# Solutions of Problems 4 Solution (4.1) a.) We shall begin by showing that I (G) is a subgroup of A(G).

i) Closure: Let αg1 , αg2 ∈ I (G), then αg1 αg2 = αg1 g2 as it can be easily veriﬁed using
−1 −1 −1 αg1 αg2 (h) = αg1 g2 hg2 = g1 g2 hg2 g1 = g1 g2 h(g1 g2 )−1 = αg1 g2 (h) .

So closured is satisﬁed. ii) The identity map is in I (G), indeed IdG = αe . iii) Every element αg ∈ I (G) has an inverse αg−1 ∈ I (G). Indeed αg (αg−1 (h)) = gg −1 hgg −1 = h = g −1 ghg −1 g = αg−1 (αg (h)) iv) Associativity follows from the associativity of the composition of maps. So I (G) is a subgroup of A(G) and it remains to show that it is a normal subgroup. From the deﬁnition of normal subgroups, if φ ∈ A(G), then we have to show that φαg φ−1 ∈ I (G). To do this, we evaluate φαg φ−1 (h) = φαg φ−1 (h) = φ gφ−1 (h)g −1 = φ(g )φ(φ−1 (h))φ(g −1 ) = φ(g )h(φ(g ))−1 = αφ(g) (h) for every h ∈ G. Thus we ﬁnd that φαg φ−1 = αφ(g) ∈ I (G) . So I (G) is a normal subgroup of A(G). b) To show that G/Z (G) ∼ = I (G), we have to prove that ϕ is onto and a group homomorphism with kernel Z (G). The map ϕ is clearly onto. Indeed given αg ∈ I (G), then by the deﬁnition of ϕ, ϕ(g ) = αg . To show that ϕ is a group homomorphism, we observe ϕ(g1 g2 ) = αg1 g2 = αg1 αg2 = ϕ(g1 )ϕ(g2 ) . This proves that ϕ is a group homomorphism. It remains to ﬁnd the kernel of ϕ. By the deﬁnition of a kernel adapted to this case, Kerϕ = {g ∈ G, such that ϕ(g ) = IdG } Thus g ∈ Kerϕ, if αg (h) = h 1

then det(A−1 ) = det(A) −1 >0 and so the inverse is also in GL+ (n. R) because det(1) = 1 > 0 iii) Let A ∈ GL+ (n. with inverse A−1 .) GL+ (n. So closure is satisﬁed. R) which in turn follows from matrix multiplication. R). For this. for every h ∈ G. i. B ∈ GL+ (n. Next using the homomorphism theorem in the lectures G/Z (G) ∼ = I (G) . we have: i) Closure Let A. R) is a subgroup of GL(n. R) for every A ∈ GL+ (n. we consider the map φ: GL(n. Solution (4. g ∈ Kerϕ if it commutes with all the elements of G. b. ii) The identity matrix 1 is in GL+ (n.) To ﬁnd the group GL(n.) To show that GL+ (n. R).e. R) provided that BAB −1 ∈ GL+ (n. This implies ghg −1 = h . Thus Kerϕ = Z (G) . which in turn gives gh = hg . R). R) is a normal subgroup of GL(n. R) and B ∈ GL(n. c. Indeed det(BAB −1 ) = det(B )det(A)det(B −1 ) = det(B )det(A)det(B )−1 = det(A) > 0 and so BAB −1 ∈ GL+ (n.2) a. R) → Z2 detA A→ |detA| 2 . R). R). we shall use that homomorphism theorem. iv) Associativity follows from that in GL(n. R). R)/GL+ (n.for every h ∈ G. R). then det(AB ) = det(A)det(B ) > 0 .

