Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Chapter 2 SIGTRAN....................................................................................................................... 2-1 2.1 SIGTRAN Stack Structure ................................................................................................. 2-1 2.1.1 Overview ................................................................................................................. 2-1 2.1.2 SIGTRAN Protocol Model ....................................................................................... 2-1 2.1.3 Application Model of SIGTRAN Protocols............................................................... 2-1 2.1.4 Basic Architecture of SIGTRAN Stack .................................................................... 2-2 2.2 Internet Protocol................................................................................................................. 2-3 2.2.1 Overview ................................................................................................................. 2-3 2.2.2 IP Address and Conversion .................................................................................... 2-4 2.2.3 Format of IP Datagram............................................................................................ 2-9 2.2.4 IP Routing.............................................................................................................. 2-14 2.2.5 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ........................................................... 2-16 2.3 SCTP ............................................................................................................................... 2-19 2.3.1 Overview ............................................................................................................... 2-19 2.3.2 Terminology........................................................................................................... 2-20 2.3.3 Functions of SCTP ................................................................................................ 2-23 2.3.4 Structure of SCTP Message ................................................................................. 2-25 2.3.5 SCTP Process....................................................................................................... 2-26 2.4 MTP2-User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer (M2PA) ....................................................... 2-35 2.4.1 Overview ............................................................................................................... 2-35 2.4.2 M2PA Application .................................................................................................. 2-35 2.4.3 Services Provided by M2PA.................................................................................. 2-37 2.4.4 M2PA Message Format ........................................................................................ 2-37 2.4.5 Functions Provided by M2PA................................................................................ 2-40 2.4.6 Implementation Procedure of Basic Functions ..................................................... 2-41 2.5 M3UA ............................................................................................................................... 2-53 2.5.1 Overview ............................................................................................................... 2-53 2.5.2 Concept of M3UA .................................................................................................. 2-53 2.5.3 Architecture of M3UA protocol .............................................................................. 2-54 2.5.4 Applications of M3UA............................................................................................ 2-54 2.5.5 Services Provided by M3UA ................................................................................. 2-55 2.5.6 M3UA Protocol Unit............................................................................................... 2-57 2.5.7 Functions Supported by M3UA ............................................................................. 2-87 2.5.8 M3UA Message Procedures ................................................................................. 2-90

Huawei Technologies Proprietary i

Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway

Chapter 2 SIGTRAN

Chapter 2 SIGTRAN
2.1 SIGTRAN Stack Structure
2.1.1 Overview
SIGTRAN stack is the protocol stack that supports transmission of switched circuit network (SCN) signaling protocol over IP network. This protocol stack supports the inter-layer standard primitive interface defined in SCN signaling protocol hierarchy model, so as to ensure utilization of the existing SCN signaling application without modification. Simultaneously, it also uses the standard IP transport protocol as the transmission bottom layer, and satisfies the special transmission requirements for SCN signaling by adding its own functions.

2.1.2 SIGTRAN Protocol Model
The SIGTRAN protocol stack is applicable to the communication between the SG and MGC. It has two functions: adaptation and transmission. Accordingly, two layers of protocols, the transmission protocols (such as SCTP/IP) and adaptation protocols (such as M3UA, M2UA, and so on), are included in the SIGTRAN protocol stack.. Figure 2-1 illustrates the model.
M3UA M2UA M2PA

...
SCTP IP

Figure 2-1 SIGTRAN protocol model IP, SCTP, M3UA and M2PA, which are used in the system, will be described in detail in this manual.

2.1.3 Application Model of SIGTRAN Protocols
The SIGTRAN protocols are used in the networking model in which the narrow band and broad band equipment are interconnected. In this model, there are three basic functional entities: SG, MG and MGC, as shown in Figure 2-2.
Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-1

Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway
Packet switched network
SG SIGTRAN

Chapter 2 SIGTRAN

Switched Circuit Network

MGC
MG

H.248/MGCP

Figure 2-2 Isolated gateway model The signaling from the narrow band network is accessed by the SG, while the media stream (such as trunk circuit) is accessed by the MG. The SG packetizes the inter-layer primitives (or narrow band signaling) and transmits them to the MGC, and the MGC processes the signaling, and controls the bearer connection of the MG through the media gateway control protocol (MGCP), implementing the interconnection between narrow band and broad band equipment. In this model, the SIGTRAN stack is employed between the SG and the MGC.

2.1.4 Basic Architecture of SIGTRAN Stack
I. Application Architecture of M3UA Stack
The application architecture is illustrated in Figure 2-3:

SEP

SS7

STP

SS7

SG

IP

MGC

ISUP M3UA MTP SCTP 1-3 IP

ISUP M3UA SCTP IP

MTP1-3

MTP1-3

Figure 2-3 Application architecture of M3UA stack In the SG, the primitives of MTP3 and upper level users are packetized to the M3UA messages by M3UA, and are addressed to the correct MGC, sent through the SCTP.

II. Application Architecture of M2UA Stack
The application architecture is illustrated in Figure 2-4:

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-2

and is becoming more and more popular.1 Overview The IP has been used worldwide in the internet. M2PA is the peer-to-peer adaptation layer of MTP2. thus supporting seamless operation of MTP3 protocol peers over an IP network connection.2 Internet Protocol 2. when the SG is built in the MG.2. The IP makes it possible to interconnect different types of networks. M2UA is not supported at present by the system. It provides one “IP SS7 link” and the MTP2 primitive interfaces upward by comparing the MTP2 functions along with the SCTP.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN SEP ISUP SS7 STP SS7 MG/SG IP MGC ISUP MTP3 MTP1-3 MTP1-3 M2UA MTP SCTP 1-2 IP M2UA SCTP IP Figure 2-4 Application architecture of M2UA stack As shown in the model. so it will not be described in this manual. 2. III. However. the M2UA is used to send the SS7 MTP2 user signaling to the MGC. Application Architecture of M2PA Stack The application architecture is illustrated in Figure 2-5: SEP ISUP SS7 STP SS7 SG IP MGC ISUP MTP3 MTP1-3 MTP1-3 M2PA MTP 1-2 SCTP IP MTP3 M2PA SCTP IP Figure 2-5 Application architecture of M2UA stack In this model. and most Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-3 .

z z z The addressing mode unified worldwide is provided by the IP. because they are used by the IP frequently.2 IP Address and Conversion I. efficiency and openness. The structure of IP address is able to Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-4 . The main features of the IP will be described below. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP). shields the differences on link layer and hardware. and ICMP is at the top of it. IP Address Every interface on an internet must have a unique Internet address (also called an IP address). ARP and RARP are placed at the bottom. and makes the routing becoming available. TELNET. These addresses are 32-bit numbers. because it will use the IP. The following diagram illustrates the place of the internet protocol in the protocol hierarchy.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN of all. the IP provides the connectionless data package transmission mechanism. I. The three protocols will be described below. which shields the differences in physical addresses. to make the network interconnection convenient and reasonable. It provides a message format unified all over the world. TCP. As the highest layer in the communication subsystem. II. it has great compatibility with the lower communication technologies... IP and Relative Protocols There are three protocols relevant to the IP: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). UDP ICMP IP RARP ARP TELNET: Telecommunications Network FTP: File transfer protocol Figure 2-6 IP and relative protocols 2. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). FTP.2. IP Features z The IP has become the actual industrial standard due to its simplicity.

