# Review of Functions

Mathematics 53
Institute of Mathematics - UP Diliman

8 November 2012

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

1 / 69

Outline

1

Functions Basic Types of Functions Constructing a table of signs Piecewise-deﬁned functions Operations on Functions Functions as Mathematical Models

2

3

4

5

6

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

2 / 69

Outline

1

Functions Basic Types of Functions Constructing a table of signs Piecewise-deﬁned functions Operations on Functions Functions as Mathematical Models

2

3

4

5

6

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

3 / 69

Functions

Deﬁnition
Let X and Y be nonempty sets. A function f from X to Y , denoted f : X → Y , is a rule that assigns to each element of X a unique element of Y .

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

4 / 69

A function f from X to Y .Functions Deﬁnition Let X and Y be nonempty sets. denoted f : X → Y . is a rule that assigns to each element of X a unique element of Y . denoted dom f Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 4 / 69 . X : domain of f .

denoted dom f Y : codomain of f Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 4 / 69 . X : domain of f . is a rule that assigns to each element of X a unique element of Y . denoted f : X → Y .Functions Deﬁnition Let X and Y be nonempty sets. A function f from X to Y .

denoted dom f Y : codomain of f The set of all elements of Y that are assigned to some element of X is the range of f . denoted ran f Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 4 / 69 . is a rule that assigns to each element of X a unique element of Y . A function f from X to Y . X : domain of f .Functions Deﬁnition Let X and Y be nonempty sets. denoted f : X → Y .

2. 1. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 . −1. 2} and Y = {0. 3. 1. 0. 4}.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2.

2. 3. 0.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. 4}. −1. 1. −2 −1 0 1 2 −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 4 1 0 1 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 . 1. 2} and Y = {0.

−1. 4}. 1. 2.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. 3. 2} and Y = {0. 1. −2 −1 0 1 2 domain: dom f −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 4 1 0 1 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 . 0.

1. 0. 1. 4}. −2 −1 0 1 2 domain: dom f = {−2. 1. 0. 2.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. 2} and Y = {0. −1. −1. 3. 2} −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 4 1 0 1 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 .

−1.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. 4}. 2} and Y = {0. 1. 0. 1. 2} codomain: Y −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 4 1 0 1 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 . 3. −2 −1 0 1 2 domain: dom f = {−2. −1. 2. 1. 0.

−2 −1 0 1 2 domain: dom f = {−2. 1. 3. 2} codomain: Y = {0. 1. 1. 4}. 0. 0. 1. −1.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. −1. 2. 2} and Y = {0. 3. 2. 4} −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 4 1 0 1 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 .

0. 2} and Y = {0. 2} codomain: Y = {0. 4} range: ran f Math 53 (Part 1) −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 4 1 0 1 4 Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 . 2. 2. 0. 1. 1. 1.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. 3. −2 −1 0 1 2 domain: dom f = {−2. 3. 4}. 1. −1. −1.

1. 1. 1. 1. −2 −1 0 1 2 domain: dom f = {−2. 3. 2. 2} and Y = {0. 4}. 4} Math 53 (Part 1) −→ −→ −→ −→ −→ 4 1 0 1 4 Review of Functions 8 November 2012 5 / 69 .Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. 2. 4} range: ran f = {0. 0. 1. 3. 0. −1. 2} codomain: Y = {0. −1.

the symbol f ( x ) denotes the element y ∈ Y that is assigned to x.Functions If x ∈ X . Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 6 / 69 .

A function may be written as y = f ( x ) x: independent variable y: dependent variable Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 6 / 69 . the symbol f ( x ) denotes the element y ∈ Y that is assigned to x.Functions If x ∈ X .

where ( x. y) ∈ f if and only if y = f ( x ) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 6 / 69 .Functions If x ∈ X . y). A function may be written as y = f ( x ) x: independent variable y: dependent variable Alternatively. the symbol f ( x ) denotes the element y ∈ Y that is assigned to x. a function f is a set of ordered pairs ( x.

−1. 2. 2} and Y = {0. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 7 / 69 .Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2. 0. 4}. 1. 3. 1.

The function f may be written as: f ( x ) = x2 or y = x2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 7 / 69 . 4}. −1. 2. 0. 2} and Y = {0. 1. 3. 1.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2.

4)} Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 7 / 69 . 2} and Y = {0. (1. −1. (2. (−1. 1). 4). The function f may be written as: f ( x ) = x2 or y = x2 f = {(−2. 4}. 2. 0). 1. 3. 0. 1. 1). (0.Functions Example Consider f : X → Y deﬁned by the rule x −→ x2 where X = {−2.

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 8 / 69 .Real-valued functions of a single variable Real-valued functions of a single variable: Codomain: R Math 53 deals with functions whose domain and range are subsets of R.

If the domain is not explicitly speciﬁed: Domain: dom f = { x ∈ R | f (x) is a real number} Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 8 / 69 .Real-valued functions of a single variable Real-valued functions of a single variable: Codomain: R Math 53 deals with functions whose domain and range are subsets of R.

Real-valued functions of a single variable Example 1 f ( x ) = x2 2 f (x) = x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 9 / 69 .

Real-valued functions of a single variable Example 1 f ( x ) = x2 dom f = x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 R 2 f (x) = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 9 / 69 .

Real-valued functions of a single variable Example 1 f ( x ) = x2 dom f = x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 R 2 f (x) = dom f = R \ {−1} Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 9 / 69 .

Zeroes of a function Deﬁnition A zero of a function f is a value of x for which f ( x ) = 0. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 10 / 69 .

Example Find the zero(es) of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 .Zeroes of a function Deﬁnition A zero of a function f is a value of x for which f ( x ) = 0. x+1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 10 / 69 .

x+1 x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 = 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 10 / 69 . Example Find the zero(es) of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 .Zeroes of a function Deﬁnition A zero of a function f is a value of x for which f ( x ) = 0.

