure no. 4 like Canada dry and 3 like Maaza.

Q5. 5: Preference of flavour Mango 4% Others 8% Orange 14% Lemon 14% Cola 60% Figure no. 5: Preference of flavour . Which flavour of cold drink you like most ? Flavours Cola Lemon Orange Mango Others Total No. of respondents 30 7 7 2 4 50 Percentage 60 14 14 4 8 100 Table no.

6: Seen the advertisement of the most preferred cold drink . of respondents Percentage 48 2 50 96 4 100 Table no. 14% like the Lemon flavour and same percentage of respondents like the orange flavor. Yes No Total No. Have you seen the advertisement of cold drink you like most ? Have you seen the advertisement of cold drink you like most. 6: Seen the advertisement of the most preferred cold drink No 4% Yes 96% Figure no. Q6.It shows that out of 60% of the respondents like the cola flavour of cold drink.

of respondents 46 2 1 1 50 Percentage 92 4 2 2 100 Table no.It indicate that 96% of the respondents are of the view that they have seen the advertisement of the cold drink they like most while 4% shows that they have not seen the advertisement of cold drink they like most. Q7. 7: Media Newspaper 4% Magazine 2% OTHER 2% TV 92% Figure no. Through which media you have seen it? Media TV Newspaper Magazine Other Total No. 7: Media .

8: Types . Q8. 8: Types 4 28% 1 22% 3 22% 2 28% Figure no.It reveals that 92% of the respondents are of opinion that they have seen the advertisement on TV while 4% are of the opinion that they have seen the advertisement through newspaper. of respondents 11 14 11 14 50 Percentage 22 28 22 28 100 Table no. How many types of advertisement of your preferred brand of cold drink are there? No of advertisements 1 2 3 4 Total No.

9: Most preferred slogan LIFE BEGINS HERE 16% TASTE THE THUNDER 24% YARA DA TASHAN 28% YEH DIL MANGE MORE 32% Figure no. of respondents 12 14 16 8 50 Percentage 24 28 32 16 100 Table no. Which slogan of cold drink you like most ? Slogan Taste the thunder Yara Da tashan Yeh dil mange more Life Begins Here Total No. 9: Most preferred slogan . Q9.It shows that out of the 50 respondents 11 said that there is 1 type of advertisement of their preferred brand of cold drink and others said that there are more than one type of advertisement of their preferred brand of cold drink.

16 like 'yeh dil mange more' and 8 like the slogan „life begins here’. 10: Reason .14 like 'Yara da tashan'. Q10.It shows that out of 50 respondents 12 like the slogan 'taste the thunder' . Why do you like the advertisement ? Reasons for liking the advertisement Its theme It has film stars Because of good music Other reasons Total No. 10: Reason Other reasons Good 12% music 14% Film stars 14% It's theme 60% Figure no. of respondents Percentage 30 7 7 6 50 60 14 14 12 100 Table no.

Q11. 11: Effect of advertisement on consumption .It shows that majority of the respondents like the advertisement due to its theme while majority of the respondents like the advertisement due to its film stars and good music. Do you think that advertisement has forced you to consume product more? Do you think ads. of respondents Percentage 23 17 10 50 46 34 20 100 Table no. 11: Effect of advertisement on consumption Can't say 20% Yes 46% No 34% Figure no. Effect the consumption of cold drink Yes No Can't say Total No.

Which media is the best media for advertisement ? Best media for advertisemnt TV Newspaper Magazine Others Total No. 12: Best media for advertisement .It shows that 46% of the respondents are of the view that advertisement forced them to consume product more. Q12. 12: Best media for advertisement TV 100% Figure no. 34% of them has view that advertisement don‟t force them to consume the product while 20% of them cannot say anything about it. of respondents Percentage 50 50 100 100 Table no.

13: Necessity of advertisement for sale of cold drinks . Do you think the advertisement is necessary for sale of cold drinks ? Necessity of advertisement Necessary Very necessary Can‟t say Total No.It reveals that 100% of the respondents are of the view that presently the TV is most effective media of advertisement. of respondents 14 34 2 50 Percentage 28 68 4 100 Table no. 13: Necessity of advertisement for sale of cold drinks Can't say 4% Necessary 28% Very necessary 68% Figure no. Q13.

14: Effectiveness of expenditure incurred on advertisement . 14: Effectiveness of expenditure incurred on advertisement Can't say No 10% 4% Yes 86% Figure no.It shows that highest number of respondents are of the view that advertisement is very necessary for cold drinks while few respondents are of the view that advertisement is necessary. The expenditure incurred on advertisement of cold drinks is such effective that it adds to profit ? Effectiveness of expenditure incurred on advertisement Yes No Can‟t say Total 43 2 5 50 86 4 10 100 No. Q14. of respondents Percentage Table no.

