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Criticism Theory Sociology Magazines Literature portal vte "Poem", "Poems", and "Poetic" redirect here. For other uses, see Poem (disambiguation), Poems (disambiguation), and Poetic (disambiguation). Poetry (from the Greek poiesis — ποίησις — with a broad meaning of a "making", seen also in such terms as "hemopoiesis"; more narrowly, the making of poetry) is a form of literary art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic[1][2][3] qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy. Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively-informative, prosaic forms of writing. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration, onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Similarly, metaphor, simile and metonymy[4] create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm. Some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe, Mickiewicz and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter; there are, however, traditions, such as Biblical poetry, that use other means to create rhythm and euphony. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition,[5] playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm.[6][7] In today's increasingly globalized world, poets often adapt forms, styles and techniques from diverse cultures and languages. Contents [hide] 1 History

1.1 Western traditions 1.2 20th-century disputes 2 Elements 2.1 Prosody 2.1.1 Rhythm 2.1.2 Meter 2.1.3 Metrical patterns 2.2 Rhyme, alliteration, assonance 2.2.1 Rhyming schemes 2.3 Form 2.3.1 Lines and stanzas 2.3.2 Visual presentation 2.4 Diction 3 Forms 4 Genres 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 7.1 Anthologies History

Aristotle Main articles: History of poetry and Literary theory

which was generally understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure. from the Indian Vedas (1700–1200 BC) and Zoroaster's Gathas to the Odyssey (800–675 BC). lyric poetry. thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi.[13] More recently. and the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. preceding later entries intended to be read. the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic. and rap.[8] Epic poetry. papyrus. This approach remained influential into the 20th century.[10] The oldest surviving epic poem is the Epic of Gilgamesh. resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. were initially lyrics. now Iraq). in prehistoric and ancient societies.[9] Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. such as. which was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and. based on the underlying purposes of the genre. but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process.[11] Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey. The efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability". and what distinguishes good poetry from bad. love poetry.[21] . Notably. the Roman national epic. and defined it in opposition to prose. the Old Iranian books the Gathic Avesta and Yasna. which records the development of poetic canons with ritual and aesthetic importance. Classical Chinese poetry in the case of the Shijing (Classic of Poetry). contextually.[20] This "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. later.[18] Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from.[17] as well as in Europe during the Renaissance.[12] Some ancient poetic traditions. the comic.[16] Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age. from the 3rd millennium BC in Sumer (in Mesopotamia. appears to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission.[14] Western traditions John Keats Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to define and assess the quality of poetry. treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. and dramatic poetry. as well as differences in context spanning Tanakh religious poetry. Virgil's Aeneid. The earliest entries in the ancient compilation Shijing.[15] Later aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry.Poetry as an art form may predate literacy.[19] This does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration. and the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre.

Yet other modernists challenge the very attempt to define poetry as misguided. poetry often incorporates poetic form and diction from other cultures and from the past.[24] The underlying concept of the poet as creator is not uncommon. Postmodernism goes beyond modernism's emphasis on the creative role of the poet. While there was a substantial formalist reaction within the modernist schools to the breakdown of structure. there was also substantially more interaction among the various poetic traditions. as having meaning only as cultural artifacts. and also among genres of poetry. in part due to the spread of European colonialism and the attendant rise in global trade. Rhythm and meter are different.[27] Today. further confounding attempts at definition and classification that were once sensible within a tradition such as the Western canon. focused on the poet as simply one who creates using language. and to highlight the complex cultural web within which a poem is read. throughout the world.[29] Meter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic .[25] The rejection of traditional forms and structures for poetry that began in the first half of the 20th century coincided with a questioning of the purpose and meaning of traditional definitions of poetry and of distinctions between poetry and prose. although their writing was generally infused with poetic diction and often with rhythm and tone established by non-metrical means. to emphasize the role of the reader of a text (Hermeneutics). Numerous modernist poets have written in non-traditional forms or in what traditionally would have been considered prose. particularly given examples of poetic prose and prosaic poetry.[22] In addition to a boom in translation. and some modernist poets essentially do not distinguish between the creation of a poem with words. and intonation of a poem. relying less on the opposition of prose and poetry. postmodernism has come to convey more completely prose and poetry as distinct entities. during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered.[28] Elements Prosody Main article: Meter (poetry) Prosody is the study of the meter. and poetry as what the poet creates.[23] 20th-century disputes Archibald MacLeish Some 20th-century literary theorists. rhythm. this reaction focused as much on the development of new formal structures and syntheses as on the revival of older forms and structures.During this period. and creative acts in other media.[26] Recently. although closely related.