See Figure 2-7): Class field (also called class bits): It is used to differentiate between the classes of IP addresses.31 in decimal number. which is called dotted-decimal notation. while others have fewer. When an organization applies the IP addresses to the IAB. then find the host according to the host-id. The host-ids of hosts are allocated by the organization itself. the 32-bit IP addresses are normally written as four decimal numbers. what it gets is actually one net-id.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN help us to address conveniently in the Internet.3. Host ID field: It specifies the host-id. only classes A-C are widely used. and the fact that some networks have many computers. from class A to class E. but the computer connecting to one network. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-5 . one for each byte of the address. that is. and only classes B and C can be applied. Network ID field: It specifies the net-id. See the IP address below: 10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111 It is a class B IP address and can be expressed as 128. For the convenience of IP address management. there is almost no IP address of class A for allocation. Class D address that is a type of multicast address.11. For convenience. The IP addresses are allocated by the internet network information center (NIC) of the defense data network of United States. and class E is reserved for future use. to find the network according to the net-id. Therefore. and these numbers are separated by dots. 0123 4 Class A Class B Class C 0 1 0 net-id net-id 8 16 host-id host-id 24 31 1 1 0 net-id host-id Class D 1 1 10 Multicast address Class E 1 1 1 10 Reserved for future use Figure 2-7 Five classes of IP address Currently. the IP address is not only the computer number. The IP address is consisted of three segments. the IP addresses are classified into five classes. is reserved for the internet architecture board (IAB). At present.

0. and their network-ids are different. for example. All the bits of an IP address are 0.0.0. z If one host is connected to two networks (such as the router).0” previously. all networks allocated with net-ids are equivalent. 0. The length of subnet field is determined by the local system administrator. it indicates the broadcast address is to be broadcasted toward all hosts in the networks. IP address can not reflect any geographical information of related host. z According to the internet principles. these LANs have the same net-id. that is to say.X. the mask is a 32-bit value containing one bits for the network ID and subnet ID.X can be any numbers. This type of network number is used for the local loopback test.X. If all the bits of a host-id are 1.X. z II. Figure 2-8 (a) takes a class B IP address as an example.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The following IP addresses are reserved for special purposes. z If all the bits of a net-id are 0.0. so. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-6 . no matter it is a small LAN or a wide area network (WAN).. the subnetting may be carried out to arrange them in different subnets which are interconnected through routers.0. If all the bits of a host-id are 0. In the IP. while the host-ids are allocated by companies or campuses. it indicates “local network” or “Network strange to me”. X. In the IP address architecture. it indicates the IP address is the network address. and it is “0. the hosts in one network have the same net-id. it has two IP addresses. z z z z z z Now we shall describe the key features of IP address: z Some of IP addresses are not graded. If all the bits of a net-id are 1. 127. and in Figure 2-8 (b).X. Subnet Addressing In order to organize the IP addresses more flexibly. different from the telephone number architecture. Figure 2-8 describes the meaning of subnet mask used in the subnet addressing. If all the bits of an IP address are 1. we can see one subnet field is added in the part controlled locally. it indicates to broadcast all hosts in my network. local area networks (LAN) connected with transponders or bridges form one network. If one organization has too many hosts and they are distributed within a quite wide area. as shown in Figure 2-8 (c). and zero bits for the host ID. The host is called Multi-homed host.

id S u bne t m ask 11111111 11111111 111111 0 0 0 0000 000 Figure 2-8 Meaning of subnet mask III. If the datagram in the network layer is to be sent to the destined host.0.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway A llocated locally C lass B Chapter 2 SIGTRAN n et-id (a ) h o s t-id S ub net-id H ost-id A dd the sub bet field n e t-id (b) Subnet . the hardware address of the destined host should be known. 2) We would rather memorize the host name than the IP address. For smaller networks. the resolution from the IP address to the physical hardware address should be made. The “hosts” file offers the mapping from host name to IP address for the calling host. some name servers with the domain name system (DNS) are provided. The DNS is the application layer software. so. Address Resolution The IP address mentioned above cannot be used for communication out of two reasons: 1) The host address expressed in the IP address is the one in the network layer. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-7 . physical host hardware address to IP address through an example.0. The name conversion software in the calling host finds the name server of the DNS and performs the conversion automatically. For larger networks. and host-a gets the IP address (209. Suppose host-a is going to communicate with host-b in Figure 2-9. We shall illustrate the procedure of converting from host name. and they have many mapping table providing the conversion between host name and IP address. There are two resolution protocols provided in the communication architecture with IP. the “hosts” file can be used to convert the host name to the IP address.6) of host-b through the DNS. which also requires the resolution.

Under this condition. Essential to the efficient operation of ARP is the maintenance of an ARP cache on each host. it will query its cache for the IP address of host-b.0. it is not a simple conversion relationship between them.0. and find the physical address of host-b by the steps below: 1) 2) ARP sends an Ethernet frame called an ARP request to every host on the network.0.0. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-8 . Therefore. the 48-bit Ethernet address 08002B00EE0A of the destination host is converted from the IP address 209. physical address and IP address The conversion from IP address to physical address is performed by the address resolution protocol (ARP). and others may remove from it. it will find its corresponding physical address.0. some computers may come into one network.0  host-b DNS 209. The physical address will even be changed due to the changing of network adaptor. All hosts on the LAN run their ARP processes and receive the ARP request. while the Ethernet physical address (MAC address) is 48-bit.5 Destination host name IP address of destination host  net-id=209. the physical address on the WAN will be resolved. it is possible that host-a cannot find the entry mapping from IP address of host-b to its physical address. host-a will run the ARP automatically.0.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Host name host-a IP=209 . In addition. and the ARP request contains the IP address of the destination host. If it is one WAN. However. The above problems are solved by the ARP. and then send the datagram to the physical address. one dynamic mapping table from IP address to physical address should be stored in the computer. In Figure 2-9. If host-a is going to send an IP datagram to host-b on its network. If yes.6 through the ARP.06 ARP IP=209 . Because the IP address is 32-bit.6 Host name host-b Network adaptator 08002B00EE0A  Physical address of destination host 08002B00EE0A Figure 2-9 Conversion among host name.0. Suppose the host is connected to one LAN. This cache maintains the recent mappings from Internet addresses to hardware addresses.0.

and replies with an ARP reply. it will write the mapping between IP address and physical address of host-b into its ARP cache. no IP address is included in the software. host-a will write the mapping from its IP address to physical address to the ARP request before sending the request. After receiving the request. The diskless system sends the RARP request (with the same packet format as the ARP request) to the LAN and the request contains its physical address. The diskless system can download the installation methods by running the file transport codes in its ROM and get the necessary operating system and IP communication software from hosts on the LAN.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN 3) The host-b's ARP layer receives this broadcast.3 Format of IP Datagram Figure 2-10 shows the format of IP datagram. write it into the RARP reply. the diskless system gets its IP address. so. However. the diskless system is enabled to read its IP address. When performing the address conversion. This reply contains the IP address and the corresponding hardware address. It will find out the corresponding IP address upon receiving the RARP request. In this way. To reduce the communication traffic on the network. 4) After host-a receives the reply. Through the protocol. 2) The server provides the mapping from the hardware address of the diskless system to its IP address. host-b shall send IP datagram to host-a immediately after receiving the datagram from host-a. and return it to the diskless system. The steps of RARP: 1) At least one host should work as the RARP server. host-b will also force an ARP request-reply to host-a. The RARP in the ROM should be run for the diskless system to read its IP address.2. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-9 . the reverse ARP may be used (RARP). recognizes that the sender is asking for its hardware address. 2. host-b will write the mapping to its ARP cache. Under many conditions.

the last padding fields must be added so that the data part always starts at the integral 4-bit. Padding Figure 2-10 Format of IP datagram One IP datagram consists of header and data. Bit 3: 0 = Normal Delay.. The former part of the header is of fixed length with 20 bits and the length of the latter part is variable. Fixed Part of IP Datagram Header 1) Version: 4 bits It indicates the IP version.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 1 2 3 4 D 5 6 T 7 R C Not used Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Precedence Bits 0 4 Version Fixed length of 20 bits 8 IHL 16 19 24 Type of service 31 Total length Flag Fragment offset Header checksum Identification Time to live Protocol Source address Destination address Length variable Options Data . 1 = Low Delay. it will restrict the extra overhead. 3) Type of service: 8 bits The type of service provides an indication of the abstract parameters of the quality of service desired. The first three bits indicate the priority of the type of service. If the header length of IP packet is not the integral 4-bit. so the max. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-10 . Bits 0-2: Precedence. 1 = High Throughput. Sometimes 60 bits may be not enough (such as the source address route selection). and the datagram may have one of eight priorities. This document describes version 4. however. value indicated is 15 units (four bits per unit). I. Bit 4: 0 = Normal Throughput.. The meanings of all fields in the header will be described below. 2) IHL: 4 bits The max. Both ends in communication must use the same IP version. See Figure 2-10 for its meaning. value of IP header length is 60 bits.