Example Find the zero(es) of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x+1 x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 2 x − 2x − 3 = = 0 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 10 / 69 .Zeroes of a function Deﬁnition A zero of a function f is a value of x for which f ( x ) = 0.

x+1 x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 2 x − 2x − 3 = = = 0 0 0 ( x − 3)( x + 1) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 10 / 69 .Zeroes of a function Deﬁnition A zero of a function f is a value of x for which f ( x ) = 0. Example Find the zero(es) of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 .

x+1 x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 2 x − 2x − 3 = = = or 0 0 0 x = −1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x=3 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 10 / 69 .Zeroes of a function Deﬁnition A zero of a function f is a value of x for which f ( x ) = 0. Example Find the zero(es) of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 .

Zeroes of a function Deﬁnition A zero of a function f is a value of x for which f ( x ) = 0. Example Find the zero(es) of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 10 / 69 . x+1 x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 2 x − 2x − 3 = = = or 0 0 0 x = −1 ( x − 3)( x + 1) x=3 The only zero of f is x = 3.

R2 for which Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 11 / 69 . y) in the plane ( x.Graphs of Functions Deﬁnition The graph of a function f is the set of all points ( x. y) ∈ f .

y) ∈ f . y) in the plane ( x.Graphs of Functions Deﬁnition The graph of a function f is the set of all points ( x. R2 for which The graph of a function is the geometric representation on the Cartesian plane of all points ( x. y) that satisfy y = f ( x ). Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 11 / 69 .

y) that satisfy the equation y = x2 .Graphs of Functions Example The graph of f ( x ) = x2 : 4 3 2 1 −2 −1 0 1 2 The points on the graph of f are the points ( x. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 12 / 69 .

Graphs of Functions Example The graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 : x+1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 13 / 69 .

Graphs of Functions Example The graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 : x+1 x2 − 2 x − 3 x+1 f (x) = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 13 / 69 .

Graphs of Functions
Example
The graph of f ( x ) =

x2 − 2 x − 3 : x+1
x2 − 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = x+1 ( x + 1)

f (x) =

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

13 / 69

Graphs of Functions
Example
The graph of f ( x ) =

x2 − 2 x − 3 : x+1
x2 − 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = = x − 3 if x = −1 x+1 ( x + 1)

f (x) =

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

13 / 69

Graphs of Functions
Example
The graph of f ( x ) =

x2 − 2 x − 3 : x+1
x2 − 2 x − 3 ( x − 3)( x + 1) = = x − 3 if x = −1 x+1 ( x + 1)

f (x) =

1

−3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5

2

3

4

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

13 / 69

Graphs of Functions

Graphically:

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

14 / 69

Graphs of Functions Graphically: Coordinates of a point on the graph in terms of x: ( x. f ( x )) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 14 / 69 .

f ( x )) Domain: x-interval covered by the graph Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 14 / 69 .Graphs of Functions Graphically: Coordinates of a point on the graph in terms of x: ( x.

f ( x )) Domain: x-interval covered by the graph Range: y-interval covered by the graph Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 14 / 69 .Graphs of Functions Graphically: Coordinates of a point on the graph in terms of x: ( x.

Graphs of Functions Graphically: Coordinates of a point on the graph in terms of x: ( x. f ( x )) Domain: x-interval covered by the graph Range: y-interval covered by the graph Zero of a function: x-intercept of the graph Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 14 / 69 .

Graphs of Functions Graphically: Coordinates of a point on the graph in terms of x: ( x. f ( x )) Domain: x-interval covered by the graph Range: y-interval covered by the graph Zero of a function: x-intercept of the graph Intervals where the function value (or y-value) is positive: portions where the graph lies above the x-axis Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 14 / 69 .

Graphs of Functions Graphically: Coordinates of a point on the graph in terms of x: ( x. f ( x )) Domain: x-interval covered by the graph Range: y-interval covered by the graph Zero of a function: x-intercept of the graph Intervals where the function value (or y-value) is positive: portions where the graph lies above the x-axis Intervals where the function value (or y-value) is negative: portions where the graph lies below the x-axis Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 14 / 69 .

x+1 1 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 ( x .Consider the graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x − 3) Domain: Range: Zero: Positive: Negative: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 15 / 69 .

Consider the graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x+1 1 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 ( x . x − 3) Domain: Range: Zero: R \ {−1} Positive: Negative: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 15 / 69 .

x+1 1 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 ( x .Consider the graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x − 3) Domain: \ {−1} Range: \ {−4} Zero: R R Positive: Negative: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 15 / 69 .

Consider the graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x − 3) Domain: \ {−1} Range: \ {−4} Zero: x = 3 R R Positive: Negative: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 15 / 69 . x+1 1 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 ( x .

+∞) Negative: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 15 / 69 .Consider the graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x+1 1 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 ( x . x − 3) Domain: \ {−1} Range: \ {−4} Zero: x = 3 R R Positive: (3.

3) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 15 / 69 . x+1 1 −3 −2 −1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 ( x . +∞) Negative: (−∞.Consider the graph of f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x − 3) Domain: \ {−1} Range: \ {−4} Zero: x = 3 R R Positive: (3. −1) ∪ (−1.

Outline 1 Functions Basic Types of Functions Constructing a table of signs Piecewise-deﬁned functions Operations on Functions Functions as Mathematical Models 2 3 4 5 6 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 16 / 69 .

functions of the form f ( x ) = c.Basic types of functions Constant Functions . where c is a real number Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 17 / 69 .

functions of the form f ( x ) = c. where c is a real number dom f = R.Basic types of functions Constant Functions . ran f = {c} graph: horizontal line intersecting the y-axis at y = c Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 17 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example Consider the constant function f ( x ) = 2. 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 −1 0 1 2 3 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 18 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Linear Functions .functions of the form f ( x ) = mx + b with m = 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 19 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Linear Functions . ran f = R graph: m is slope. y-intercept is b Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 19 / 69 .functions of the form f ( x ) = mx + b with m = 0 dom f = R.

y-intercept: 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 20 / 69 . 3 2 1 −2 −1 −1 0 1 2 m = −1.Basic types of functions Example Consider the linear function f ( x ) = − x + 1.

Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions .functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .

functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions .

Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions .functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R graph: parabola with vertex at Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions . 4ac 4a Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R − b2 graph: parabola with vertex at − 2ba .

4ac 4a If a > 0: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions .functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R − b2 graph: parabola with vertex at − 2ba .

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R − b2 graph: parabola with vertex at − 2ba . 4ac 4a If a > 0: parabola opens upward.Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions .

ran f = 4ac 4a . +∞ Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R − b2 graph: parabola with vertex at − 2ba .Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions . 4ac 4a − b2 If a > 0: parabola opens upward.

Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions . ran f = 4ac 4a . +∞ If a < 0: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 . 4ac 4a − b2 If a > 0: parabola opens upward.functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R − b2 graph: parabola with vertex at − 2ba .

functions of the form f ( x ) = ax2 + bx + c with a = 0 dom f = R − b2 graph: parabola with vertex at − 2ba . +∞ − b2 If a < 0: parabola opens downward. ran f = 4ac 4a . ran f = −∞. 4ac 4a − b2 If a > 0: parabola opens upward.Basic types of functions Quadratic Functions . 4ac 4a Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 21 / 69 .

0) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 22 / 69 . 4 3 2 1 −2 −1 0 1 2 A parabola opening upward with vertex at (0.Basic types of functions Example Consider the quadratic function f ( x ) = x2 .

Basic types of functions Example Consider the quadratic function f ( x ) = − x2 − 2 x + 3. 4 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 −2 2 A parabola opening downward with vertex at (−1. 4) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 23 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Extreme function values of a quadratic function: a > 0: f has a minimum function value a < 0: f has a maximum function value The extreme function value of f occurs at x = − 2ba and the extreme function − b2 value of f is f − 2ba = 4ac 4a Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 24 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example Consider the quadratic function f ( x ) = − x2 − 2 x + 3. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 25 / 69 .

Since a < 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 25 / 69 .Basic types of functions Example Consider the quadratic function f ( x ) = − x2 − 2 x + 3.

Basic types of functions Example Consider the quadratic function f ( x ) = − x2 − 2 x + 3. Since a < 0 f has a maximum function value which occurs at x = −1 The maximum value of f ( x ) is f (−1) = 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 25 / 69 .

an−1.functions of the form f ( x ) = a n x n + a n −1 x n −1 + · · · + a 1 x + a 0 where n ∈ W.Basic types of functions Polynomial Functions . Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 26 / 69 . a0 are real numbers. with an = 0. an .... .

. .. an−1. a0 are real numbers. an .functions of the form f ( x ) = a n x n + a n −1 x n −1 + · · · + a 1 x + a 0 where n ∈ W. leading coefﬁcient: an degree of f : n Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 26 / 69 .Basic types of functions Polynomial Functions . with an = 0..

.Basic types of functions Polynomial Functions .. a0 are real numbers. with an = 0. an−1. an . R leading coefﬁcient: an degree of f : n dom f = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 26 / 69 ..functions of the form f ( x ) = a n x n + a n −1 x n −1 + · · · + a 1 x + a 0 where n ∈ W. .

with an = 0. a0 are real numbers. an ..functions of the form f ( x ) = a n x n + a n −1 x n −1 + · · · + a 1 x + a 0 where n ∈ W.. . an−1.Basic types of functions Polynomial Functions . R leading coefﬁcient: an degree of f : n dom f = Constant.. linear and quadratic functions are special types of polynomial functions Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 26 / 69 .

functions of the form f ( x ) = a n x n + a n −1 x n −1 + · · · + a 1 x + a 0 where n ∈ W.Basic types of functions Polynomial Functions . a0 are real numbers. an−1.. R leading coefﬁcient: an degree of f : n dom f = Constant. with an = 0. linear and quadratic functions are special types of polynomial functions Graphs of polynomial functions: Unit 3 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 26 / 69 . ... an .

and q is not the constant zero function.Basic types of functions p( x ) .functions of the form f ( x ) = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 27 / 69 . where p and q are q( x ) polynomial functions. Rational Functions .

Basic types of functions p( x ) . Rational Functions . and q is not the constant zero function. where p and q are q( x ) polynomial functions.functions of the form f ( x ) = Domain: { x ∈ R | q ( x ) = 0} Graphs of rational functions: Unit 3 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 27 / 69 .

Graphs of Functions Example Consider the rational function f ( x ) = x2 − 2 x − 3 . x+1 1 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 2 3 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 28 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Functions involving rational exponents or radicals .functions of the form f (x) = √ n x = x /n 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 29 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Functions involving rational exponents or radicals .functions of the form f (x) = n is odd: dom f = √ n x = x /n 1 n is even: dom f = [0. ∞) R Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 29 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example Square root function: f ( x ) = √ x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 30 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example Square root function: f ( x ) = √ x y= √ x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 30 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example Square root function: f ( x ) = √ x y= √ x =⇒ y2 = x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 30 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example Square root function: f ( x ) = √ x y= √ x =⇒ y2 = x. y ≥ 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 30 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example Square root function: f ( x ) = √ x y= √ x =⇒ y2 = x. y ≥ 0 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 −1 −2 −1 −2 The graph of x = y2 The graph of f ( x ) = Math 53 (Part 1) The graph of y = √ x √ x is the upper branch of the parabola x = y2 Review of Functions 8 November 2012 30 / 69 .

tangent.Basic types of functions Trigonometric/Circular Functions sine. cotangent. cosine. secant and cosecant functions Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 31 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Trigonometric/Circular Functions sine. tangent. secant and cosecant functions In Math 53. cotangent. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 31 / 69 . the trigonometric functions are viewed as functions on the set of real numbers. cosine.

