# SYMMETRY

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THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY

SYMMETRY DEFINITION  Symmetry is a condition in which a feature or features are symmetrically disposed about a centerline or center plane of another feature. The advantage of using the symmetry symbol rather than the position symbol is that it indicates that the true position is symmetrical and often eliminates the need for basic dimensions to correlate the position of features.  Symmetry is therefore a special case of position. This width is the area between two parallel lines or the space between two parallel planes equally disposed about the datum axis or median plane. The centerline or Plane of the second feature is usually specified as a datum.  A symmetry tolerance specifies the width of a tolerance zone. 2 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

as shown in Fig. 60 % 3 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .SYMMETRY SYMBOL The geometric characteristic symbol for symmetry consists of three horizontal lines. The dimensions refer to percentages of the feature control symbol frame height.

which might be deemed necessary if a positional tolerance. were used. which in turn is specified as the datum. 4 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . Note that it is not necessary to show a true position dimension for the slot or equal dimensions from the sides of the slot to the sides of the part.SYMMETRY APPLICATIONS – RFS Fig shows a simple example in which a slot is intended to be symmetrical with the overall width of the part.

the width of the tolerance zone remains the same for each part. 5 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . The centerline of each controlled feature is influenced by any errors of form or orientation of the surfaces. shown in Fig below. However. being based only on the high spots of the feature resting on the datum surfaces. Theoretically this centerline or median plane of the datum feature is perfectly straight and true. regardless of the actual size of the feature or of the datum feature.The interpretation. shows the tolerance zone equally disposed about the centerline or median plane of the datum feature.

MEASURING PRINCIPLE Example – 1 One surface of the datum feature is laid directly on a surface plate. which must not exceed the specified tolerance. so that the other surface of the datum feature rests on the surface plate and measurements are made to the other surface of the slot. 6 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . The highest and lowest readings are noted. The part is then revolved 180. The difference between the highest and lowest of all of the measurements constitutes the symmetry error. Measurements are made from the datum surface to one side of the slot. as shown in Fig.

For measuring purpose the part is supported on one side of the datum slot while the measurements are made to the other slot. one of which is designated as a datum feature.Example .2 The Fig above shows with two slots. 7 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

1 2 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 8 .MEASURING PRINCIPLE OF SYMMETRY Example .3 Fig.1 shows a part in which a hole is required to be symmetrical with the sides of the part as well as perpendicular to the face of the part.

as shown in Fig. equal to the width of the part. 1 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 2 9 .2. if E is larger than F. For example. representing datum A. The maximum difference between any of the four measurements represents the symmetry error. The height is then measured from the surface plate over the mandrel. by fitting the hole with a close fitting mandrel and supporting the part against an angle plate. The part must also touch the surface plate along its length.MEASURING PRINCIPLE OF SYMMETRY Example – 3 cont. (F-E) becomes a negative quantity. paying particular attention to the mathematical signs in each case. as shown in Fig. Measurement can be made. separated by a distance W. The part is then revolved 180 and measurements repeated with surface resting on the surface plate. and the second formula becomes D=C – (E-F). Height measurements for the hole are then calculated from the formulae shown below.1. Readings are taken at two points on the mandrel.

The difference between the sizes B&C gives the symmetric error. For measuring purpose the small hole is fitted with a suitable mandrel.4 Symmetry can also be applied to parts with circular datums as shown in the Fig above. such as by inserting gage pins as shown in Fig.Example . Measurements are then made between the mandrel and the sides of the datum hole. This measurement shall be precise only if the datum hole has no roundness errors. which might increase and decrease the apparent symmetry error 10 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

are shown below.0 Example 1 11 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . Some examples of parts toleranced on this basis. with suitable gaging principles.APPLICATION ON AN MMC BASIS When ever possible symmetry should be specified on an MMC basis. 6. Such specification solves most of the measurement problems by permitting use of suitable functional GO gages.

0 ±0.05 Example 2 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 12 .5.05 6.0 ± 0.95 6.

6.0 ± 0.05 Example 3 Example 4 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 13 .

Example 5 Example 6 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 14 .