Formal Deﬁnition of a Limit

Mathematics 53
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Limits: Formally

Mathematics 53

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For today

1

The Formal Deﬁnition

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Proving using the Deﬁnition

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Limits: Formally

Mathematics 53

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For today

1

The Formal Deﬁnition

2

Proving using the Deﬁnition

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Limits: Formally

Mathematics 53

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Recall: Intuitive Notion of a Limit x→a lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ f ( x ) gets closer and closer to L as x gets closer and closer to a (but does not reach a) Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 4 / 19 .

Intuitive Notion of a Limit x→a lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ we could let f ( x ) be as close as we would like to L by taking values of x sufﬁciently close but not equal to a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 4 / 19 .Recall: Intuitive Notion of a Limit x→a lim f ( x ) = L ⇔ f ( x ) gets closer and closer to L as x gets closer and closer to a (but does not reach a) Alternatively.

then |r − s| = distance between the points on the number line representing r and s.Recall: If r. |r − s | s r |r − s | r s Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 5 / 19 . s ∈ R.

The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. written x→a L lim f ( x ) = L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 6 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L a if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 6 / 19 .

The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L.The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 a−δ ) a a+δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 6 / 19 .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 . then | f ( x ) − L| < ε.The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ.

then | f ( x ) − L| < ε.The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 . The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ.

The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ. then | f ( x ) − L| < ε. The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 .

The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ.The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 . then | f ( x ) − L| < ε.

The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. then | f ( x ) − L| < ε. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ. The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 .

written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 .The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. then | f ( x ) − L| < ε.

The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 . written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ.The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. then | f ( x ) − L| < ε.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 . The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L.The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ. then | f ( x ) − L| < ε.

The Formal Deﬁnition Deﬁnition Let f be a function deﬁned on some open interval containing a except possibly at a. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally ) a a−δ a+δ Mathematics 53 6 / 19 . The limit of f ( x ) as x approaches a is L. then | f ( x ) − L| < ε. written L+ε L ( ε ε L−ε ) x→a lim f ( x ) = L ( δ δ if for every ε > 0 (no matter how small) there exists a δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ.

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a δ δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a δ δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a δ δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a δδ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 7 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 8 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

The Formal Deﬁnition L? a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 9 / 19 .

For today 1 The Formal Deﬁnition 2 Proving using the Deﬁnition Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 10 / 19 .

Proving using the Deﬁnition Two steps in proving limits that lim f ( x ) = L using the deﬁnition: x→a Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 11 / 19 .

Choosing a suitable δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 11 / 19 .Proving using the Deﬁnition Two steps in proving limits that lim f ( x ) = L using the deﬁnition: x→a I.

Choosing a suitable δ II. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 11 / 19 .Proving using the Deﬁnition Two steps in proving limits that lim f ( x ) = L using the deﬁnition: x→a I. Verifying that the chosen δ works.

Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. x →1 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 .

Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. Let ε > 0. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 . x →1 Proof.

Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. Let ε > 0. x →1 Proof. I. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 .

Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. Let ε > 0. I. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 1| < δ. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 . x →1 Proof.

Let ε > 0. I. x →1 Proof. then Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 . GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 1| < δ.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5.

Let ε > 0. I.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. x →1 Proof. then | (3 x + 2) − 5| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 . GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 1| < δ.

GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 1| < δ.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. Let ε > 0. I. x →1 Proof. then | (3 x + 2) − 5| < ε ⇔ |3 x − 3| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 .

Let ε > 0. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 1| < δ. x →1 Proof. I. then | (3 x + 2) − 5| < ε ⇔ |3 x − 3| < ε ⇔ 3| x − 1| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5.

GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 1| < δ. then | (3 x + 2) − 5| < ε ⇔ |3 x − 3| < ε ⇔ 3| x − 1| < ε ε ⇔ | x − 1| < 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 . Let ε > 0.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. x →1 Proof. I.

Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. then | (3 x + 2) − 5| < ε ⇔ |3 x − 3| < ε ⇔ 3| x − 1| < ε ε ⇔ | x − 1| < 3 We choose δ = ε . Let ε > 0. 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 12 / 19 . x →1 Proof. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 1| < δ. I.

Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. x →1 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 .

Given ε > 0. 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. choose δ = ε . x →1 II.

x →1 II. choose δ = ε . Given ε > 0. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 . Then. if 3 0 < | x − 1| < δ.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5.

Then. Given ε > 0. choose δ = ε . x →1 II. we have | (3 x + 2) − 5| Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. if 3 0 < | x − 1| < δ.

if 3 0 < | x − 1| < δ. x →1 II. Then. choose δ = ε . we have | (3 x + 2) − 5| = 3| x − 1| Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 . Given ε > 0.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5.

if 3 0 < | x − 1| < δ. choose δ = ε . Then.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. Given ε > 0. we have | (3 x + 2) − 5| = 3| x − 1| < 3 δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 . x →1 II.

Given ε > 0. if 3 0 < | x − 1| < δ. choose δ = ε . x →1 II.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. we have | (3 x + 2) − 5| = 3| x − 1| < 3 δ = 3 ε 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 . Then.

we have | (3 x + 2) − 5| = 3| x − 1| < 3 δ = 3 ε 3 = ε. x →1 II. Given ε > 0. choose δ = ε .Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. if 3 0 < | x − 1| < δ. Then. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 .

Given ε > 0. x →1 II. x →1 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 13 / 19 . we have | (3 x + 2) − 5| = 3| x − 1| < 3 δ = 3 ε 3 = ε.Example Prove that lim (3 x + 2) = 5. if 3 0 < | x − 1| < δ. Then. we have lim (3 x + 2) = 5. choose δ = ε . By deﬁnition.

Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. x →−2 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 .

Let ε > 0. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. x →−2 Proof.

x →−2 Proof. I. Let ε > 0. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4.

GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − (−2)| < δ. I. x →−2 Proof.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. Let ε > 0. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 .

I. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − (−2)| < δ. x →−2 Proof.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. Let ε > 0. then Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 .

I. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − (−2)| < δ.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. Let ε > 0. then | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 . x →−2 Proof.

GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − (−2)| < δ.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. then | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | < ε ⇔ |5x + 10| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 . x →−2 Proof. I. Let ε > 0.

GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − (−2)| < δ. I.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. x →−2 Proof. then | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | < ε ⇔ |5x + 10| < ε ⇔ 5| x + 2| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 . Let ε > 0.

Let ε > 0. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − (−2)| < δ. x →−2 Proof. then | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | < ε ⇔ |5x + 10| < ε ⇔ 5| x + 2| < ε ε ⇔ | x + 2| < 5 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. I.

Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. x →−2 Proof. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − (−2)| < δ. 5 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 14 / 19 . Let ε > 0. I. then | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | < ε ⇔ |5x + 10| < ε ⇔ 5| x + 2| < ε ε ⇔ | x + 2| < 5 We choose δ = ε .

Example

Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4.
x →−2

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Limits: Formally

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Example

Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4.
x →−2

II. Given ε > 0, choose δ =

ε . 5

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Limits: Formally

Mathematics 53

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Example

Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4.
x →−2

II. Given ε > 0, choose δ =

ε . Then if 5 0 < | x − ( −2) | < δ,

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Limits: Formally

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Given ε > 0. x →−2 II. we have | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 15 / 19 . Then if 5 0 < | x − ( −2) | < δ.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. choose δ = ε .

Given ε > 0.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. choose δ = ε . x →−2 II. Then if 5 0 < | x − ( −2) | < δ. we have | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | = 5| x + 2| Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 15 / 19 .

we have | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | = 5| x + 2| < 5 δ = Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 15 / 19 . Then if 5 0 < | x − ( −2) | < δ.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. Given ε > 0. x →−2 II. choose δ = ε .