sound structure. Marianne Moore. which could also be reinforced by intonation.[32] Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. or tone.[35] The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry. while rhythm is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry. Japanese is a moratimed language. Classical Chinese poetics identifies four tones: the level tone.[36] Some classical poetry forms. Languages can rely on either pitch.pentameter). Lithuanian. such as Venpa of the Tamil language. In the case of free verse. generally. on the other hand. German are stress-timed languages. so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (alone or elided). Syllable-timed languages include Latin. Prosody also may be used more specifically to refer to the scanning of poetic lines to show meter. phrases and sentences. a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure. Leonese. tone (linguistics).[37] In Chinese poetry. vowel length rather than stresses define the meter. Russian and. Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm. notional content. rising tone. Tonal languages include Chinese. though a language can be influenced by multiple approaches.[33] In the classical languages. or all three.[30] Rhythm Main articles: Timing (linguistics). French. Galician and Spanish. while the metrical units are similar. rhythm is often organized based on looser units of cadence rather than a regular meter. Thus.[34] Old English poetry used a metrical pattern involving varied numbers of syllables but a fixed number of strong stresses in each line. such as in Vedic Sanskrit or Ancient Greek. and entering tone. Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance. had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar) which ensured a rhythm.[38] The formal patterns of meter used in Modern English verse to create rhythm no longer dominate contemporary English poetry. Catalan.[40] . and most Subsaharan languages. but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines. and William Carlos Williams are three notable poets who reject the idea that regular accentual meter is critical to English poetry. Robinson Jeffers. tones as well as stresses create rhythm. In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet. or moras. English. and Pitch accent Robinson Jeffers The methods for creating poetic rhythm vary across languages and between poetic traditions. was parallelism. Languages are often described as having timing set primarily by accents. including many of the psalms.[39] Jeffers experimented with sprung rhythm as an alternative to accentual rhythm.[31] Varying intonation also affects how rhythm is perceived. departing tone. syllables. depending on how rhythm is established. Vietnamese.

"dactylic hexameter". The iamb. often have concepts similar to the iamb and dactyl to describe common combinations of long and short sounds.[43] Iambic pentameter and dactylic hexameter were later used by a number of poets.g. and was used by poets such as Pindar and Sappho.[46] Each of these types of feet has a certain "feel. including William Shakespeare and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. The choriamb is derived from some ancient Greek and Latin poetry.[42] Thus. Include. as well as the differing pitches and lengths of syllables. is the most natural form of rhythm in the English language. comprehend com-pre-hend) spondee – two stressed syllables together (e.[48] . Similarly.g.[44] The most common metrical feet in English are:[45] Homer iamb – one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable (e. right up to a choriamb. flower) dactyl – one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables (e. retract) trochee – one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable (e. This metric system originated in ancient Greek poetry. but does not show the varying degrees of stress. e-nough) pyrrhic – two unstressed syllables together (rare. of which the dominant kind of foot is the "dactyl". the earliest extant examples of which are the works of Homer and Hesiod. respectively.[43] Languages which utilize vowel length or intonation rather than or in addition to syllabic accents in determining meter. "iambic pentameter" is a meter comprising five feet per line. usually used to end dactylic hexameter) There are a wide range of names for other types of feet. for example.annotate an-no-tate) anapest – two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable (e. Dactylic hexameter was the traditional meter of Greek epic poetry. meters are customarily grouped according to a characteristic metrical foot and the number of feet per line. picture.g.[41] The number of metrical feet in a line are described using Greek terminology: tetrameter for four feet and hexameter for six feet.g. a four syllable metric foot with a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables and closing with a stressed syllable. and by the great tragedians of Athens. describe.Meter Main article: Systems of scansion In the Western poetic tradition. in which the predominant kind of foot is the "iamb". and generally produces a subtle but stable verse. such as Ottoman Turkish or Vedic. for example.[47] Scanning meter can often show the basic or fundamental pattern underlying a verse. comprises six feet per line." whether alone or in combination with other feet.g.

