# Solutions of Problems 1 Solution (1.1) An element of the permutation group Sn of n objects is 1 i 2 j 3 k ... n ... h .

The i object can be chosen in n diﬀerent ways, i.e. i can be any of the 1, 2, 3, .., n objects. Having chosen i, the j object can be chosen in (n − 1) ways. Similarly, k can be chosen in (n − 2) ways and so on. So we conclude that the order of the permutation group is n(n − 1)(n − 2)...1 = n!. Solution (1.2) To ﬁnd whether the collection matrices of question (1.2) is a group under matrix multiplication, we have to show that satisfy all four requirements of the deﬁnition of a group. (i) Closure: Let 1 µ1 a= 0 1 and b= two such matrices. Then ab = 1 0 µ1 + µ2 1 1 0 µ2 1

which is clearly a matrix of the type we are considering in (1.2). So the closure requirement is satisﬁed. (ii) Associativity: This follows from the associativity of matrix multiplication in general, i.e. (ab)c = a(bc) . (iii) Identity: As an identity e we choose the identity matrix, i.e. e= It is straightforward to see that ae = ea = a . 1 1 0 0 1 .

Next since a2 = e and (e. (e. d} for the ﬁrst and Z2 = {e . where Z2 = {e.3) The group V4 and the group Z2 × Z2 are isomorphic if they have the same multiplication tables up to a choice of correspondence for their elements. we take b → (d. between V4 and Z2 × Z2 . d )} . Indeed. e ). we ﬁnd that ¯ ¯ b c ¯ e ¯ a e ¯| e ¯ a ¯ ¯ b c ¯ a ¯| a ¯ e ¯ c ¯ ¯ b ¯ b| ¯ b c ¯ e ¯ a ¯ ¯ c ¯| c ¯ b a ¯ e ¯. e ) = e ¯. we clearly choose e → (e. d ) = c ¯. we take a → (e. isomorphism. Solution (1. Having chosen the correspondence. (d. d ) = a ¯. respectively. So indeed the collection of matrices of question (1.4) 2 . d ). Now the group 1 0 −µ 1 . e ). it remains to see whether the multiplication table of Z2 × Z2 is the same as that of V4 . b. c} is e a b c e| e a b c a| a e c b b| b c e a c| c b a e .(iv) Inverse: We choose as the inverse of the matrix a= the matrix a−1 = It is straightforward to verify that aa−1 = a−1 a = e . To choose the correspondence. (d. ¯ Similarly.2) is a group. d )2 = (e. and so V4 ∼ = Z2 × Z2 . e ). e ) = b and c → (d. d } for the second Z2 in the product. 1 0 µ 1 Z2 × Z2 = {(e. The multiplication table for the group V4 = {e. Solution (1. a.

This set is a group. the inverses are B −1 = B . a2 . Closure follows from the above relations. a2 b} subject to the relations a3 = e b2 = e ab = ba2 a2 b = ba .e. b. A2 B } . Associativity again follows from matrix multiplication. The isomorphism with S3 can be established as follows: First recall that S3 = {e. B. The identity is E . the multiplication table is D3 E— A— B— A2 — AB— A2 B — . ab. A2 . i. (AB )−1 = BA2 and (BA)−1 = A2 B . E E A B A2 AB A2 B A A A2 A2 B E B AB B B AB E A2 B A A2 A2 A2 E AB A A2 B B AB AB A2 B A2 B E A A2 B A2 B B A AB A2 E which makes closure apparent. A−1 = A2 . a. AB. D3 = {E. A. 3 .A calculation using matrix multiplication reveals B2 = E A2 = −1 2 √ − 23 A3 = E BA = 1 2 √ 3 2 1 2 √ 3 2 1 −2 √ 3 2 −1 2 √ = A2 B BA2 = Next we consider the set − 3 2 − 23 −1 2 √ = AB .

This map is 1 − 1 and onto and preserves the multiplication of the two groups. So D3 is isomorphic to S3 . (Under this correspondence. 4 . the multiplication table of S3 is identical to that of D3 ).So we choose the map from D3 to S3 by E→e A→a B→b AB → ab A2 B → a2 b .