# Limits and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions

Mathematics 53
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 1 / 19
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Limits and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 2 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1.
Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2
,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
lim
x→0
sin x
x
= 1
lim
x→0
sin x = 0
lim
x→0
cos x = 1
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2,
and item 2 is used to prove item 3.
Finally,
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= lim
x→0
_
1 −cos x
x
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x(1 + cos x)
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
sin x
1 + cos x
_
= lim
x→0
sin x
x
· lim
x→0
sin x
1 + cos x
= 1
_
0
2
_
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 3 / 19
Theorem
1
lim
x→a
cos x = cos a and lim
x→a
sin x = sin a
2
The trigonometric functions are continuous on their respective domains.
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Theorem
1
lim
x→a
cos x = cos a
and lim
x→a
sin x = sin a
2
The trigonometric functions are continuous on their respective domains.
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Theorem
1
lim
x→a
cos x = cos a and lim
x→a
sin x = sin a
2
The trigonometric functions are continuous on their respective domains.
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Theorem
1
lim
x→a
cos x = cos a and lim
x→a
sin x = sin a
2
The trigonometric functions are continuous on their respective domains.
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 4 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin (4x)
x
·
4
4
_
= lim
x→0
sin (4x)
4x
· (4) = 1(4) = 4
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin (4x)
x
·
4
4
_
= lim
x→0
sin (4x)
4x
· (4) = 1(4) = 4
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin (4x)
x
·
4
4
_
= lim
x→0
sin (4x)
4x
· (4) = 1(4) = 4
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin (4x)
x
·
4
4
_
= lim
x→0
sin (4x)
4x
· (4)
= 1(4) = 4
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin (4x)
x
·
4
4
_
= lim
x→0
sin (4x)
4x
· (4) = 1(4)
= 4
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin (4x)
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin (4x)
x
·
4
4
_
= lim
x→0
sin (4x)
4x
· (4) = 1(4) = 4
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 5 / 19
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
sin x
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
sin x
= lim
x→0
_
1
sin x
x
_
=
1
1
= 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
sin x
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
sin x
= lim
x→0
_
1
sin x
x
_
=
1
1
= 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
sin x
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
sin x
= lim
x→0
_
1
sin x
x
_
=
1
1
= 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
sin x
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
sin x
= lim
x→0
_
1
sin x
x
_
=
1
1
= 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
sin x
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
sin x
= lim
x→0
_
1
sin x
x
_
=
1
1
= 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 6 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim
x→a
f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval
containing a (except possibly at a), then
lim
x→a
sin[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 1
lim
x→a
f (x)
sin[ f (x)]
= 1
lim
x→a
1 −cos[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim
x→a
f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval
containing a (except possibly at a), then
lim
x→a
sin[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 1
lim
x→a
f (x)
sin[ f (x)]
= 1
lim
x→a
1 −cos[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim
x→a
f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval
containing a (except possibly at a), then
lim
x→a
sin[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 1
lim
x→a
f (x)
sin[ f (x)]
= 1
lim
x→a
1 −cos[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Remark
In general, if lim
x→a
f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval
containing a (except possibly at a), then
lim
x→a
sin[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 1
lim
x→a
f (x)
sin[ f (x)]
= 1
lim
x→a
1 −cos[ f (x)]
f (x)
= 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 7 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
sin(3x)
sin(5x)
·
3x
3x
·
5x
5x
= lim
x→0
sin(3x)
3x
·
5x
sin(5x)
·
3
5
= (1)(1)
_
3
5
_
=
3
5
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 8 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
tan x
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
tan x
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
1
cos x
_
= 1(1) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
tan x
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
tan x
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
1
cos x
_
= 1(1) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
tan x
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
tan x
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
1
cos x
_
= 1(1) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
tan x
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
tan x
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
1
cos x
_
= 1(1)
= 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
tan x
x
Solution:
lim
x→0
tan x
x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
·
1
cos x
_
= 1(1) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 9 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
= lim
x→0
_
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
3
3
_
= lim
x→0
3x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
1
3
=
1
3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
= lim
x→0
_
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
3
3
_
= lim
x→0
3x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
1
3
=
1
3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
= lim
x→0
_
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
3
3
_
= lim
x→0
3x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
1
3
=
1
3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
= lim
x→0
_
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
3
3
_
= lim
x→0
3x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
1
3
=
1
3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
Solution:
lim
x→0
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
= lim
x→0
_
x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
3
3
_
= lim
x→0
3x
2
sin (3x
2
)
·
1
3
=
1
3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 10 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
Solution:
lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
= lim
x→−1
_
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
·
x −1
x −1
_
= lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x
2
−1
· (x −1) = 1(−2) = −2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
Solution:
lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
= lim
x→−1
_
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