Basic types of functions Example f ( x ) = sin x 1 −2π π − 32 −π −π 2 −1 0 π 2 π 3π 2 2π 5π 2 3π 7π 2 4π Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 32 / 69 .

Basic types of functions Example f ( x ) = cos x 1 −2π π − 32 −π −π 2 −1 0 π 2 π 3π 2 2π 5π 2 3π 7π 2 4π Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 33 / 69 .

Basic Types of Functions Example f ( x ) = tan x π − 32 −π −π 2 π 2 π 3π 2 2π 5π 2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 34 / 69 .

Outline 1 Functions Basic Types of Functions Constructing a table of signs Piecewise-deﬁned functions Operations on Functions Functions as Mathematical Models 2 3 4 5 6 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 35 / 69 .

Constructing a table of signs A table of signs shows when a given mathematical expression is positive. zero or negative. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 36 / 69 .

Constructing a table of signs A table of signs shows when a given mathematical expression is positive. Two Methods: 1 Interval Method Test Value Method 2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 36 / 69 . zero or negative.

zero or negative.Constructing a table of signs A table of signs shows when a given mathematical expression is positive. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 36 / 69 . Two Methods: 1 Interval Method Test Value Method 2 In both cases. one must determine the numbers where the given mathematical expression is zero or undeﬁned.

2 x2 − x3 lies above 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 37 / 69 .Constructing a table of signs Example Determine the intervals where the the graph of f ( x ) = the x-axis.

Constructing a table of signs Example Determine the intervals where the the graph of f ( x ) = the x-axis. We want to determine the intervals for which 2 x2 − x3 lies above 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 2 x2 − x3 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 37 / 69 .

Constructing a table of signs Example Determine the intervals where the the graph of f ( x ) = the x-axis. We want to determine the intervals for which 2 x2 − x3 lies above 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 2 x2 − x3 >0 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 37 / 69 .

2 x2 − x3 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 .Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined.

2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 .Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined.

1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 .Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2.

Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 1 ( − ∞. 2. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 2 1 2. 1 (1. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 2) (2. +∞) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 .Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined.

Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 1 ( − ∞. 2) + (2. 2 1 2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 1 (1. +∞) + + + + Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 2.

1 ( − ∞. 2) + (2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 2 1 2. 1 (1. +∞) + + − + − + Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2.

+∞) + + + − + − + + Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 1 (1. 2. 1 ( − ∞. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 2 1 2. 2) + + (2. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0.

2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 1 (1. 1 ( − ∞. 2. 2) + + (2. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 2 1 2. +∞) + + + − − + − − + + − Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 .Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined.

Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. +∞) + + + + − − + − − + + − Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 1 ( − ∞. 2 1 2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 1 (1. 2) + + + (2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 2.

2) + + + + (2. 2 1 2. 2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. +∞) + + + + − − + + − − + + + − + Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 1 ( − ∞. 1 (1. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0.

0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. +∞) + + + − + − − + + − − + + + − + Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 1 ( − ∞. 2 1 2. 1 (1. 2. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 2) + + + + (2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined.

2 1 2. 2. 1 ( − ∞. 2) + + + + (2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. +∞) + + + − + − − + + + − − + + + − + Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 1 (1.

2 1 2. 2. +∞) + + + − + − − + + + − − + + + + − + Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 1 ( − ∞. 2) + + + + (2. 1 (1.

2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 2) + + + + (2. +∞) + + + − + − − + + + − − + + + + − + − Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 1 (1.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 1 ( − ∞. 2 1 2.

+∞) + + + − + − − + + + − − + + + + − + − Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 1 ( − ∞. 1 (1. 2. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 2 1 2. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 2) + + + + + (2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined.

+∞) + + + − − + − − + + + − − + + + + − + − Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . 2) + + + + + (2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 2 1 2. Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 1 ( − ∞. 1 (1. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. 2.

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 38 / 69 . Undeﬁned at: x = 1 2. 2 x2 − x3 x 2 (2 − x ) = (2x − 1)( x − 1) 2 x2 − 3 x + 1 Zero at: x = 0. 2. 1 2 ∪ (1. 2 1 2.Constructing a table of signs Interval Method: rewrite the expression as a product of factors whose table of signs are easily determined. 2) + + + + + (2. 0) ∪ 0. 0) x2 2x − 1 x−1 2−x x 2 (2 − x ) (2x − 1)( x − 1) 1 0. +∞) + + + − − + − − + + + − − + + + + − + − The graph of f lies above the x-axis in the intervals (−∞. 1 (1. 2). 1 ( − ∞.

1 (1. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. +∞) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . 2 1 2. 2) (2.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞.

Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 1 (1. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) Sample point in (−∞. +∞) x 2 (2 − Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . 2) (2. 0): x = −1 1 0. 2 1 2.

Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 1 (1. 2 1 2. +∞) x 2 (2 − ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . 0): x = −1 1 0. 2) (2. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) Sample point in (−∞.

0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. 0): x = −1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . 2) (2.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 2 1 2. +∞) + ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) Sample point in (−∞. 1 (1.

0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. 2) (2.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 1 (1. +∞) + ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) Sample point in (−∞. 2 1 2. 0): x = −1 Sample point in 0. 1 2 : Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 .

+∞) + ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) Sample point in (−∞. 2 1 2. 1 (1.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. 1 2 : (−)(−) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . 2) (2. 0): x = −1 (+)(+) Sample point in 0.

0): x = −1 (+)(+) Sample point in 0. 1 2 : (−)(−) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . +∞) + + ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) Sample point in (−∞.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. 2) (2. 1 (1. 2 1 2.

2 1 2. 1 (1.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. +∞) + + − Sample point in (−∞. 0): x = −1 ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) (+)(+) Sample point in 0. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. 2) (2. 1 2 : (−)(−) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 .

+∞) + + − Sample point in (−∞. 2 1 2. 1 (1.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 2) + (2. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. 0): x = −1 ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) (+)(+) Sample point in 0. 1 2 : (−)(−) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 .