Some patterns (such as iambic pentameter) tend to be fairly regular. However. William Shakespeare in his Sonnets)[53] Dactylic hexameter (Homer. Robert Pinsky has argued that while dactyls are important in classical verse. and many scholars have sought to develop systems that would scan such complexity. Iliad. or occurs to a much lesser extent. Vladimir Nabokov noted that overlaid on top of the regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of verse was a separate pattern of accents resulting from the natural pitch of the spoken words. a caesura (or pause) may be added (sometimes in place of a foot or stress).[49] Actual rhythm is significantly more complex than the basic scanned meter described above. such as dactylic hexameter. For example. English dactylic verse uses dactyls very irregularly and can be better described based on patterns of iambs and anapests. There is debate over how useful a multiplicity of different "feet" is in describing meter. different patterns often develop distinctively in different languages. both to provide emphasis or attention to a given foot or line and to avoid boring repetition. and suggested that the term "scud" be used to distinguish an unaccented stress from an accented stress. while other patterns. which is written mainly in anapestic tetrameter.[50] Metrical patterns Main article: Meter (poetry) Different traditions and genres of poetry tend to use different meters. with notable examples of poets and poems who use them.A Holiday illustration to Carroll's "The Hunting of the Snark". so that. for example.[51] Regularity can vary between language. include: Iambic pentameter (John Milton in Paradise Lost. a number of variations to the established meter are common. iambic tetrameter in Russian will generally reflect a regularity in the use of accents to reinforce the meter. tend to be highly irregular. in English. feet which he considers natural to the language. ranging from the Shakespearean iambic pentameter and the Homeric dactylic hexameter to the anapestic tetrameter used in many nursery rhymes.[52] Alexander Pushkin Some common metrical patterns. or the final foot in a line may be given a feminine ending to soften it or be replaced by a spondee to emphasize it and create a hard stop. Virgil. Aeneid)[54] . the stress in a foot may be inverted. which does not occur. For example. In addition.

is less rich in rhyme. alliteration. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening)[55] Trochaic octameter (Edgar Allan Poe. This can be compared to an ornamental use of alliteration in most Modern European poetry. They may be used as an independent structural element in a poem. where alliterative patterns are not formal or carried through full stanzas. or as an ornamental element. For example.[61] Alliteration and assonance played a key role in structuring early Germanic. Alliterative verse. for example. Main articles: Rhyme. Italian. was widely used in skaldic poetry. English. Consonance provokes a more subtle effect than alliteration and so is less useful as a structural element. and Assonance Rhyme. assonance can loosely evoke the tonal elements of Chinese poetry and so is useful in translating Chinese poetry. Norse and Old English forms of poetry.[62] Because verbs carry much of the pitch in the English language. alliteration. "To His Coy Mistress". but goes back to the Homeric epic. The richness results from word endings that follow regular forms. so that the metrical pattern determines when the listener expects instances of alliteration to occur.[59] Rhyme consists of identical ("hard-rhyme") or similar ("soft-rhyme") sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines ("internal rhyme").[61] Rhyming schemes .[63] Consonance occurs where a consonant sound is repeated throughout a sentence without putting the sound only at the front of a word. assonance and consonance are ways of creating repetitive patterns of sound. Aleksandr Pushkin. with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages. The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry interweave meter and alliteration as a key part of their structure.Iambic tetrameter (Andrew Marvell. "The Raven")[56] Alexandrine (Jean Racine. assonance The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse and paragraphs. Robert Frost. not in lines or stanzas. Phèdre)[57] Rhyme.[58] They can also carry a meaning separate from the repetitive sound patterns created. has a rich rhyming structure permitting maintenance of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem. where the use of similar vowel sounds within a word rather than similar sounds at the beginning or end of a word. Languages vary in the richness of their rhyming structures. Chaucer used heavy alliteration to mock Old English verse and to paint a character as archaic. Eugene Onegin.[60] The degree of richness of a language's rhyming structures plays a substantial role in determining what poetic forms are commonly used in that language. Alliteration is particularly useful in languages with less rich rhyming structures. Assonance. to reinforce rhythmic patterns.