1 = High Reliability. 1 = More Fragments. instead of before. 9) Protocol: 8 bits This field indicates the next level protocol used in the data portion of the internet datagram. Some protocols widely used and the values of responded protocol fields are: UDP (17). The fragment offset is measured in units of eight octets (64 bits). 10) Header Checksum: 16 bits It is only applicable to the header of a datagram. The recommended value is 32 seconds. 7) Fragment Offset: 13 bits This field indicates the part to which this fragment in the datagram belongs. The time is measured in units of seconds.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Bit 5: 0 = Normal Reliability. time to live. this is recomputed and verified at each point that the internet header is processed. 11) Address Either source address or destination address occupies four bits. even 255 seconds. 8) Time to Live: 8 bits This field indicates the maximum time the datagram is allowed to remain in the internet system. Since some header fields. the “total length” refers to the total length of header and data after. Bit 0: reserved. the segmentation. TCP (6). Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-11 . When the datagram is to be sent in segments. Interior Gateway Protocol-IGP (9). must be zero Bit 1: (DF) 0 = May Fragment.535 octets. 6) Flags: 3 bits Various Control Flags. Note that the “Identification” here is a not sequence number. Bit 2: (MF) 0 = Last Fragment. including internet header and data. measured in octets. because the IP provides no connection service. change. ICMP (1). for example. Exterior Gateway Protocol-EGP (8). 4) Total Length: 16 bits Total Length is the length of the datagram. and can also be set to 3–4 seconds. 5) Identification: 16 bits An identifying value is assigned by the sender to aid in assembling the fragments of a datagram. Bit 6-7: Reserved for Future Use. This field allows the length of a datagram to be up to 65. 1 = No Fragment. Open Shortest Path First Protocol-OSPF (89) and TP4 (29) of ISO. Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol-GGP (3).

Variable Options in IP Header It is used for debugging. 0 = control 1 = reserved for future use 2 = debugging and measurement 3 = reserved for future use 3) Option number: 5 bits The option number indicates the utility of one option. and others may require more. but the format of the first bit is still shown in Figure 2-11. Its length is variable. 1 = copied this option into all fragments. 2) Option class: 2 bits Only two classes are available. 1 Copied to all fragments 0 Copied to the first fragment only 1bit Copied flag 2bit Option class 5bit Option number 0 Datagram or control 1 Reserved for future use 2 Debugging and measurement 3 Reserved for future use Figure 2-11 Option format There are three fields in the option. Some options require one bit only (Figure 2-11 shows the option format). 1) Copied flag: 1 bit The copied flag controls the operation of routers in the network during the datagram fragmentation.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN II. ranged from one to forty bits. and zeros are filled into the options so that the number is the integral 4-bit. 0 = copied this option into the first datagram fragment only. which is determined by the selected option. These options are assembled one by one and no separator is required. measurement and other security methods. as shown below. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-12 .

variable. it will check its pointer position. ask the destination address to extract the route information from the datagram 3: loose source routing. 7: Record route. 1: No Operation. Pointer----Indicating the offset of next blank position into which the IP address can be filled in. and the following options will occupy more than one bit.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The following option numbers belong to the option class 0: 0: End of Option list. user group (TCC).. Its function is the same as the fill-in field. If the table is full. It is used to carry security. only the datagram is transferred. 0 and 7 should be filled in the fore three fields. When a router receives the datagram containing the record route option. therefore. variable. common computers will not take notice of the recorded route in these datagrams. the IP addresses of 4 octets will be filled in by routers. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-13 . After that. and then transfers the datagram. Length----Fill in the length of the option (including the length of fore three bits).. and handle restriction codes compatible with the defense of department (DOD) requirements. The following two options are of the source address routing: z should negotiate with the destination source. compartmentation. and to record the route information. The above two are the options occupying only one bit respectively. its IP address will not be added. and send it back to the source address. 31 Pointer Figure 2-12 Format of “Record route” option The record route option provides a means for the source of an internet datagram to supply routing information in forwarding the datagram to the destination. 0 8 Option code 16 24 Length First IP address Second IP address . 2: Security. If the pointer does not exceed the table length. The source address. increases the pointer by four. Figure 2-12 shows the format of “Record route” option. the router adds its own IP address into the table. However. The format of first three octets is as follows: z z z Option type code----0.

Routing is the important function of the network layer. variable. The routing for the packet is determined by the network layer. which is stored in consecutive 32-bit words. but what should be filled in are 1. 32-bit timestamp in milliseconds since midnight universal timer (UT). The format of source routing option is similar with that of record route. It records the date and time that the router receives the datagram. The one written in the recorded route table is the incoming IP address of the router. the loose source routing allows some defined routers to be changed to other routers. Besides the option type code (0. the IP address of the router will replace the original IP address and forward the datagram to the next address in the table. variable. This is the function of router. The route of datagram transmission is defined by the source address.The internet address fields are predefined.Each timestamp is preceded with internet address of the registering entity. it will forward it without inserting any data if the pointer is greater than the table length. When the time of the host is inconsistent with the clock. which is to forward the packet to the destination host based on the destination IP address in the datagram.2. and the value is the maximum number of routers the datagram is forwarded through when you consider that there may be not enough room to be inserted with the timestamps. The overflow count is incremented by one. If the pointer is normal. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-14 . 0 and 3 (for the loose source routing) or 1. It has the similar format in Figure 2-12. 3 -. The Timestamp is a right-justified. z 4: timestamp. The fore three octets are fixed.4 IP Routing There are many paths for the communication between two hosts. 2 and 4). The IP address tables following the three octets are not empty. The record route option provides a means to record the route of an internet datagram. In the strict source routing. the recorded timestamp may be error. it has the Overflow (4 bits) and the Flag (4 bits) fields. length and pointer. 0 and 9 (for the strict source routing). and are inserted by the source address before transmission. The datagram is transmitted on the route specified by the source address. After the router receives the datagram. Note that one router may have two or more IP addresses. while the other written by the router is the outgoing IP address. An IP module only registers its timestamp if it matches its own address with the next specified internet address. The Flag values are: 0 – It specifies time stamps only. 1 -. The last option is the Internet timestamp. 2.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN 9: strict source routing. The timestamp is used to count the time delay and delay changing created during the period the datagram is forwarded by the router. However. the defined route cannot be changed.