There are two kind of elements in A ∈ GL(n. C) A A→ 1 . . . . . (detA) n The map φ is well deﬁned. R) = Z2 . 1. We shall then show that φ is an onto group homomorphism with kernel GL+ (n. . R) those for which detA > 0 and those for which detA < 0. we ﬁnd that GL(n. R). Proceeding along this direction. . C)) is. i) The map φ is onto. . φ(A) = −1 . . it has one complex dimension less than that of GL(n. So the elements of A ∈ GL(n. 1. C)/Z (GL(n. R) that lie in the kernel of φ have positive determinant and so ker φ = GL+ (n. (detA) . R). C) → SL(n. if if detA > 0 detA < 0 . Indeed det A (detA) 1 n = 3 detA =1.3) To ﬁnd the group homomorphism φ. R)/GL+ (n. Indeed φ(1) = 1 and φ diag(−1. 1) ∈ GL(n. R). Solution (4. . Indeed φ(AB ) = detA detB det(AB ) = = φ(A)φ(B ) . . 1. |det(AB )| |detA| |detB | iii) The matrices in A ∈ GL(n. we deﬁne φ: GL(n. C).where Z2 = {1. ii)The map φ is a homomorphism. Then from the homomorphism theorem. So a possible candidate is SL(n. . 1) = −1 where diag(−1. Clearly diag(−1. R) which are in the kernel of φ are those for which φ(A) = 1 . −1} equipped with the standard multiplication. Next observe that φ(A) = 1 . . 1) is the n × n real matrix with diagonal elements as indicated and zero otherwise. we ﬁrst observe that whatever the group GL(n. R) .

Thus we have [e] = {e} . 4 1 . C) . then φ(AB ) = AB (detAB ) 1 n = A 1 n B 1 (detA) (detB ) n = φ(A)φ(B ) . a3 } [a2 ] = {a2 } [b] = {b. we choose A ∈ GL(n. C). iii) It remains to ﬁnd the kernel of φ. C) such that φ(A) = 1 and so A 1 = 1 . C) ∼ = SL(n. (detA) n This implies that A = (detA) n 1 and so A ∈ Z GL(n. C). and φ(A) = A. C). Next [a] = {a. since SL(n. C) . C) is a subgroup of GL(n. Indeed given A ∈ SL(n. a2 b} [ab] = {ab. C)/Z GL(n. In addition since we are looking for normal subgroups H . b) Since the order of the group is eight. This consists for A ∈ GL(n. It is clear from this that kerφ = Z GL(n.4) a) From general theory. the conjugacy class [g ] of an element g ∈ G is [g ] = {hgh−1 for every h ∈ G} . B ∈ GL(n. Solution (4. Using the homomorphism theorem. we get GL(n. Indeed. C). ii) The map φ is a group homomorphism. Using the fact that the subgroups of a group contain the identity element. These are all the conjugate classes. a3 b} . the only normal subgroup of D4 of degree two is H1 =< a2 >= {e. C) .if an element g is in H then [g ] ∈ H .i) The map φ is onto. Observe that they are disjoint and D4 = [e] ∪ [a] ∪ [a2 ] ∪ [b] ∪ [ab] . from the Lagrange’s theorem the degrees of the proper subgroups of D4 are two and four. let A. a2 } .

1). then D4 /H2 ∼ = D4 /H3 ∼ = D4 /H4 ∼ = Z2 . For the former to be true. it should contain an element of degree four. Thus for D4 we ﬁnd that Z (D4 ) =< a2 >= H1 d) Let us consider ﬁrst the group D4 /H1 .Observe that there are other subgroups of D4 like < b >. the normal subgroups of D4 of degree four are H2 =< a >= {e. b. abH1 } Since D4 /H1 is a group of degree four. c) The centre of a group is a normal subgroup and it is made up from the conjugate classes that contain precisely one element (otherwise they do not commute with all elements of G). bH1 . a2 b} = [e] ∪ [a2 ] ∪ [b] H4 = {e. it is isomorphic to either the cyclic group of degree Z4 four or Z2 × Z2 . a3 b} = [e] ∪ [a2 ] ∪ [ab]. a2 . The rest of the groups D4 /H2 . Moreover. a2 . a3 } = [e] ∪ [a] ∪ [a2 ] H3 = {e. This is a group of degree four. D4 /H3 and D4 /H4 are of degree two. we know that I (D4 ) ∼ = D4 /Z (D4 ) ∼ = D4 /H1 . So we ﬁnd that I (D4 ) ∼ = Z2 × Z2 . aH1 . D4 /H1 = {H1 . Since there is a unique group of degree two the cyclic group Z2 . a2 . e) Using question (4. but it is not normal because [b] has two elements and it is not contained in < b >. ab. a. So all the elements are of degre two and therefore D4 /H1 ∼ = Z2 × Z2 . Using a similar analysis. but aH1 aH1 = a2 H1 = H1 bH1 bH1 = b2 H1 = H1 abH1 abH1 = ababH1 = a4 b2 H1 = H1 . 5 .