[64] Rhyme entered European poetry in the High Middle Ages. This rhyme scheme is the one used. Main article: Rhyme scheme In many languages. Classical Greek and Latin poetry did not use rhyme.[68] Similarly. while other poetic forms have variable rhyme schemes. such as ballads. Lines and stanzas . an "a-b-b-a" quatrain (what is known as "enclosed rhyme") is used in such forms as the Petrarchan sonnet.[72] Among major structural elements used in poetry are the line. so if the first. Much modern poetry avoids traditional rhyme schemes. Canto 28. while other rhyming schemes have achieved use across languages.[65] Arabic language poets used rhyme extensively from the first development of literary Arabic in the sixth century. rhyming qasidas. in the rubaiyat form. some regard for basic formal structures of poetry will be found in even the best free verse. However. for example.[66] Some rhyming schemes have become associated with a specific language.[69] Some types of more complicated rhyming schemes have developed names of their own. and continues to be less structured than in previous literary eras. the use of structural rhyme is not universal even within the European tradition. Form Poetic form is more flexible in modernist and post-modernist poetry. such as the chant royal or the rubaiyat. however much such structures may appear to have been ignored.[71] Similarly. separate from the "a-b-c" convention. such as the ottava rima and terza rima.Dante and Beatrice see God as a point of light surrounded by angels. sonnets and rhyming couplets. culture or period. and write in free verse. in the best poetry written in classic styles there will be departures from strict form for emphasis or effect. Also sometimes used are broader visual presentations of words and calligraphy. in part under the influence of the Arabic language in Al Andalus (modern Spain). and larger combinations of stanzas or lines such as cantos. Many modern poets eschew recognisable structures or forms. as in the sonnet or haiku. poets use rhyme in set patterns as a structural element for specific poetic forms. But poetry remains distinguished from prose by its form. the quatrain is said to have an "a-a-b-a" rhyme scheme. A Doré illustration to the Divine Comedy. as in their long. called poetic forms or poetic modes (see following section). cultures or time periods. Some forms of poetry carry a consistent and well-defined rhyming scheme.[70] The types and use of differing rhyming schemes is discussed further in the main article.[67] Most rhyme schemes are described using letters that correspond to sets of rhymes. Paradiso. including modern European languages and Arabic. the stanza or verse paragraph. These basic units of poetic form are often combined into larger structures. second and fourth lines of a quatrain rhyme with each other and the third line does not rhyme.

three lines a triplet (or tercet). fonar. in the case of the villanelle.[76] In many forms of poetry. These lines may be based on the number of metrical feet. even where regular rhymes and rhythms were used. the ghazal and the villanelle. particularly lengthier formal poetry such as some forms of epic poetry. the strophe. refrains) is established in the first stanza which then repeats in subsequent stanzas. so that the rhyming scheme or other structural elements of one stanza determine those of succeeding stanzas. Examples of such interlocking stanzas include. In addition to two or three alliterations. The arrangement of dróttkvætts followed far less rigid rules than the construction of the individual dróttkvætts. the even lines contained internal rhyme in set syllables (not necessarily at the end of the word). For example. Each half-line had exactly six syllables.[73] See the article on line breaks for information about the division between lines. where a refrain (or.[77] In some cases. apteka" ("Night. Related to the use of interlocking stanzas is their use to separate thematic parts of a poem. which are denominated by the number of lines included. the dróttkvætt stanza had eight lines. for example.[75] Many medieval poems were written in verse paragraphs. a couplet may be two lines with identical meters which rhyme or two lines held together by a common meter alone. stanzas themselves are constructed according to strict rules and then combined. "Noch. or can highlight a change in tone. drugstore"). Lines of poems are often organized into stanzas. antistrophe and epode of the ode form are often separated into one or more stanzas. each having three "lifts" produced with alliteration or assonance. lamp. on a wall in Leiden Other poems may be organized into verse paragraphs. and so on.Poetry is often separated into lines on a page. For example. but the poetic tone is instead established by a collection of rhythms. Lines may serve other functions. compare or contrast thoughts expressed in different units. and each line ended in a trochee. street. the odd numbered lines had partial rhyme of consonants with dissimilar vowels. ulitsa. alliterations. Thus a collection of two lines is a couplet (or distich). four lines a quatrain. stanzas are interlocking. or may emphasize a rhyming pattern at the ends of lines. particularly where the poem is not written in a formal metrical pattern. not necessarily at the beginning of the word. Lines can separate. and rhymes established in paragraph form. These lines may or may not relate to each other by rhyme or rhythm.[78] Visual presentation . in which regular rhymes with established rhythms are not used. In skaldic poetry.[74] Alexander Blok's poem.

as well as tones of voice. Surrealists have pushed rhetorical devices to their limits.[79] In Arabic. this can lead to concrete poetry or asemic writing. the visual presentation of finely calligraphed poems has played an important part in the overall effect of many poems. some poets have opted for a poetic diction that de-emphasizes rhetorical devices.. to the point where distinct grammars and dialects are used specifically for poetry. Hebrew and Chinese poetry. as in medieval and Renaissance poetry.[87] Poetic diction can include rhetorical devices such as simile and metaphor.[83] Many languages and poetic forms have very specific poetic dictions. In its most extreme form. the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. and many poets have sought to use visual presentation for a wide range of purposes. such as irony.[81][82] Diction Arabic poetry Main article: Poetic diction Poetic diction treats the manner in which language is used. ambiguity or irony. poets gained greater control over the mass-produced visual presentations of their work.[90] Allegorical stories are central to the poetic diction of many cultures.Visual poetry Main article: Visual poetry Even before the advent of printing. Acrostic poems conveyed meanings in the initial letters of lines or in letters at other specific places in a poem. Aesop's Fables.[89] On the other hand. Some Modernist poets have made the placement of individual lines or groups of lines on the page an integral part of the poem's composition. and refers not only to the sound but also to the underlying meaning and its interaction with sound and form. and were prominent in the West during classical times. Visual elements have become an important part of the poet's toolbox. repeatedly rendered in both verse and prose since first being recorded about 500 B. the visual appearance of poetry often added meaning or depth.[86] through to highly ornate uses of language. this complements the poem's rhythm through visual caesuras of various lengths. as favoured in much late-20th-century prosody. Aristotle wrote in the Poetics that "the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor.C. or simply to create an aesthetically pleasing form.[84][85] Registers in poetry can range from strict employment of ordinary speech patterns. At times."[88] Since the rise of Modernism. attempting instead the direct presentation of things and experiences and the exploration of tone. making frequent use of catachresis. or creates juxtapositions so as to accentuate meaning.[80] With the advent of printing. are perhaps the richest single source of .