2) + (2.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 1 2 : (−)(−) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . 2 1 2. 1 (1. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0. 0): x = −1 ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) (+)(+) Sample point in 0. +∞) − + + − Sample point in (−∞.

+∞) − + + − Sample point in (−∞. 0) ∪ 0. 2). 2 1 2.Constructing a table of signs Test Value Method: test a value in the speciﬁed interval ( − ∞. 2) + (2. 1 (1. 1 2 : We get the same result: (−)(−) The graph of f lies above the x-axis in the intervals (−∞. 0): x = −1 ( −1)2 (3) (−3)(−2) (+)(+) Sample point in 0. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 39 / 69 . 1 2 ∪ (1. 0) x) (2x − 1)( x − 1) x 2 (2 − 1 0.

Constructing a table of signs Example Find the domain of f ( x ) = −5 x . x2 − 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 40 / 69 .

Constructing a table of signs Example Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈ −5 x . x2 − 1 5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 40 / 69 .

Constructing a table of signs
Example
Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈

−5 x . x2 − 1

5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1

Zero at: x = 0, Undeﬁned at: x = −1, 1

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

40 / 69

Constructing a table of signs
Example
Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈

−5 x . x2 − 1

5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1

Zero at: x = 0, Undeﬁned at: x = −1, 1

−5 x x2 − 1

( − ∞, −1)

(−1, 0)

(0, 1)

(1, +∞)

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

40 / 69

Constructing a table of signs
Example
Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈

−5 x . x2 − 1

5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1

Zero at: x = 0, Undeﬁned at: x = −1, 1

−5 x x2 − 1

( − ∞, −1) +

(−1, 0)

(0, 1)

(1, +∞)

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

40 / 69

Constructing a table of signs
Example
Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈

−5 x . x2 − 1

5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1

Zero at: x = 0, Undeﬁned at: x = −1, 1

−5 x x2 − 1

( − ∞, −1) +

(−1, 0) −

(0, 1)

(1, +∞)

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

40 / 69

Constructing a table of signs Example Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈ −5 x . −1) + (−1. x2 − 1 5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1 Zero at: x = 0. 0) − (0. 1 −5 x x2 − 1 ( − ∞. 1) + (1. +∞) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 40 / 69 . Undeﬁned at: x = −1.

Undeﬁned at: x = −1. +∞) − Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 40 / 69 . 0) − (0.Constructing a table of signs Example Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈ −5 x . 1 −5 x x2 − 1 ( − ∞. x2 − 1 5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1 Zero at: x = 0. 1) + (1. −1) + (−1.

x2 − 1 5x ≥0 R such that x− 2−1 Zero at: x = 0. Undeﬁned at: x = −1. 1 −5 x x2 − 1 Therefore. −1) + (−1. +∞) − dom f = (∞. 0) − (0. 1) + (1.Constructing a table of signs Example Find the domain of f ( x ) = Domain: x ∈ −5 x . −1) ∪ [0. ( − ∞. 1) Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 40 / 69 .

Outline 1 Functions Basic Types of Functions Constructing a table of signs Piecewise-deﬁned functions Operations on Functions Functions as Mathematical Models 2 3 4 5 6 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 41 / 69 .

 . . Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 42 / 69 . . x ∈ Xn R with Xi ∩ Xj = ∅ for all i = j... Such functions can be written in the form  f1 (x)     f2 (x) f (x) = . Xn ⊆ if if if if x ∈ X1 x ∈ X2 . .    f n (x) where X1 . .Piecewise-deﬁned functions Piecewise-deﬁned functions are functions that are deﬁned by more than one expression..

Piecewise-deﬁned functions Example An example of a piecewise function is the signum function (or sign function). denoted by sgn and deﬁned by   −1 0 sgn x =  1 if if if x<0 x=0 x>0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 43 / 69 .

Piecewise-deﬁned functions Example An example of a piecewise function is the signum function (or sign function). denoted by sgn and deﬁned by   −1 0 sgn x =  1 if if if x<0 x=0 x>0 1 −3 −2 −1 −1 0 1 2 3 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 43 / 69 .

x < 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 44 / 69 . x ≥ 0 − x.denoted by | x | and deﬁned by |x| = √ x2 = x.The Absolute Value Function Absolute Value Function .

The Absolute Value Function The graph of f ( x ) = | x | 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 45 / 69 .

1]] [[−π ]] Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 46 / 69 .4]] [[2]] [[0]] [[−2.The Greatest Integer Function Greatest Integer Function (GIF) [[ x ]]: greatest integer less than or equal to x Example 1 2 3 4 5 [[2.

4]] = 2 [[2]] [[0]] [[−2.1]] [[−π ]] Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 46 / 69 .The Greatest Integer Function Greatest Integer Function (GIF) [[ x ]]: greatest integer less than or equal to x Example 1 2 3 4 5 [[2.

1]] [[−π ]] Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 46 / 69 .The Greatest Integer Function Greatest Integer Function (GIF) [[ x ]]: greatest integer less than or equal to x Example 1 2 3 4 5 [[2.4]] = 2 [[2]] = 2 [[0]] [[−2.

The Greatest Integer Function Greatest Integer Function (GIF) [[ x ]]: greatest integer less than or equal to x Example 1 2 3 4 5 [[2.4]] = 2 [[2]] = 2 [[0]] = 0 [[−2.1]] [[−π ]] Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 46 / 69 .

4]] = 2 [[2]] = 2 [[0]] = 0 [[−2.1]] = −3 [[−π ]] Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 46 / 69 .The Greatest Integer Function Greatest Integer Function (GIF) [[ x ]]: greatest integer less than or equal to x Example 1 2 3 4 5 [[2.

1]] = −3 [[−π ]] = −4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 46 / 69 .4]] = 2 [[2]] = 2 [[0]] = 0 [[−2.The Greatest Integer Function Greatest Integer Function (GIF) [[ x ]]: greatest integer less than or equal to x Example 1 2 3 4 5 [[2.

The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function: [[ x ]] =                    Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .

The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function: [[ x ]] =        − 1.             Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .

            −1 ≤ x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function: [[ x ]] =        − 1.

The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function: [[ x ]] =        − 1.             −1 ≤ x < 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .

   0. [[ x ]] =          −1 ≤ x < 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:        − 1.

[[ x ]] =          −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .    0.The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:        − 1.

   0. [[ x ]] =          −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:        − 1.

The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:        − 1.          −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 1≤x<2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .    0. [[ x ]] = 1.

     −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 1≤x<2 2≤x<3 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:        − 1.    0.     2. [[ x ]] = 1.

The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:  .     − 1. [[ x ]] = 1. . .      . . −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 1≤x<2 2≤x<3 . .  .  . Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .     2. . .    0. .

. [[ x ]] = 1.     − 1. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 . .  . −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 1≤x<2 2≤x<3 . . [[ x ]] = n.     2. .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:  . In general. . .      . .  .    0.

    − 1. . . . [[ x ]] = 1. [[ x ]] = n.  .    0. .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:  .      . . −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 1≤x<2 2≤x<3 .  . for Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .     2. . . In general.

.     − 1.  .    0. In general.      . . [[ x ]] = n. [[ x ]] = 1. .     2. . .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:  .  . . −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 1≤x<2 2≤x<3 . for n ≤ x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 . .

.    0. .      .The Greatest Integer Function As a piecewise function:  . [[ x ]] = 1. . −1 ≤ x < 0 0≤x<1 1≤x<2 2≤x<3 . . [[ x ]] = n. .     2. .  .  . In general. . for n ≤ x < n + 1 where n ∈ Z Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 47 / 69 .     − 1.

The Greatest Integer Function The graph of f ( x ) = [[ x ]] 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 0 1 2 3 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 48 / 69 .

Outline 1 Functions Basic Types of Functions Constructing a table of signs Piecewise-deﬁned functions Operations on Functions Functions as Mathematical Models 2 3 4 5 6 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 49 / 69 .

4 f (x) f (x) = . g g( x ) dom 5 f = (dom f ∩ dom g) \ { x ∈ dom g | g( x ) = 0} g Composition: ( f ◦ g)( x ) = f ( g( x )).Operations on Functions Deﬁnition (Operations on Functions) Let f and g be functions. dom( f ◦ g) = { x ∈ dom g | g( x ) ∈ dom f } Scalar Multiplication: c f ( x ) = c ( f ( x )). c ∈ 1 2 3 R. Addition: ( f + g)( x ) = f ( x ) + g( x ). 6 dom c f = dom f Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 50 / 69 . Multiplication: ( f g)( x ) = f ( x ) g( x ). Division: dom( f + g) = dom f ∩ dom g dom( f − g) = dom f ∩ dom g dom( f g) = dom f ∩ dom g Subtraction: ( f − g)( x ) = f ( x ) − g( x ).

Operations on Functions Example Express the function F ( x ) = sin2 (3 x − 1) as a composition of three functions listed among the basic types of functions. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 51 / 69 .

Operations on Functions Example Express the function F ( x ) = sin2 (3 x − 1) as a composition of three functions listed among the basic types of functions. Let Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 51 / 69 .

Operations on Functions Example Express the function F ( x ) = sin2 (3 x − 1) as a composition of three functions listed among the basic types of functions. Let f (x) = x2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 51 / 69 .

Operations on Functions Example Express the function F ( x ) = sin2 (3 x − 1) as a composition of three functions listed among the basic types of functions. Let f (x) g( x ) = = x2 sin x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 51 / 69 .

Operations on Functions

Example
Express the function F ( x ) = sin2 (3 x − 1) as a composition of three functions listed among the basic types of functions. Let

f (x) g( x ) h( x )

= = =

x2 sin x 3x − 1

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

51 / 69

Operations on Functions

Example
Express the function F ( x ) = sin2 (3 x − 1) as a composition of three functions listed among the basic types of functions. Let

f (x) g( x ) h( x )
Then

= = =

x2 sin x 3x − 1

F ( x ) = ( f ◦ g ◦ h) ( x )

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

51 / 69

Operations on Functions
Example
Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h, where h is a nonzero constant. Find

1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )]. h

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

52 / 69

Operations on Functions
Example
Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h, where h is a nonzero constant. Find

1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )]. h 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )] h

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

52 / 69

where h is a nonzero constant.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h. h 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )] h 1 [ f ( g( x )) − f ( x )] h = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 52 / 69 . Find 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )].

Find 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )].Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h. where h is a nonzero constant. h 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )] h 1 [ f ( g( x )) − f ( x )] h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h = = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 52 / 69 .

where h is a nonzero constant. h 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )] h 1 [ f ( g( x )) − f ( x )] h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h )2 − x 2 h = = = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 52 / 69 .Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h. Find 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )].

where h is a nonzero constant. Find 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )]. h 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )] h 1 [ f ( g( x )) − f ( x )] h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h )2 − x 2 h 2 ( x + 2xh + h2 ) − x2 h = = = = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 52 / 69 .Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h.

where h is a nonzero constant.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h. Find 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )]. h 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )] h 1 [ f ( g( x )) − f ( x )] h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h )2 − x 2 h 2 ( x + 2xh + h2 ) − x2 h 2xh + h2 h 8 November 2012 52 / 69 = = = = = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions .

where h is a nonzero constant. Find 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )]. h 1 [( f ◦ g) ( x ) − f ( x )] h 1 [ f ( g( x )) − f ( x )] h f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h ( x + h )2 − x 2 h 2 ( x + 2xh + h2 ) − x2 h 2xh + h2 h 2x + h 8 November 2012 52 / 69 = = = = = = Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions .Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = x2 and g( x ) = x + h.

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 53 / 69 . Express ( f ◦ g) ( x ) as a piecewise function.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = | x | and g( x ) = x2 − 1.