It shows that 86% of the respondents are of the view that the expenditure incurred on advertisement is effective in adding to the profits while 4% denied the same and 10% did not reply. 15: Necessity of advertisement effectiveness NO 2% CAN'T SAY 2% YES 96% Figure no. Is advertisement effectiveness necessary for a company ? Necessity of advertisement effectiveness Yes No Can‟t say Total 48 1 1 50 96 2 2 100 No. Q15. . 15: Necessity of advertisement effectiveness It reveals that majority of the respondents said that the advertisement effectiveness is necessary for a company. of respondents Percentage Table no.

 All of the respondents are of the view that all the mentioned cold drinks are available in the market. 14% like the Lemon flavour and same percentage of respondents like the orange flavour of cold drink.CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Results of the studyAfter going through the project and the collected data. I found that:  All the respondents are drinking cold drinks. 2% more than twice and 32% drink it no regularly.  Some 30% of the respondents drink it once a day. 4% twice a day.  About half of the respondents are of the view that advertisement forced them to consume product more and the rest of them has view that advertisement don‟t force them to consume the product .  Some 60% of the respondents like the cola flavour of cold drink.

 Most of the respondents said that they like the advertisement of cold drinks because of its theme whereas.  Equal number of respondents like the brand of Coca Cola and Pepsi.  Some 32% of the respondents said that‟ yeh dil maange more‟ is the most popular slogan whereas 28% of the respondents said that „ yara da tashan‟ is the popular slogan. .  Majority of the respondents like cola flavor of cold drink.  Majority of respondents sees the advertisement of the cold drink they like most.  Majority of respondents are of the view that advertisement is very necessary for cold drink. the rest said that they like celebrities in advertisement. TV is the most effective media of advertisement.

 All the respondents could not fill their questionnaire on their own due to language problem and also problem of time and lack of positive behavior.  Findings of the study are based on the assumption that the respondents have given correct information. .Limitations of the project –  The project relied mainly on the primary data.  It was also difficult to get proper information from the people because they were indulging in some other activities.  We have a limited time.  The study is based on limited sample.  Respondent may give biased answer due to some lack of information about other brands.

 Price should be decreased so as to attract the consumers to use product more. because the advertisement leads and increase the prize of the product.Suggestions &Recommendations – I reached some suggestions :  Advertisement should not be too expensive.  Media should be selected according to the choice of customers.  To give more attention in making the advertisement to make it effective for the sale of cold drink.  It should be attractive one so that people are attracted toward the advertisement. .  To give attention on the weak media of advertisement so that the consumers comes to know about the product.  In rural areas media should be according to the choice of the people.

 http://www. .net/hemanthcrpatna/a.report-on-advertising-effectiveness.org/wiki/Advertising.com/doc/33158897/ Report-on-advertising-effectiveness.wikipedia.  http://en.slideshare.com/advertising%20effectiveness/advertising_effectiv eness.com/measuring-advertising-effectiveness.htm.mira-vlach.BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites :  http://www.  http://www.decisionanalyst.scribd.allprojectsmba.com/publ_art/adeffectiveness.  http://www.dai.  http://www.

Q1.APPENDICES Questionnaire We are students of BBA studying in „Delhi College of Advanced Studies‟ Delhi and carrying out a survey for our academic project to “Advertising Effectiveness”. Your identity would not be revealed and information will only be used for academic purpose. So please fill this questionnaire. How frequently you take cold drink ? How frequently you take cold drink Once a day Twice a day More than twice Not regular drunker Respondents . Do you take cold drinks ? Do you take cold drinks Yes No Respondents Q2.

Which are the different cold drinks available in the market ? Name of cold drinks Coca cola Pepsi Fanta Limca Mirinda Thums-up Maaza All of above Respondents Q4.Q3. Which cold drink you like most ? Which cold drink you like most Coca cola Pepsi Respondents .

Which flavour of cold drink you like most ? Flavours Cola Lemon Orange Mango Others Respondents .Fanta Limca Mirinda Thums-up Canada dry Maaza Q5.

Q6. Through which media you have seen it? Media TV Newspaper Magazine Other Respondents . Have you seen the advertisement of cold drink you like most ? Have you seen the advertisement of cold drink you like most. Yes No Respondents Q7.

Which slogan of cold drink you like most ? Slogan Taste the thunder Yara Da tashan Yeh dil mange more Life Begins Here Respondents .Q8. How many types of advertisement of your preferred brand of cold drink are there? No of advertisements 1 2 3 4 Respondents Q9.

Do you think that advertisement has forced you to consume product more? Do you think ads. Why do you like the advertisement ? Reasons for liking the advertisement Its theme It has film stars Because of good music Other reasons Respondents Q11.Q10. Effect the consumption of cold drink Yes No Can't say Respondents .

Do you think the advertisement is necessary for sale of cold drinks ? Necessity of advertisement Necessary Very necessary Can‟t say Respondents . Which media is the best media for advertisement ? Best media for advertisemnt TV Newspaper Magazine Others Respondents Q13.Q12.

Is advertisement effectiveness necessary for a company ? Necessity of advertisement effectiveness Yes No Can‟t say Respondents .Q14. The expenditure incurred on advertisement of cold drinks is such effective that it adds to profit ? Effectiveness of expenditure incurred on advertisement Respondents Yes No Can‟t say Q15.