closed or "received" poetic forms. however.[97] In the Romance languages. or can be laced with irony as the context of the words changes. Traditionally.[93] Vivid images are often endowed with symbolism or metaphor.allegorical poetry through the ages. meter and other elements of a poem are based on sets of rules. either a short phrase (such as Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" or "the winedark sea") or a longer refrain. a 13thcentury French poem. By the 14th century.[95] Described below are some common forms of poetry widely used across a number of languages. the Spenserian and Shakespearean sonnets being especially notable. and so there are several different sonnet forms. Such repetition can add a sombre tone to a poem. A sonnet usually follows an a-b-a-b rhyme pattern. William Langland's Piers Ploughman in the 14th century. Rather than being fully allegorical. a particularly strong element in surrealist poetry and haiku. in sonnets English poets use iambic pentameter. Sonnet Shakespeare Main article: Sonnet Among the most common forms of poetry through the ages is the sonnet. The sonnet's conventions have changed over its history. Additional forms of poetry may be found in the discussions of poetry of particular cultures or periods and in the glossary. who is credited with introducing the sonnet form into English literature. the form further crystallized under the pen of Petrarch. The juxtaposition of unexpected or impossible images is. whose sonnets were later translated in the 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt. which by the 13th century was a poem of fourteen lines following a set rhyme scheme and logical structure. ranging from the relatively loose rules that govern the construction of an elegy to the highly formalized structure of the ghazal or villanelle.[94] Forms See also: Category:Poetic form Specific poetic forms have been developed by many cultures. Many poetic dictions use repetitive phrases for effect. for example.[92] Another strong element of poetic diction can be the use of vivid imagery for effect.[91] Other notables examples include the Roman de la Rose. and Jean de la Fontaine's Fables (influenced by Aesop's) in the 17th century. a poem may contain symbols or allusions that deepen the meaning or effect of its words without constructing a full allegory. the rhyming scheme. the . In more developed.[96] A sonnet's first four lines typically introduce the topic.

with a caesura before the final three syllables.[104][105] One of the masters of the form was Du Fu. The lines are generally end-stopped. generally either a four line (quatrain. including the use of set patterns of the four tones of Middle Chinese The basic form of jintishi (lushi) has eight lines in four couplets.[98] Sonnets are particularly associated with love poetry. rhyming is obligatory. The line length is scanned by according number of characters (according to the convention that one character equals one syllable). simplified Chinese: 诗. who wrote during the Tang Dynasty (8th century).[100] Shi Main article: Shi (poetry) Shi (traditional Chinese: 詩. initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza.[106] Villanelle W. full of allusion. H. the jintishi rules regulate the tonal variations within a poem. Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction.hendecasyllable and Alexandrine are the most widely used meters. but the twists and turns associated with the move from octave to sestet and to final couplet make them a useful and dynamic form for many subjects. Auden Main article: Villanelle The villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain. or regulated verse. and then . although not considered to have reached its full development until the time of Chen Zi'ang (661702)[103] A good example of a poet known for his gushi poems is Li Bai.[101] Within this form of poetry the most important variations are "folk song" styled verse (yuefu). with 20 being included in the Oxford Book of English Verse. or jueju) or else an eight line poem is normal. despite the name "new style" verse actually had its theoretical basis laid as far back to Shen Yue. In all cases.[99] Shakespeare's sonnets are among the most famous in English poetry. The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words. including history and politics. "old style" verse (gushi). considered as a series of couplets. Among its other rules. For the other variations of shi poetry. with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. which. and the number of lines and the length of the lines could be irregular. pinyin: shī. though the Petrarchan sonnet has been used in Italy since the 14th century. and often use a poetic diction heavily based on vivid imagery. "modern style" verse (jintishi). Wade–Giles : shih) Is the main type of Classical Chinese poetry. and exhibit verbal parallelism as a key poetic device. and are predominantly either five or seven characters long. either way with the even numbered lines rhyming. and can have a wide range of subject. The Yuefu is a folk ballad or a poem written in the folk ballad style. the poem is characterized by having two refrains. in the 5th or 6th century.[102] The "old style" verse (gushi) is less formally strict than the jintishi.