0. z z It must have two or more network layer interfaces to connect different networks.1 Interface address 129.69.107 61. which is called the static routing.1 Two methods can help the router get the table.0. The router has two functions: z z It generates the routing table.0.255.255.0.0.1.6. Interface address 61.0.1.0 Destination network mask 255.1 Out interface 129.1 202.0.1 Subnet 3 Router 61.0. It must have the network layer protocols at least.0 202. OSPF and RIP are often used.69.107 Interface address 202.0.0 Next hop address 129.0.0 255.6.107 129.0.6.0.1.0 255.1 The following routing table will be stored in router B: Destination network address 61.1 129.0. which is called the dynamic routing.1.69. The routing protocols of the router are started by the operation personnel and these entries are created by the protocols.1.0.6.1 Figure 2-13 Routers connection As shown in Figure 2-13.6.107 129.0.255.6.6. z Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-15 .6.0/24 Interface address 129.6. z The operation personnel types in the entries one by one.0.6.6.0/16 Router B B Subnet 2 202.6.6.255.0 255. router A and router B connect to three networks. which is done based on the routing table.0 61.6.107 61.1 202.6.6.0 129.69.6.1 129.0 129.0.0 Destination network mask 255.255.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN As a router. It forwards the packet to other networks.0.6.0.69.6.0/8 A Subnet 1 129.255.6.1. The following routing table will be stored in router A: Destination network address 202.1 Out interface 129.0 Next hop address 129.6.0 255.6.6.6.6.0.

the IP layer also ensures the transmission quality. destination MAC. 2. it still is one of the IP layer. it will find the routing table according to the datagram destination and forward the datagram to the data link layer of corresponding port if the route is found. As the data in the IP layer datagram. protocol and CRC. if not. For the Ethernet frame encapsulated in the RFC894 mode.2. But the ICMP is not a high layer protocol. If yes.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Router Route selection resolution protocol Router IP ETH Unpacketizing IP PPP Encapsulating ETH PPP Ethernet Serial interface port Ethernet Serial interface port LAN1 Sending WAN Transmitting LAN2 Receiving Figure 2-14 Work flow of the router Figure 2-14 shows the process the router forwards the packet. See Figure 2-15 for the relationship between ICMP message and IP datagram. The format of ICMP message is shown in Figure 2-16. cannot be found. If the route. which is the function of the ICMP. The network layer will see whether it is destined to local host. the ICMP message is added by the header of IP datagram and sent out). The link layer removes the link layer encapsulation. and then sends it to the network layer according to the protocol fields. The physical layer receives one datagram from one port of the router and sends it to the data link layer. It allows the host or router to report error or abnormity.5 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) The transmission of IP datagram cannot ensure the security. the datagram will be discarded. it is to remove the source MAC. ICMP message IP header Datagram data IP datagram Figure 2-15 Relationship between ICMP message and IP datagram Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-16 . however. it will remove the encapsulation and send it to upper layer. However.

The checksum occupies two bytes. The type field occupies one byte. as shown below: Value of Type field 0 3 4 5 8 11 12 13 14 17 18 Type of ICMP message Echo replay Destination unreachable Source Quench Redirect Echo request Time exceeded Parameter problem Timestamp request Timestamp reply Address Mask request Address Mask reply The code field also occupies one byte. The ICMP message may be a query message or an error message. Figure 2-17 illustrates the usage of the redirecting message. Among the ICMP error messages.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 Type 8 16 31 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Code Checksum Contents depends on code and type Figure 2-16 Format of the ICMP message The first four bytes have the same format for all messages. The checksum of the datagram header does not check the contents of the datagram. but the remainder differs from one message to the next. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-17 . so it cannot ensure the accuracy of the ICMP message. identifies the particular ICMP message. and covers the entire ICMP message. Some types of ICMP messages use different values of the code field to further specify the condition. the redirecting message is used most frequently.

then to C. congestion may be caused on the destination host. all datagrams sent from A to C will be forwarded to R2. 0 Type 8 Code 16 31 Checksum IP address of router Header of original IP datagram Fore 8 bytes of original IP datagram Figure 2-18 Format of ICMP redirecting message If one host with higher speed sends a string of datagrams to one destination host (or router) with lower speed. the source host will know that some datagrams are discarded. Host A updates its routing table upon receiving the information. The datagram sent from host A to C will be sent to R1. Router R1 sends an ICMP redirecting message to host A. not R1. All of the header part should be added. After that.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway B Network 2 R1 C Network 3 Network 1 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN R2 A Figure 2-17 Example of the ICMP redirecting message usage In Figure 2-17. in the routing table in R1. which include the data (such as port number) of the header of the transmission layer data unit. it defines the datagram sent to C should go through R2. and some datagrams may be discarded. while that sent by host C should go through router 2. and it will re-send these datagram continuously. Obviously. and others identify the particular datagram. the IP datagram sent from host A to host B should go through router R1. while only the fore eight bytes of data are added. Figure 2-18 shows the format of the ICMP redirecting message. and should be improved. containing the IP address of R2 the datagram will be forwarded to. the destination host Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-18 . Through the higher protocol. Under this condition. However. the routing is not good. The IP address that the datagram is forwarded to is written in the fifth to eighth bytes. Thus. Suppose there is only one default router R1 in the routing table of host A. the datagram is forwarded to R2 from R1. which causes the congestion more badly.

Supporting orderly/disorderly transmission of subscriber datagram in the flow.3. the last two legs of which are allowed to carry user data for fast setup. Multi-home can be supported at one end or both ends of the association to improve the reliability of the link. and the integer in it indicates the total seconds since 1900-01-01. Packet InterNet Groper (PING) service in the application layer can test the connection between two hosts. the protocol is discussed in detail. II. In the following part. A COOKIE mechanism is employed during the initialization to provide protection against security attacks.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN sends the ICMP source quench message to tell the source address to stop sending the datagram until the situation becomes normal.) z z z Path fault detection at real time. Concept of SCTP The stream control transmission protocol (SCTP) is a reliable transport protocol that operates over a potentially unreliable connectionless packet service such as IP. Features of SCTP z z z Transport protocol based on subscriber’s message packets. z When receiving the ICMP timestamp request. and the data in the flows do not interfere with each other. The association must pass the COOKIE authentication before establishment to guarantee the security. The destination host receiving the message should send the ICMP echo reply. It is used to test whether the destination address is reachable or in its relative status. one host or router is requested to answer the current date and time. 2. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-19 . One 32-bit is included in the ICMP timestamp reply. The timestamp request/reply is used for clock synchronization and time measurement. The following are some ICMP query message used often: z The ICMP echo request is sent by the host or router to a specific destination host. The cookie mechanism uses a four-way handshake. Multiple flows can be established in one association.1 Overview I. The ICMP echo request/reply is adopted in the service.3 SCTP 2. z The ICMP address mask request/reply enables the host to get the address mask of one interface from the subnet mask server.

For example. Their relations are shown in Figure 2-19.105. only one association can be established between two endpoints.28. the IP address 10.92 and SCTP port number 1024 indicate one transport address. configured with one or multiple IP addresses.28.92 and 1023 indicate different transport addresses. and is a typical physical entity. but multiple IP addresses.28.93 and 1024 mean another transport address.105.105. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-20 . 10. SCTP port number is used for the identification of the users at the same address. while 10. Endpoint: The logical sender/receiver of SCTP packets. a transport address is unique to an SCTP endpoint. In other words. there may be multiple endpoints on a host. II. A transport address used by an SCTP endpoint must not be used by another SCTP endpoint.2 Terminology I. On an SCTP multi-homed host. an SCTP endpoint is represented to its peers as a combination of a set of eligible destination transport addresses to which SCTP packets can be sent and a set of eligible source transport addresses from which SCTP packets can be received. It is a typical logical entity. As prescribed in the SCTP. Host and Endpoint Host: It is a computer. and it is identical to that of TCP port number. All transport addresses used by an SCTP endpoint must use the same port number.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN 2. Transport Address and IP Address The transport address of SCTP is one IP address plus one SCTP port number.3. Therefore.

which has three transport addresses: 10. 10. Stream: It is used in SCTP to refer to a sequence of user messages that are to be delivered to the upper-layer protocol in order with respect to other messages within the same stream.27. They use all the three IP addresses.28. B and C.105. The other is FTP service (endpoint B).27. 10. corresponding to three IP addresses: 10. X.1. there may be multiple associations between two hosts.27. In this way. If it wants to use the FTP service on this server. the SCTP maintains two endpoints: One is HTTP service (endpoint A).1. through the four-way handshake mechanism prescribed in SCTP. 80.29. in other words. These two services are run on SCTP.29. The destination of these two associations must be this server. 10. 21. Association and Stream Association: It specifies the logic connection or channel established between two SCTP endpoints for data transmission.105. 10.1. while FTP uses port 21.1.105.105.28. HTTP uses port 80.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Host Endpoint 1 User1 Port1 IP address 1 IP address 1 SCTP Port 2 User2 Endpoint2 Figure 2-19 Relation between SCTP host and endpoint Example: A server provides HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and FTP functions.29. In this way. 21.1. Y and Z need to be transported in sequence. 80. it must establish an SCTP association with endpoint A. Therefore. It has three network adaptors. although only one association can be established between two endpoints. when a client wants to use the HTTP service on this server. For example.105. and 10. but the two groups do not have requirement for sequence Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-21 .1 and 10.105. 21. which has three transport addresses: 10.1.105.1. III. 80. one host can have multiple endpoints. it must establish an SCTP association with endpoint B.28. two groups of data A.1.105.105.