·
x −1
x −1
_
= lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x
2
−1
· (x −1) = 1(−2) = −2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
Solution:
lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
= lim
x→−1
_
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
·
x −1
x −1
_
= lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x
2
−1
· (x −1) = 1(−2) = −2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
Solution:
lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
= lim
x→−1
_
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
·
x −1
x −1
_
= lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x
2
−1
· (x −1)
= 1(−2) = −2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
Solution:
lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
= lim
x→−1
_
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
·
x −1
x −1
_
= lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x
2
−1
· (x −1) = 1(−2)
= −2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
Solution:
lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
= lim
x→−1
_
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x + 1
·
x −1
x −1
_
= lim
x→−1
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
x
2
−1
· (x −1) = 1(−2) = −2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 11 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
=
+∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
Solution:
lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
1 −cos
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
tan(3x)
sin
2
(2x)
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
cos(3x) sin
2
(2x)
·
3x
3x
·
2x
2x
·
2x
2x
= lim
x→0
+
sin(3x)
3x
·
_
2x
sin(2x)
_
2
·
1
x cos(3x)
·
3
4
= +∞
_
(1)(1)
2
_
1
(0
+
)(1)
__
3
4
__
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 12 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Note:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1−cos x
x
x
_
0
0
_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Note:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1−cos x
x
x
_
0
0
_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Note:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1−cos x
x
x
_
0
0
_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Note:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1−cos x
x
x
_
0
0
_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 13 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
sin
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
_
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= (1)
2
_
1
2
_
=
1
2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
sin
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
_
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= (1)
2
_
1
2
_
=
1
2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
sin
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
_
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= (1)
2
_
1
2
_
=
1
2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
sin
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
_
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= (1)
2
_
1
2
_
=
1
2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
sin
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
_
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= (1)
2
_
1
2
_
=
1
2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
sin
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
_
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= (1)
2
_
1
2
_
=
1
2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Example
Evaluate: lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
= lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
2
·
1 + cos x
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
1 −cos
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
sin
2
x
x
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= lim
x→0
_
sin x
x
_
2
·
1
1 + cos x
= (1)
2
_
1
2
_
=
1
2
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 14 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x
= tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1)
= sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Examples
lim
x→
π
4
tan x = tan
_
π
4
_
= 1
lim
x→π
1 −cos x
x
=
1 −cos π
π
=
2
π
lim
x→2
sin
_
x
2
−1
_
= sin(4 −1) = sin3
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 15 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→+∞
1
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of cos x
Therefore,
lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
= cos(0) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→+∞
1
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of cos x
Therefore,
lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
= cos(0) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→+∞
1
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of cos x
Therefore,
lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
= cos(0) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→+∞
1
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of cos x
Therefore,
lim
x→+∞
cos
_
1
x
_
= cos(0) = 1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 16 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of tan x
Therefore,
lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
= tan(0) = 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of tan x
Therefore,
lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
= tan(0) = 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of tan x
Therefore,
lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
= tan(0) = 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
Solution:
lim
x→0
1 −cos x
x
= 0
0 is in the domain of tan x
Therefore,
lim
x→0
tan
_
1 −cos x
x
_
= tan(0) = 0
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 17 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot. But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x = lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot.
But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x = lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot. But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x = lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot. But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x
= lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot. But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x = lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot. But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x = lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot. But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x = lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Example
Evaluate lim
x→π
+
cot x
Solution:
Note that π / ∈ domcot. But,
lim
x→π
+
cot x = lim
x→π
+
cos x
sin x
= +∞
_
−1
0

_
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 18 / 19
Exercises
Evaluate the following limits:
1
lim
x→0
4x
sin(5x)
2
lim
x→π
sin
_
x
2
_
5x
3
lim
x→0
sin
3
(3x)
x
2
tan(2x)
4
lim
x→2
sin(2 −x)
x
2
−x −2
5
lim
x→0
2x sin x
1 −cos(4x)
6
lim
x→1
sin x −sin1
x −1
Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity Mathematics 53 19 / 19