Then if 5 0 < | x − ( −2) | < δ.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. Given ε > 0. x →−2 II. we have | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | = 5| x + 2| < 5 δ = 5 ε 5 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 15 / 19 . choose δ = ε .

x →−2 II. we have | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | = 5| x + 2| < 5 δ = 5 ε 5 = ε. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 15 / 19 . choose δ = ε . Given ε > 0.Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. Then if 5 0 < | x − ( −2) | < δ.

choose δ = ε . Then if 5 0 < | x − ( −2) | < δ. Given ε > 0. x →1 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 15 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (5 x + 6) = −4. By deﬁnition. we have | (5 x + 6) − ( −4) | = 5| x + 2| < 5 δ = 5 ε 5 = ε. x →−2 II. we have lim (5 x + 6) = −4.

x →0 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4.

Let ε > 0. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. x →0 Proof.

Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. I. Let ε > 0. x →0 Proof. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 .

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 0| < δ. Let ε > 0. x →0 Proof. I.

x →0 Proof.Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. then Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 . Let ε > 0. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 0| < δ. I.

Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. I. Let ε > 0. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 0| < δ. x →0 Proof. then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 .

GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 0| < δ. I. x →0 Proof.Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. Let ε > 0. then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| < ε ⇔ | − 3x| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 .

I. then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| < ε ⇔ | − 3x| < ε ⇔ 3| x | < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 . GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 0| < δ. Let ε > 0.Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. x →0 Proof.

then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| < ε ⇔ | − 3x| < ε ⇔ 3| x | < ε ε ⇔ |x| < 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 . x →0 Proof. Let ε > 0.Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 0| < δ. I.

Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. Let ε > 0. x →0 Proof. 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 16 / 19 . then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| < ε ⇔ | − 3x| < ε ⇔ 3| x | < ε ε ⇔ |x| < 3 We choose δ = ε . I. GOAL: Find δ > 0 such that if 0 < | x − 0| < δ.

Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. x →0 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 .

Given ε > 0. x →0 II. 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 . choose δ = ε .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4.

x →0 II. Given ε > 0. So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. choose δ = ε .

Given ε > 0. choose δ = ε .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. x →0 II. So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| = Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 .

Given ε > 0.Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. x →0 II. choose δ = ε . So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| = 3| x | Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 .

x →0 II. Given ε > 0. choose δ = ε .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| = 3| x | < 3 δ Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 .

Given ε > 0. x →0 II. So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| = 3| x | < 3 δ = 3 ε 3 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 . choose δ = ε .Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4.

Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 . So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| = 3| x | < 3 δ = 3 ε 3 = ε. x →0 II. Given ε > 0. choose δ = ε .

Given ε > 0. ε 3 = ε. choose δ = ε . x →0 II.Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| = 3| x | < 3 δ = 3 That is. if 0 < | x − 0| < δ then |(4 − 3 x ) − 4| < ε Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 .

choose δ = ε . we have lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. Given ε > 0. x →0 Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 17 / 19 . if 0 < | x − 0| < δ then |(4 − 3 x ) − 4| < ε By deﬁnition.Example Prove that lim (4 − 3 x ) = 4. So if 3 0 < | x − 0| < δ then | (4 − 3 x ) − 4| = 3| x | < 3 δ = 3 That is. ε 3 = ε. x →0 II.

Remark The value of δ is NOT unique! Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 18 / 19 .

Remark
The value of δ is NOT unique! If a given δ > 0 works such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ then | f ( x ) − L| < ε

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Remark
The value of δ is NOT unique! If a given δ > 0 works such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ then | f ( x ) − L| < ε then any smaller 0 < δ ≤ δ will also work

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Remark
The value of δ is NOT unique! If a given δ > 0 works such that if 0 < | x − a| < δ then | f ( x ) − L| < ε then any smaller 0 < δ ≤ δ will also work since if 0 < | x − a| < δ ≤ δ then

| f ( x ) − L | < ε.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Limits: Formally

Mathematics 53

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Math 53 Module for Units 2-3 is available (Php 40. Wednesday.00).Announcements Reminder: First Exam is on 5 December 2012. Copies of the Math 53 Module will be made available in the math library. Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman) Limits: Formally Mathematics 53 19 / 19 .