Express ( f ◦ g) ( x ) as a piecewise function. x ≥ 0 − x.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = | x | and g( x ) = x2 − 1. x < 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 53 / 69 . Recall: |x| = √ x2 = x.

x < 0 ( f ◦ g) ( x ) = f ( g( x )) = | x2 − 1| = x2 − 1. x ≥ 0 − x. Recall: |x| = Therefore. x2 − 1 ≥ 0 x2 − 1 < 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 53 / 69 . Express ( f ◦ g) ( x ) as a piecewise function. √ x2 = x.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = | x | and g( x ) = x2 − 1. − ( x 2 − 1).

Operations on Functions
Example
Let f ( x ) = | x | and g( x ) = x2 − 1. Express ( f ◦ g) ( x ) as a piecewise function.

( f ◦ g) ( x ) = f ( g( x )) = | x2 − 1| =

x2 − 1, − ( x 2 − 1),

x2 − 1 ≥ 0 x2 − 1 < 0

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

54 / 69

Operations on Functions
Example
Let f ( x ) = | x | and g( x ) = x2 − 1. Express ( f ◦ g) ( x ) as a piecewise function.

( f ◦ g) ( x ) = f ( g( x )) = | x2 − 1| =
( − ∞, −1) − − +

x2 − 1, − ( x 2 − 1),
(1, +∞) + + +

x2 − 1 ≥ 0 x2 − 1 < 0

x−1 x+1 x2 − 1

(−1, 1) − + −

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

54 / 69

Operations on Functions
Example
Let f ( x ) = | x | and g( x ) = x2 − 1. Express ( f ◦ g) ( x ) as a piecewise function.

( f ◦ g) ( x ) = f ( g( x )) = | x2 − 1| =
( − ∞, −1) − − +

x2 − 1, − ( x 2 − 1),
(1, +∞) + + +

x2 − 1 ≥ 0 x2 − 1 < 0

x−1 x+1 x2 − 1

(−1, 1) − + −

( f ◦ g ) ( x ) = | x 2 − 1| =

x2 − 1, 1 − x2 ,

x ≥ 1 or x ≤ 1 −1 < x < 1

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

54 / 69

( f ◦ g ) ( x ) = | x 2 − 1| =

x2 − 1, 1 − x2 ,

x ≥ 1 or x ≤ 1 −1 < x < 1

3 2 1

−3

−2

−1

1

2

3

Math 53 (Part 1)

Review of Functions

8 November 2012

55 / 69

Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 56 / 69 . Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function.

Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) = [[2x + 1]] = n Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 56 / 69 . Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function.

Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function. ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) = [[2x + 1]] = n if n ≤ 2x + 1 < n + 1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 56 / 69 .Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]].

Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) = [[2x + 1]] = n if n ≤ 2x + 1 < n + 1 n ≤ 2x + 1 < n+1 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 56 / 69 .

Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) = [[2x + 1]] = n if n ≤ 2x + 1 < n + 1 n n−1 ≤ ≤ 2x + 1 2x < < n+1 n Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 56 / 69 .

Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function.Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) = [[2x + 1]] = n if n ≤ 2x + 1 < n + 1 n n−1 n−1 2 ≤ ≤ ≤ 2x + 1 2x x < < < n+1 n n 2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 56 / 69 .

Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 57 / 69 . Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function.

Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. if n n−1 ≤x< 2 2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 57 / 69 . Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function. ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) = [[2x + 1]] = n.

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 57 / 69 . 2. .      − 1. .       0.  . . . . ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) = [[2x + 1]] = n. if n n−1 ≤x< 2 2 [[2x + 1]] =  .Operations on Functions Example Let f ( x ) = 2 x + 1 and g( x ) = [[ x ]]. .  . if if if if −1 ≤ x < − 1 2 −1 2 ≤ x <0 0≤x< 1 2 1 2 ≤x<1 . Express ( g ◦ f ) ( x ) as a piecewise function. .              1. .

4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 0 1 2 3 4 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 58 / 69 .

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 59 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples Example Graph g( x ) = √ 2 − x.

y = √ 2−x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 59 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples Example Graph g( x ) = √ 2 − x.

Other Graphing Examples Example Graph g( x ) = √ 2 − x. y ≥ 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 59 / 69 . y y 2 = = √ 2−x 2 − x.

y y 2 = = = √ 2−x 2 − x.Other Graphing Examples Example Graph g( x ) = √ 2 − x. y ≥ 0 2 − y2 . y ≥ 0 x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 59 / 69 .

y ≥ 0 x The graph of g is the upper branch of the parabola x = 2 − y2 . y ≥ 0 2 − y2 .Other Graphing Examples Example Graph g( x ) = √ 2 − x. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 59 / 69 . y y 2 = = = √ 2−x 2 − x.

Other Graphing Examples Example Graph g( x ) = √ 2 − x. 2 1 −2 −1 −1 −2 0 1 2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 60 / 69 .

√ Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 61 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples Example Graph h( x ) = − 4 − x2 .

√ y = − 4 − x2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 61 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples Example Graph h( x ) = − 4 − x2 .

Other Graphing Examples Example Graph h( x ) = − 4 − x2 . y ≤ 0 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 61 / 69 . √ y y 2 = = − 4 − x2 4 − x2 .

Other Graphing Examples Example Graph h( x ) = − 4 − x2 . √ y y 2 = = = − 4 − x2 4 − x2 . y ≤ 0 4. y ≤ 0 x 2 + y2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 61 / 69 .

Other Graphing Examples Example Graph h( x ) = − 4 − x2 . y ≤ 0 x 2 + y2 The graph of h is the lower semicircle of the circle x2 + y2 = 4. y ≤ 0 4. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 61 / 69 . √ y y 2 = = = − 4 − x2 4 − x2 .

2 1 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 62 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples Example √ Graph h( x ) = − 4 − x2 .

Other Graphing Examples Example x+4 x3 + x2 Graph f ( x ) =    x+1 | x − 6|     if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 . x>2 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 63 / 69 .