H. and was used more heavily to explore personal rather than public themes.[110] Tanka Main article: Tanka Tanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry.[112] Tanka was originally the shorter form of Japanese formal poetry (which was generally referred to as "waka"). which evolved in the 17th century from the hokku. An example of his writing:[116] 富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産 fuji no kaze ya oogi ni nosete Edo miyage the wind of Mt.[109] and Elizabeth Bishop. Tanka are still widely written today.[115] The most famous exponent of the haiku was Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694).[111] There is generally a shift in tone and subject matter between the upper 5-7-5 phrase and the lower 7-7 phrase. and a kigo. which is concluded by the two refrains. or cutting word. structured in a 5-7-5 7–7 pattern. structured in a 5-7-5 pattern. tanka had become the dominant form of Japanese poetry. the haiku contains three sections totalling 17 onji.[108] W.[113] Haiku Main article: Haiku Haiku is a popular form of unrhymed Japanese poetry. By the tenth century. with five sections totalling 31 onji (phonological units identical to morae). or seasonword. Fuji I've brought on my fan! a gift from Edo Ode Horace . Tanka were written as early as the Asuka period by such poets as Kakinomoto no Hitomaro. at a time when Japan was emerging from a period where much of its poetry followed Chinese form. haiku contain a kireji.[114] Generally written in a single vertical line.alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain. or opening verse of a renku.[107] The villanelle has been used regularly in the English language since the late 19th century by such poets as Dylan Thomas. to the point where the originally general term waka ("Japanese poetry") came to be used exclusively for tanka. usually placed at the end of one of the poem's three sections. The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme. Auden. Traditionally.

Persian.[124] Some commentators view genres as natural forms of . The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect. In classic form. Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses (or individuals). Urdu and Bengali poetry. The ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity. including forms with a quasi-musical poetic diction in Urdu. with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues. Turkish. A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter.[120] As with other forms with a long history in many languages. a 13th-century Persian poet who lived in Konya. and is preceded by a rhyme. the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres. the second the antistrophe. and generally deal with a serious subject. but generally showing the original influence of the Pindaric or Horatian ode.[123] Genres In addition to specific forms of poems. This refrain may be of one or several syllables. gazal. and a number of major Sufi religious works are written in ghazal form. with the first reciting the strophe. similar rhyme structures. The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different. an antistrophe. many variations have been developed.[121] Ghazals have a classical affinity with Sufism. which complements Sufi mystical themes well. Azerbaijani. gazel. One nonWestern form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry. and both together the epode.[118] Over time. and Latin. style.Main article: Ode Odes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek.[122] Among the masters of the form is Rumi. such as Pindar.[119] Ghazal Rumi Main article: Ghazal The ghazal (also ghazel. or other broader literary characteristics. In contrast. The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and. or gozol) is a form of poetry common in Arabic. the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line. and an epode. in present-day Turkey. differing forms for odes have developed with considerable variations in form and structure. perspectives. Each line has an identical meter.[117] The ode generally has three parts: a strophe. Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins. such as Horace. depending on the tradition. Odes have a formal poetic diction. often conflicting.

It recounts. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry.[128] Dramatic poetry Goethe . Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works. once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales.[126] Notable narrative poets have included Ovid. It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose. Shakespeare. Ferdowsi's Shahnama. Dante. Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry. Valmiki's Ramayana. Derek Walcott won a Nobel prize to a great extent on the basis of his epic. Alexander Pushkin. and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems—is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. Luís de Camões. became less common in the west after the early 20th century. Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed from compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes. Epic poetry Main article: Epic poetry Epic poetry is a genre of poetry. While the composition of epic poetry. and of long poems generally. Adam Mickiewicz. Chaucer. Omeros. Luís de Camões' Os Lusíadas. Virgil's Aeneid. and the Epic of King Gesar. Edgar Allan Poe and Alfred Tennyson. in a continuous narrative. Much narrative poetry—such as Scottish and English ballads. William Langland.[127] Examples of epic poems are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. the Mahabharata. Juan Ruiz. such as meter. Fernando de Rojas. the Nibelungenlied. Robert Burns. Alexander Pope. generally with more appeal to human interest. the Epic of Gilgamesh.[125] Narrative poetry Geoffrey Chaucer Main article: Narrative poetry Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. This genre is often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time. Nizami (or Nezami)'s Khamse (Five Books). but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works. the Cantar de Mio Cid. and a major form of narrative literature. some notable epics have continued to be written. alliteration and kennings.literature.