C and D need to be sent in the following sequence: A in stream 1. and D in stream 2. including outbound stream and inbound stream. In each stream of an SCTP association. SSN is maintained on the basis of association. B. The TSNs and SSNs of the five data chunks are shown in Table 2-1: Table 2-1 Relation between TSN and SSN Data A B C 1 2 3 TSN 1 1 2 SSN Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-22 . Since D is too long.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN between them. Noted that: z Stream is in the association. while X. SSN: Stream Sequence Number. One TSN is attached to each chunk containing user data to permit the receiving SCTP endpoint to acknowledge its receipt and detect duplicate deliveries. in order to ensure the sequenced transmission in the stream. A. Y and Z can be transported in another stream. it is separated into D1 and D2. TSN is maintained on the basis of association. The assignments of TSN and SSN are independent on each other. B and C can be transported in one stream. z z Figure 2-20 demonstrates the relation between association and stream. a 16-bit sequence number is assigned to each data chunk sent in the stream by the local end. SCTP endpoint A SCTP endpoint B SCTP stream (unidirectional) It can have multiple pairs of IP/SCTP-port SCTP association It can have multiple pairs of IP/SCTP-port Figure 2-20 Relation between association and stream IV. C in stream 1. Therefore. Data chunks A. Stream is unidirectional. It is a 32-bit sequence number used internally by SCTP. Endpoint A connects endpoint B through two outbound streams. but they are irrelative. B in stream 2. and is not related to address and path. Association 1 and association 2 may all have stream 1. TSN and SSN TSN: Transmission Sequence Number. Stream is a logical concept.

An SCTP is also a protocol for slide window. and needs to wait. the data of other stream will not be affected because they can be transmitted to the upper layer as long as the sequence is correct. This gives the sender an indication of the space available in the receiver's inbound buffer. in number of bytes. An SCTP variable that a data sender uses to store the most recently calculated receiver window of its peer. 2. the transmission path is related not only to destination IP address. Only when the main path is unreachable or needs retransmitting. other paths will be used. Actually. 2 and 3 have been received. RWND: Receiver Window. In this way. the blocking of TCP head is avoided. CWND: Congestion Window. Because SCTP can support multiple streams. Others Path: In IP network.3 Functions of SCTP The basic functions of SCTP are shown in Figure 2-21: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-23 . it is co-defined by destination IP address and source IP address. SCTP supports multi-home. for instance. When the data sequence in a flow goes wrong. a main path with main source IP address and main destination IP address will be adopted for transmission. but 1 has not been received. When the length of the non-acknowledgement from the destination address exceeds its CWND. It can be adjusted according to network conditions. The congestion window is for every destination address. The path is defined as the route for data transmission. That means multiple IP addresses can be used for transmission. the end point will stop sending data to the address. sequenced transmission is carried out in a certain stream. A relatively conservative policy is adopted: When an association is established. V. but also to the source IP address. data 1.3.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Data D1 D2 4 5 TSN 2 2 SSN As D1 and D2 have identical SSNs but different TSNs. the peer end can identify that D1 and D2 are the segments of the same data chunk and know the sequence. 2 and 3 are transmitted in a flow.

the data can be transmitted between two endpoints that have been established an association (SCTP allows the data be transmitted in certain steps during the startup of association). Therefore. The datagrams sent in sequence must be put in one stream. z Sequence delivery within streams SCTP can transport the datagrams in sequence. the startup and takedown of associations are the preconditions for other services. fragments are reassembled into complete messages before being passed to the SCTP user. reliable delivery is kept functionally separating from sequenced stream delivery. z Acknowledgement and congestion avoidance SCTP assigns a TSN to each user data fragment or un-fragmented message. The TSN is independent on any stream sequence number assigned at the stream level. Usually. In this way. z User data fragmentation When needed. The receiver acknowledges all TSNs received. and the stream is the basis for sequenced transmission. even if there are gaps in the sequence. SCTP fragments user messages to ensure that the SCTP packet passed to the lower layer conforms to the path maximum transmission unit (MTU). On receipt. z Chunk bundling Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-24 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Sequenced delivery within streams User data fragmentation Acknowledgement and congestion avoidance Association startup and takedown Chunk bundling Packet validation Path management Figure 2-21 Functional view of the SCTP transport service z Association startup and takedown SCTP is an association oriented transport protocol.

1) TCP is transmitted on the basis of character stream. SCTP is transmitted on the basis of datagram and has no upper-layer demarcation. 2. In this way the bundling of SCTP chunks are realized. such as initialization (INIT). z Path management The path management function monitors reachability through heartbeats when other packet traffic is inadequate to provide this information and advises the SCTP user when reachability of any far-end transport address changes. z Packet validation A mandatory Verification Tag field and a 32-bit checksum field are included in the SCTP common header. 2) 3) SCTP supports the configuration of multiple IP addresses. initialization acknowledgement (INIT Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-25 . The chunk bundling function of SCTP is applicable to assembly of the complete SCTP packet and its disassembly at the receiver.4 Structure of SCTP Message The structure of SCTP message is shown in Figure 2-22: Figure 2-22 Structure of SCTP SCTP packet as delivered to the lower layer consists of a common header followed by one or more chunks.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The SCTP user has the option to request bundling of more than one user message into a single SCTP packet. Its upper layer must have its own demarkation mechanism. SCTP defines stream. we can conclude the differences between SCTP and TCP. From the above description. There are many types of chunks. in which the data is transmitted in sequence.3.

takedown of association. Therefore.3. In the message parameter. TSN is located in the parameter of DATA chunk rather than in common header. TSN is allocated according to data chunks instead of datagrams. the peer end will take the source IP address of the INIT message as the IP address of the end. and when the data is transmitted. In common header. value (TLV) format. INIT ACK. which has four message interactions: INIT. the verification tag field is set to “0”. the parameter usually carries one or multiple IP addresses used by the local end. In this message. 2. because the tag of the peer end is unknown. The following part introduces the main processes of SCTP. The parameters are in the type. SHUTDOWN. as shown in Figure 2-23. the sender must carry peer’s tag in the common header for check. I. COOKIE ECHO and COOKIE ACK. which is randomly generated by the local end for the association during startup. DATA and SACK. Endpoint A T1init T3-rtx Established INIT(Tag_A) INIT ACK(Tag_Z. ABORT. length. the two sides will exchange their tags. the tag of the Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-26 . and path management mechanism. Chunks have their own header and parameters. If no IP address is carried. Startup of Association The startup of SCTP association is a four-way handshake process.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN ACK). and then send the INIT message to the peer end. There is a verification tag in SCTP. connection information Z) COOKIE ECHO(connection information Z) + DATA T1-cookie COOKIE ACK +DATA + SACK SACK Established Endpoint Z Italic items: optional information chunks Figure 2-23 Interaction during the startup of SCTP association The startup process of SCTP association: The initiating end of the association must create a data structure TCB (Transmission Control Block) to describe the association (including the fundamental information) to be initiated. When SCTP transmits DATA. congestion control mechanism.5 SCTP Process The SCTP process includes: startup of association. In the startup process of the association. transmission and validation of data.