Other Graphing Examples Example x+4 x3 + x2 Graph f ( x ) =    x+1 | x − 6|     if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 . x>2 if if if if  x+4      x 2 ( x + 1) f (x) = x+1   − ( x − 6)    x−6 x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 2<x<6 x≥6 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 63 / 69 .

x>2 if if if if  x+4      x 2 ( x + 1) f (x) = x+1   − ( x − 6)    x−6  x+4    x2 f (x) = − x +6    x−6 Math 53 (Part 1) x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 2<x<6 x≥6 if if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2.Other Graphing Examples Example x+4 x3 + x2 Graph f ( x ) =    x+1 | x − 6|     if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2 . x = −1 2<x<6 x≥6 8 November 2012 63 / 69 Review of Functions .

x = −1 2<x<6 x≥6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 64 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples  x+4    x2 The graph of f ( x ) = −x + 6    x−6 4 3 2 1 if if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2.

x = −1 2<x<6 x≥6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 64 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples  x+4    x2 The graph of f ( x ) = −x + 6    x−6 4 3 2 1 if if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2.

Other Graphing Examples  x+4    x2 The graph of f ( x ) = −x + 6    x−6 4 3 2 1 if if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2. x = −1 2<x<6 x≥6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 64 / 69 .

x = −1 2<x<6 x≥6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 64 / 69 .Other Graphing Examples  x+4    x2 The graph of f ( x ) = −x + 6    x−6 4 3 2 1 if if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2.

Other Graphing Examples  x+4    x2 The graph of f ( x ) = −x + 6    x−6 4 3 2 1 if if if if x < −2 −2 ≤ x ≤ 2. x = −1 2<x<6 x≥6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 64 / 69 .

Outline 1 Functions Basic Types of Functions Constructing a table of signs Piecewise-deﬁned functions Operations on Functions Functions as Mathematical Models 2 3 4 5 6 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 65 / 69 .

Functions as Mathematical Models Express a certain situation as a functional relationship between certain quantities Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 66 / 69 .

Functions as Mathematical Models Example A rectangular ﬁeld has a perimeter of 240 meters. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 67 / 69 . Express the area of the ﬁeld as a function of its width.

Express the area of the ﬁeld as a function of its width. Let x be the width and y be the length of the ﬁeld Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 67 / 69 .Functions as Mathematical Models Example A rectangular ﬁeld has a perimeter of 240 meters.

Functions as Mathematical Models Example A rectangular ﬁeld has a perimeter of 240 meters. Express the area of the ﬁeld as a function of its width. Let x be the width and y be the length of the ﬁeld The area A of the ﬁeld: A = xy Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 67 / 69 .

Let x be the width and y be the length of the ﬁeld The area A of the ﬁeld: A = xy Since the perimeter of the ﬁeld is 240 meters: Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 67 / 69 . Express the area of the ﬁeld as a function of its width.Functions as Mathematical Models Example A rectangular ﬁeld has a perimeter of 240 meters.

Express the area of the ﬁeld as a function of its width. Let x be the width and y be the length of the ﬁeld The area A of the ﬁeld: A = xy Since the perimeter of the ﬁeld is 240 meters: 2 x + 2y = 240 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 67 / 69 .Functions as Mathematical Models Example A rectangular ﬁeld has a perimeter of 240 meters.

Functions as Mathematical Models Example A rectangular ﬁeld has a perimeter of 240 meters. Let x be the width and y be the length of the ﬁeld The area A of the ﬁeld: A = xy Since the perimeter of the ﬁeld is 240 meters: 2 x + 2y = 240 y = 120 − x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 67 / 69 . Express the area of the ﬁeld as a function of its width.

Express the area of the ﬁeld as a function of its width.Functions as Mathematical Models Example A rectangular ﬁeld has a perimeter of 240 meters. Let x be the width and y be the length of the ﬁeld The area A of the ﬁeld: A = xy Since the perimeter of the ﬁeld is 240 meters: 2 x + 2y = 240 y = 120 − x The area of the ﬁeld expressed as a function of x: A( x ) = x (120 − x ) = − x2 + 120x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 67 / 69 .

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 68 / 69 .Functions as Mathematical Models Example Find two numbers whose difference is 14 and whose product is minimum.

Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 68 / 69 .Functions as Mathematical Models Example Find two numbers whose difference is 14 and whose product is minimum. Let x be the greater number and y be the smaller number.

Functions as Mathematical Models Example Find two numbers whose difference is 14 and whose product is minimum. Since the difference of 14 is positive x−y = 14 y = x − 14 Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 68 / 69 . Let x be the greater number and y be the smaller number.

Let x be the greater number and y be the smaller number. Since the difference of 14 is positive x−y = 14 y = x − 14 The product as a function of x is P( x ) = x ( x − 14) = x2 − 14x Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 68 / 69 .Functions as Mathematical Models Example Find two numbers whose difference is 14 and whose product is minimum.

Functions as Mathematical Models Example Find two numbers whose difference is 14 and whose product is minimum. Let x be the greater number and y be the smaller number. Since the difference of 14 is positive x−y = 14 y = x − 14 The product as a function of x is P( x ) = x ( x − 14) = x2 − 14x P is a quadratic function with a minimum function value at x=− b =7 2a Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 68 / 69 .

Functions as Mathematical Models Example Find two numbers whose difference is 14 and whose product is minimum. Let x be the greater number and y be the smaller number. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 68 / 69 . and the minimum product is P(7) = −49. Since the difference of 14 is positive x−y = 14 y = x − 14 The product as a function of x is P( x ) = x ( x − 14) = x2 − 14x P is a quadratic function with a minimum function value at x=− b =7 2a The two numbers are 7 and −7.

Announcements Unit 1 Module will be available on 16 November 2012.com/a/math.edu.ph/m53-s2-1213 All lecture slides will be posted in the website.upd.google. Math 53 (Part 1) Review of Functions 8 November 2012 69 / 69 . A printer–friendly. Google site: https://sites. condensed version of slides for the 1st three lectures will be uploaded in the website prior to the lecture.