Gerard Manley Hopkins. Rumi's Masnavi. Gorgani's tragedy of Vis and Ramin.[131] The same is true of the English satirical tradition.[132] Another master of 17th-century English satirical poetry was John Wilmot. Greek tragedy in verse dates to the 6th century B. sometimes related forms in many cultures. produced in 1682 Mac Flecknoe. forerunners of Chinese Opera. and appears in varying.. Elegy . states of mind." (a reference to Thomas Shadwell). the first Poet Laureate. 2nd Earl of Rochester. and perceptions. and may have been an influence on the development of Sanskrit drama. Chinese Opera. A notable example is the Roman poet Juvenal's satires.[134] Notable poets in this genre include John Donne. unlike epic and dramatic poetry. Examples of dramatic poetry in Persian literature include Nizami's two famous dramatic works. and Vahshi's tragedy of Farhad. Rather than depicting characters and actions. often written for political purposes. it portrays the poet's own feelings. and Noh Dramatic poetry is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung. Layla and Majnun and Khosrow and Shirin. John Dryden (a Tory).[129] just as Indian drama in turn appears to have influenced the development of the bianwen verse dramas in China.[130] East Asian verse dramas also include Japanese Noh. Poems in this genre tend to be shorter. melodic. and contemplative. Lyric poetry Christine de Pizan Main article: Lyric poetry Lyric poetry is a genre that. Azerbaijan's Sabir and Portugal's Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage. T.S. Ferdowsi's tragedies such as Rostam and Sohrab. The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry. subtitled "A Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet. Satirical poetry John Wilmot Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire.Main articles: Verse drama and dramatic verse.C.[133] Satirical poets outside England include Poland's Ignacy Krasicki. Theatre of ancient Greece. does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Sanskrit drama. and Antonio Machado.

by Gustave Courbet Main article: Prose poetry Prose poetry is a hybrid genre that shows attributes of both prose and poetry. especially a lament for the dead or a funeral song. Charlotte Turner Smith.Main article: Elegy An elegy is a mournful. It may be indistinguishable from the micro-story (a. Louis Gallet. Ben Jonson. Ivan Krylov and Ambrose Bierce. Verse fables have used a variety of meter and rhyme patterns. William Butler Yeats. and Virginia Woolf. Ignacy Krasicki. Jan Kochanowski. Robert Henryson. Marie de France. Antonio Machado. An elegy may also reflect something that seems to the author to be strange or mysterious.k. Charles Baudelaire. The term "elegy. Thomas Gray. Edmund Spenser. Phaedrus. the "short short story". Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Juan Ramón Jiménez. Jean de La Fontaine. Alfred Tennyson. or on something mysterious. Jorge Manrique.[137] Notable verse fabulists have included Aesop. prose poetry . Vishnu Sarma. often (though not invariably) set in verse. melancholy or plaintive poem. prose poetry is commonly regarded as having originated in 19th-century France. on a sorrow more generally. where its practitioners included Aloysius Bertrand. Chidiock Tichborne. commonly describes a poem of mourning. Percy Bysshe Shelley. John Milton. While some examples of earlier prose strike modern readers as poetic. It is a succinct story that features anthropomorphized animals. Biernat of Lublin. Walt Whitman. Arthur Rimbaud and Stéphane Mallarmé. Evgeny Baratynsky. Rainer Maria Rilke. Verse fable Ignacy Krasicki Main article: Fable The fable is an ancient literary genre. plants.[135][136] Notable practitioners of elegiac poetry have included Propertius. The elegy. William Cullen Bryant. as a reflection on a death. "flash fiction").a. may be classified as a form of lyric poetry. Tomás de Iriarte." which originally denoted a type of poetic meter (elegiac meter). Prose poetry Charles Baudelaire.[138] Since the late 1980s especially. or forces of nature that illustrate a moral lesson (a "moral"). inanimate objects. Félix María de Samaniego.