the time stamp in the TCB will be taken out to compare with the current time. the mandatory information in it. Therefore the startup of association is finished. From the above description. the initiating end of the association will stop the timer COOKIE. Upon receiving the COOKIE ACK message. Then a TCB will be generated according to the basic information of association. this message will be discarded. The verification tag in the INIT ACK message is set to the initial tag value in the INIT message. which is included in the INIT ACK message. If they are identical. The INIT ACK message usually carries the information such as the IP address used by the local end and inbound/outbound streams. the INIT message will be resent till the maximum retransmission time is reached. Upon receiving the INIT message. Its own TCB will be updated. including the time stamp and life period of COOKIE. After receiving the COOKIE ECHO message. which will act as the initial tag of the local end and will be put into the parameter of the INIT ACK message. After that. the sender enters COOKIE-WAIT status. an association to the peer end will be set up according to the information in TCB. we can see two differences between SCTP and TCP: z Protecting against “service denial” attack Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-27 . If they are different. the INIT timer will be stopped. for waiting the INIT ACK message from the peer end. and the status is changed into COOKIE-ECHOED. The TCB in the STATE COOKIE and the local secret key will be calculated into an MAC. the receiver of the association will perform COOKIE check. If the timer times out. this TCB is a temporary TCB. otherwise. After the TCB is generated. When the initiating end of the association receives the INIT ACK message. and the information obtained from INIT ACK will be filled in. the message will be discarded. and the secret key in local end are calculated into a 32-bit Message Authentication Code (MAC) through the algorithm described in RFC2401 (this calculation is irreversible). and the status will be changed into ESTABLISHED. The timer COOKIE is started. the mandatory information and the MAC are combined into a parameter called STATE COOKIE. When the INIT ACK message is sent to the peer end. If the time has exceeded the life time of COOKIE. and the COOKIE ACK message will be sent back. This MAC will be compared with that in the STATE COOKIE message. the receiver of the association will generate a tag. the temporary TCB is deleted and the receiver does not reserve any resources for this association. the timer “INIT” is started. After the sending. Then the COOKIE ECHO message will be generated to carry back the STATE COOKIE in the INIT ACK message. However. After such actions. according to the MAC algorithm described in RFC2401. The status will be changed into ESTABLISHED.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN local end and the expected inbound/outbound stream numbers should be included.

It differs greatly from that of TCP in which the server receives SYN and enters SYN-RCVD. a malicious attacker can make advantage of the TCP gaps of some operating systems. The latter means directly terminating the association. SCTP will not assign any resources for an association that has not finished the four-way handshake. there is no such case in SCTP. In this way. The repetition of such process will fill the limited detecting queues of the server. At the same time. Usually. and he/she cannot obtain the local secret key of the server. Termination of Association The SCTP association can be terminated in two ways: One is GRACEFUL shutdown. which ensures the security and protects against “masquerade” attack of IP address. and the SHUTDOWN timer will be started to wait for the SHUTDOWN-ACK Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-28 . the attack by exhausting resources is avoided. When he/she sends the COOKIE-ECHO message to the server. the local secret key of the receiver varies after a period. Then the attacker cannot get this INIT ACK message. the association will wait for the validation of all the data sent from the local end but has not been validated. Then the SCTP association is changed from the ESTABLISHED status to the SHUTDOWN-PENDING status. Therefore. and the other is UNGRACEFUL shutdown. and the association requests from other hosts cannot be accepted. and keep the servers stay in an intermediate status in the startup of association for a long time. the server will send back the INIT ACK message. Assume an attacker is trying to establish an association to the server by simulating the IP address of a legal host. z Protecting against “masquerade” attack of IP address COOKIE mechanism is also the guarantee in SCTP. the attacker and the IP address simulated are not located in the same LAN. the user at the initiating end of the termination sends a GRACEFUL request to the SCTP for terminating the association. However. the SHUTDOWN message will be sent to the peer end. To be safe. and the association cannot be set up. in which the SCTP will no longer accept any requests from upper layer for data transmission on this association. and the association will be changed into the SHUTDOWN-SENT status. When he/she sends the INIT message to the server. SCTP is safer than TCP. z When all the data has been validated. Then. Just as their names imply. Then the “service denial” attack is implemented. Acting as the server. and the data is directly discarded. the attacker cannot generate a legal MAC.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The receiver (or server) of the association undergoes no status change during the startup process from CLOSED to ESTABLISHED. the COOKIE parameter cannot pass the check. the former means that all data in queue at either endpoint is delivered to the respective peers before the association is terminated. These two modes are described as follows: 1) GRACEFUL shutdown GRACEFUL shutdown of association is implemented through three-way handshake: z Firstly. For a TCP. II.

The former maintains every destination IP address. the peer end will delete the TCB of association. it is relatively simple. the TCB of association will be deleted immediately. When all the un-transmitted data and un-validated data sent from the local end has been sent and validated. in which the SCTP will no longer accept any requests from upper layer for data transmission on this association. if no Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-29 . the data received from the peer end will be validated immediately. the data cannot be sent to the peer end.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN message from the peer end. The SHUTDOWN timer will be started to wait for the SHUTDWON COMPLETE message. During the establishing process. Since they describe two different objects. z When the peer end receives the SHUT DOWN message. it will delete the TCB of the association immediately. and then delete the TCB of the association. the attacker cannot obtain the tag values of the SCTP associations of other hosts except that he has intercepted the message. while the latter maintains every association. 2) z The restrictions of these two windows on the data transmission: If the RWND shows that the receiving buffer of the peer end cannot receive data (for example. When the initiating end sends an ABORT message to the peer end. it specifies the size of which the data can be transported without congestion. he cannot interfere an established association by sending a legal ABORT message. RWND=0). Since there is verification tag. the initiating end of the termination will stop the SHUTDOWN timer. Data Transmission Data transmission takes place after the establishment of an association. Features of SCTP data transmission: 1) Stream control with window SCTP adopts two kinds of windows for data transmission: One is CWND. CWND describes: For a transmission path. RWND describes: For the peer end of association. data can be carried in some steps. UNGRACEFUL shutdown 2) Since this shutdown mode cannot guarantee the security of the data. Therefore. The slowdown validation mechanism of SCTP application will be introduced in the following part. and the other is RWND. In this status. z Upon receiving the SHUTDOWN COMPLETE message. it will enter the SHOUTDOWN-REVD status. z Upon receiving the SHUTDOWN ACK message. the SHUTDOWN ACK message will be sent. III. However. it specifies the size of which the data can be received without data loss. send the SHUTDOWN COMPLETE message to the peer end. they are needed for restriction of the data transmission. When the peer end receives the ABORT message.