^ "Poetry". xxvii–xxxiii.com. Richard. Poetry: an introduction. 2013.[141] See also Poetry portal List of poetry groups and movements Outline of poetry Poetry reading Poetry terminology Rhapsodist Notes ^ "Poetry". Merriam-Webster. ^ Eliot. G (2000). ISBN 978-0-15180387-3. ^ "Poetry". whether via extrapolation as in science fiction or via weird and horrific themes as in horror fiction. ^ Schmidt. ed. TS (1999). Dictionary. also known as fantastic poetry. pp. 103. 2013. pp. Edinburgh University Press. Michael. Speculative poetry Speculative poetry. pp. Oxford University Press. 13–34. Modern Poetry After Modernism. Edgar Allan Poe is sometimes seen as the "father of speculative poetry". ISBN 978-0-8147-9797-6. Dictionary. Harvill Press. Merriam-Webster. is a poetic genre which deals thematically with subjects which are 'beyond reality'. Terry. John R.[139] Contemporary Haibun Online[140] devoted to that genre. Selected Essays. 9. Unknown parameter |note= ignored (help) ^ Strachan. Faber & Faber. . with entire journals. ^ Longenbach. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-86046-735-0. p. (1999). Inc. 119.com. LLC. The Harvill Book of Twentieth-Century Poetry in English. (of which weird or macabre poetry is a major subclassification). ISBN 0-19-510178-2. Such poetry appears regularly in modern science fiction and horror fiction magazines.has gained increasing popularity. "The Function of Criticism". 2013. James (1997). such as The Prose Poem: An International Journal. Oxford Dictionaries.

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ed. Alfred (1997). verse forms and figures of speech. 10–34. (2005). pp. Fussell. ISBN 978-0-495-89802-3. ISBN 1-885266-40-5. pp. Grief and English Renaissance elegy. ^ "Contemporary Haibun Online". Invisible fences: prose poetry as a genre in French and American literature. Elegy.^ Blasing. ISBN 978-1-55111-129-2. ^ Monte. Straus and Giroux. Robert (1998). ^ Pigman. Retrieved 10 December 2011. Further reading Listen to this article (info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision of the "Poetry" article dated 2005-04-20. pp. Pinsky. Roger. Providence College. and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ISBN 978-0-691-12682-1. ISBN 978-0-8032-3211-2. MH. Random House. Bibliography Adams. Paul (1965). Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 4–9. David (2007). ISBN 978-0-8095-1162-4. 11–17. The Sounds of Poetry. (Audio help) More spoken articles . Cambridge University Press. Hollander. Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. 1–22. ISBN 0-374-26695-6. John (1981). Abrams. Steven (2000). ^ Dutcher. ISBN 978-1-134-20906-4. ^ Kennedy. ISBN 0-300-02740-0.). 40–47. Mutlu Konuk (2006). Lyric poetry : the pain and the pleasure of words. Retrieved 10 December 2011. Poetic designs: an introduction to meters. ^ "The Prose Poem: An International Journal". p. Yale University Press. GW (1985). A glossary of literary terms (10th ed. Routledge. pp. The alchemy of stars. Rhyme's Reason. 9. Corn. ISBN 978-0-521-26871-4. Broadview. The Poem's Heartbeat: A Manual of Prosody. ^ Harpham. Stephen J (1997). Farrar. Princeton University Press. University of Nebraska Press. pp. Storyline Press. Science Fiction Poetry Association. Geoffrey Galt.

ed. Preminger. Warnke. Stephen (2007). Indrisos. Gardner. The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (3rd ed. Cleanth (1947). Stallworthy. Frank J (ed. Brogan. W. Annie (2011). University of Michigan Press. Finch. Isidro (2010). ISBN 0-393-96820-0. Oxford Book of Modern Verse 1892-1935. Oxford University Press. Faber.). The Ode Less Travelled: Unlocking the Poet Within. Yeats. Iturat. Jon. (1996). ISBN 0-19-812136-9. Salter. Mary Jo. Harcourt Brace & Company. (1936). Arrow Books. Philip. Oxford University Press. (1972).com. ABC of Reading. The Norton Anthology of Poetry (4th ed. Norton & Co. ed. WB. Margaret. ed. (1973).Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Poetry Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Poetry Wikisource has original works on the topic: Poetry Look up poetry in Wiktionary. Anthologies Main article: List of poetry anthologies Ferguson. ISBN 978-0-472-05066-6. ISBN 978-0-09950934-9. Pound. Fry. Helen. Poetics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-691-02123-6. Terry VF. Brooks.). The Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse. ed.). A Poet's Ear: A Handbook of Meter and Form. Ezra (1951). the free dictionary. Alex. Larkin. New Oxford Book of English Verse 1250-1950. Princeton University Press. [show] v t e Poetry of different cultures and languages [show] v t e Schools of poetry [show] v t e Lists of poets . W. The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry.

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