Even if there is space in the peer receiving buffer. For instance. the data can be sent (provided that CWND allows). when one end of TCP receives data 1. 6. the ACK field of the message can only be filled with 2 and the data in the rear part cannot be validated. 5. Slowdown/selected validation z 3) Slowdown selected validation can be divided into slowdown validation and selected validation. SCTP will use immediate validation. The usually case is that when gaps occur to the data chunk sequence. On the contrary. validation will be performed until the gap is mended. SCTP can do that. Besides. the data labeled as “retransmit” should be sent in advance. 7. 5 and 7. the lock can be prevented. That is whenever data is received. 4.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN un-validated data is sent currently. 8 and 9. no data can be sent to this address. immediate validation mechanism will be adopted for the peer end data. after the SHUTDOWN message is sent. As the size of the peer receiving buffer is carried in the validation packet. since there are gaps between 2 and 4. It will send the ACK message to the peer end after receiving two datagrams (one datagram may contain several chunks). In many cases. RWND cannot be updated. one end of SCTP association will not send the ACK message to the peer end immediately. SCTP should perform immediate validation rather than slowdown validation. if the un-validated data has reached or exceeded the limit of CWND. In this way. 2. no validation from the peer end will be received. z When data is to be transmitted to an address. Before new data is translated. and the association enters the SHUTDOWN-SENT status. Slowdown validation contrasts to the immediate validation. 3. and will be set to “0”. It means that upon receiving a datagram. because if no un-validated data is sent. That means the “retransmit” data is preferred. In this way. the overload of the ACK messages on the path can be prevented. or when a datagram has not been validated for 200 ms. The typical protocol that adopts cumulative validation is TCP. The acknowledgement message (SACK) of SCTP selected validation is shown in Figure 2-24: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-30 . Selected validation contrasts to sequenced validation or cumulative validation. the data cannot be sent.

one is between 2 and 4. In this way. 4) Retransmit due to timeout: SCTP maintains a T3 timer for each destination IP address. it will retransmit the data after receiving another three continuous SACKs that indicates the data has not been received. It means that the data will be re-sent after four SACKs are received. In the former example. Although it is complex to Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-31 . it is 2. In the former example. The data that has not been covered by Gap Ack Block (the data falls in the gaps) means that the acknowledgement message is not received.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Figure 2-24 Structure of SACK message Three fields should be noted: z Cumulative TSN Ack: It is the maximum TSN without gaps. and the other is between 5 and 7. When the data sender receives such SACKs. For the first one. the start is 7. For the second one. z z Gap Ack Block #N Start. the start is 4. Gap Ack Block #N End: The start and end of gap acknowledgement block. there exist these two acknowledgement blocks. Since there are two gaps. and the end is 5. Number of Gap Ack Blocks: It is the number of gaps in the received data sequence. and the end is 9. to avoid unnecessary retransmissions. SCTP can validate all the data received. there are two gaps. in spite of gaps. It can also maintain a T3 timer for each data sent (it is based on the realization).

The T3 timer on local path is timed out. we can see that when a timer is maintained for a path. the T3 timer is maintained for each transport address of the peer end. it is unfair for data 2. it is unfair for the data sent later than the earliest ones. although T3 timer times out. SCTP can obtain the loopback time of the path according to the time difference between the transmission of new data and the receiving of validation. it will not be retransmitted. they will be re-sent. with the value of 2 seconds. For example. Therefore. when no validation is received. which can have redundant addresses. z z If the T3 timer times out.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN maintain a timer for each IP address. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-32 z . there are two cases for the sender of SCTP to retransmit a data chunk: z It is proved by the peer end with four continuous SACKs that the data chunk has not been received. after data 1 is sent. When receiving a SACK. Of course. The value of T3 timer is also changed according to the loopback time of the path. a T3 timer will be started. z For the CWND of SCTP described in the former part. the MTU (say 1500 bytes) of the path to this destination will be checked.1 second. It is obvious that. T3 timer is started. From the above rules. Only after T3 timer times out for several times. the T3 timer will be re-started. if all the data has been validated. the data re-sent are the chunks sent early but un-validated. For the latterly sent data chunks. During this waiting period. Multi-home is mainly used to guarantee the reliability of the endpoint. it cannot be absolutely fair when maintaining one timer for a path. when SCTP transmits data. they will not be re-sent immediately. The data is usually sent to the main address. Therefore. The algorithm is similar to that of TCP. the T3 timer will be stopped. Vice versa.9 seconds. SCTP supports multi-home conservatively. data 2 is timed out and will be labeled as “retransmit” If validation is received before retransmission. if no T3 timer is running. and it supports multi-home. The ruleof SCTP can be described as follows z When transmitting (retransmitting) data to a destination IP address. lots of system resources are saved. After 1. and the T3 timer is started. After 0. Multi-homed: z 5) Multi-homed means multiple IP addresses are supported. The following demonstrates how multi-homed is used by SCTP in data transmission. From rule 3 we can see that when the data is in huge amount. a main address will be selected from the addresses of the peer end. Then all the sent but un-validated chunks will be bundled into one data block and re-sent to the peer end. data 2 is sent. If the earliest data is proved to be un-validated. SACK may be received. unless one timer is maintained for each data chunk.

The actions after the slow-start threshold is reached are described by the congestion avoidance mechanism. Congestion control is used to solve this problem. after a certain period. In case of huge amount traffic. 4) Fast retransmit Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-33 . Slow-start mechanism is adopted to increase the CWND. the CWND will be gradually increased to make full use of the bandwidth of the network. For timeout. it will reach the slow-start threshold at last. therefore. If one acknowledgement message validates multiple data chunks. the original CWND of the destination address is set to a very small value (no bigger than the MTUs of two paths). CWND will be reduced by half. Then it can guarantee that the CWND of the address idled for a certain time is very small. Meanwhile. it can be divided into the following parts 1) Slow-start Slow-start means when SCTP begins to (or after long-duration idle time) transmit data to the network. the slow-start is achieved. slow-start algorithm is adopted for its increment. to guarantee that only a data chunk with the size of one MTU is sent and un-validated on this address until the validation from the peer end is received. a destination address different from that of transmitting will be chosen. 3) Congestion control CWND cannot increase unlimitedly. after each loopback period. it can guarantee that the SCTP transmits data to the network at relatively low amount in a long time. slow-start describes the changing rule when the CWND is started to reach the slow-start threshold. if possible.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN SCTP will try to send acknowledgement messages to the source address of the data validated. Hereby. a relatively bigger threshold is set for the slow-start. Before CWND reaches the slow-start threshold. the corresponding relation cannot be guaranteed. CWND will increase by one MTU. z When a data chunk is retransmitted. 2) Congestion avoidance Since CWND is increasing gradually. When there are gaps in the SACKs sent by the peer end. Actually. a slow mode is adopted due to the unknown ability of the network. IV. Simply speaking. In fact. congestion will occur. or T3 timer times out. the CWND will be reduced by half to 2 times of the path’s MTU. For an idle address. Normally. Congestion Control SCTP has a congestion control mechanism similar to that of TCP. For the gap in SACK. Generally speaking. in order to guarantee the data flow sent by SCTP is in small amount. CWND will be reduced to the MTU of one path. the CWND of this address will be decreased greatly.

to control congestion is to control CWND. 2) Management of path status Path management of SCTP is performed for each peer address. the counter will be reset. Once the counter reaches the prescribed number. the address will be labeled as “unreachable”. Meanwhile. the counter will be reset. it will include the continuous retransmissions of all the addresses. the sender will label the data chunks in the gap as “retransmit”. which is implemented through windows in SCTP. Therefore. the congestion control rule will be used to adjust CWND. which will count the times of continuous retransmissions to this endpoint. If the peer is multi-homed. Different from MTP2. Path Management In the following part. the other three congestion control mechanisms are used to describe the change of CWND. Except fast-retransmit. Then. the management of the path status and the status of the peer endpoint in an association is described. It means maintaining a counter for each peer address. after three continuous SACKS are received to confirm that the gap exists. 1) Management of endpoint status The management of SCTP endpoint status is to maintain a counter for the peer end.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Fast retransmit means that when the SACK received by the sender shows that there is a gap in the received sequence. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-34 . If the counter exceeds the prescribed number. SCTP will change the association into the CLOSED status. V. it must send corresponding heartbeat validation message immediately. When a data chunk sent to the peer end is validated. If validations are received from the peer end for the data chunks sent. Congestion control is traffic control. which records the timeout times of T3 timer and the times the sent heartbeats receive no response. the peer end will be regarded as unreachable. If the sender has not received this validation. and send a report. or validations are received for heartbeats. 3) Heartbeat The heartbeat of SCTP is similar to the MTP2 filler unit of SS7: SCTP sends the heartbeat chunk to a destination address that is idle (a timer determines whether it is idle). the path error counter will be incremented by 1. when the peer end of SCTP receives this heartbeat data chunk.

4. or between any two IPSPs communicating over an IP network. It is the peer-to-peer adaptation layer of SS7 MTP2. or between an SG and IP signaling point (IPSP).Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN 2. Support asynchronous reporting of status changes to management. An IPSP may have the signaling connection control part (SCCP) and other SS7 layers above MTP3. Support the MTP level 2 / MTP level 3 interface boundary.2 M2PA Application I. z z z 2. An SS7 node equipped with an IP network connection is called an IPSP. The IPSPs function as traditional SS7 nodes by using the IP network instead of SS7 links. The MT2PA protocol allows for full MTP3 message handling and network management capabilities between an SG and MGC. analogs the MTP2 function along with the SCTP layer and supports seamless operation of MTP3 protocol peers over an IP network connection besides providing the “IP SS7 link” to upper layer.4.4 MTP2-User Peer-to-Peer Adaptation Layer (M2PA) 2. Support management of SCTP transport associations and traffic instead of MTP2 links. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-35 . and the SG is an IPSP equipped with both the traditional SS7 link and the IP association. The delivery mechanism should z Support seamless operation of MTP3 protocol peers over an IP network connection.1 Overview The M2PA protocol is used in the networking in which the SG is used as the signaling transfer point (STP). M2PA Application in SGP-ASP Figure 2-25 shows the M2PA application model in the signaling gateway process-application server process (SGP-ASP) mode.

All the primitives between MTP3 and MTP2 are supported. including IP transfer protocol. M2PA Application in IPSP-IPSP In the IP network. SCTP and one adaptation model. IP IPSP IPSP MTP3 M2PA SCTP IP MTP3 M2PA SCTP IP Figure 2-26 M2PA symmetrical peer-to-peer architecture Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-36 . MTP3 is adapted to the SCTP layer by using the M2PA. Figure 2-26 shows the M2PA application in the IPSP-IPSP model. implementing the interconnection between MTP3 in two IPSPs.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway No.7 SEP SG IP IPSP Chapter 2 SIGTRAN MTP3-User MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 M2PA SCTP IP MTP3-User MTP3 M2PA SCTP IP SEP: SS7 Signaling end point Figure 2-25 M2PA in the IP SG II. The SCTP association acts as one SS7 link between IPSPs. the SCN signaling transmission architecture consists of many parts.

MTP level 2 sends three types of messages. and fill-in signal units (FISUs). M2PA Message The M2PA message consists of common message header.3 Services Provided by M2PA I. M2PA passes these messages from MTP3 to SCTP as data for transport across a link.4. The message reply may be contained in FISU. LSSUs allow peer MTP2 layers to exchange status information. The heartbeat servers the purpose in the M2PA. no signal unit as FISU is to be provided by the M2PA. message type.4 M2PA Message Format I. which is sent when no signaling unit is waiting for sending. 2. Therefore. II. signal unit as FISU is not needed. The format of M2PA message is as shown in Figure 2-27. the P2PA should be able to provide the same services as those provided by MTP2 to MTP3. In addition.4. Support for MTP Level 2 / MTP Level 3 Interface Boundary The SS7 MTP3 / MTP2 (MTP2-User) interface is reserved in the IPSP. so. MSUs originate at a higher level than MTP2. known as signal units: Message signal units (MSUs). Likewise. Common message header The common message header structure contains a version. specific-M2PA header and message data. because the resources in IP network are shared. and message length. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-37 . Support for Peer-to-peer Communication In SS7. 1 3 0 2 01234567890123456789012345678901 Common message header M2PA-specific header : Message data Figure 2-27 M2PA message The three parts will be described in detail below. which is the function of M2PA user data and link status. The header structure is shown in Figure 2-28. and are destined for a peer at another node. link status signal units (LSSUs).Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN 2. message class. The link status of M2PA is similar to LSSU.

including the common header. The header structure is shown in Figure 2-29. z Message Length The message length defines the length of the message in octets.0 of M2PA protocol Spare The spare field should be set to all zeroes (0s) by the sender and ignored by the receiver. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-38 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN 3 0 1 2 01234567890123456789012345678901 Message Version Message class Spare type Message length Figure 2-28 Common message header z Version The version field contains the version of M2PA. z Message Class The following list contains the valid message classes: Value (decimal) 11 Message Class M2PA Messages Other values are invalid for M2PA. The spare field should not be used for proprietary information.The supported versions are: Value 1 z Version Release 1. M2PA Header All protocol messages for M2PA require an M2PA-specific header. z Message Type The following list contains the message types for the defined messages. Value ----1 2 Message Type -----------User Data Link Status Other values are invalid.

SIF 8n(n 2) SIO 8 00 2 LI 6 2 0 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 User data Figure 2-30 User data message z Link Status The MTP2 link status message can be sent between M2PA peers to indicate link status. z User data The user data is sent from MTP3. Message data M2PA message: It has two types: user data message and link status information. Note that the data field shall not contain other components of the MTP MSU format. such as Flag. LI field (6 bits) is all set to zeroes (spare). FIB and CK. BIB. M2PA does not add padding to the MTP3 message.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 3 1 2 01234567890123456789012345678901 Not used Not used FSN BSN Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Figure 2-29 M2PA-specific Message Header Backward Sequence Number (BSN): This is the FSN of the message last received from the peer. 2 0 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Status Figure 2-31 Link status The valid values for State are shown in the following table. Two undefined bits between SIO and LI fields are set to zeroes. The user data message structure is shown in Figure 2-30. This message performs a function similar to the link status signal unit in MTP2. Forward Sequence Number (FSN): This is the M2PA sequence number of the user data message being sent. SIO and SIF in MSU. and it consists of LI. FSN. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-39 . Now we shall describe them. BSN.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-40 . DCBA 0001 H0 4 Label 56 M2PA sequence number 24 H1 4 First bit transmitted When H1 is 0011.4. M2PA processes these primitives or maps them to appropriate primitives at the M2PA/SCTP interface. Likewise. XCA. Figure 2-32 XCO and XCA 2. Its format is shown in Figure 2-32. Extended Changeover Order (XCO) and Extended Changeover Acknowledgement (XCA) The M2PA sequence numbers (FSN/BSN) are 24 bits long. which are implemented through the XCO and XCA. the message is XCO.5 Functions Provided by M2PA I. M2PA sends primitives to MTP3 like those used in the MTP3/MTP2 interface. when it is 0100. These messages have 24 bits sequence number fields. Support of MTP3/MTP2 Primitives M2PA receives the primitives sent from MTP3 to its lower layer.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Value (decimal) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description Alignment Proving Normal Proving Emergency Ready Processor Outage Processor Outage Ended Busy Busy Ended Out of Service In Service II.

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II. MTP2 Functionality
M2PA provides MTP2 functionality that is not provided by SCTP. This includes
z z z z

Data retrieval to support the MTP3 changeover procedure Reporting of link status changes to MTP3 Processor outage procedure Link alignment procedure

III. Mapping of SS7 and IP Entities
The M2PA layer must maintain a map of each of its SS7 links to the corresponding SCTP association.

IV. SCTP Stream Management
SCTP allows a customized number of streams to be opened during the initialization. It is the responsibility of the M2PA layer to ensure proper management of the streams allowed within each association. M2PA uses two streams in each direction for each association. Stream 0 in each direction is designated for link status messages. Stream 1 is designated for user data messages. Separating the link status and user data messages onto separate streams allows M2PA to prioritize the messages in a manner similar to MTP2.

V. Retention of MTP3 in the SS7 Network
M2PA allows MTP3 to perform all of its message handling and network management functions with IPSPs as with other SS7 nodes.

2.4.6 Implementation Procedure of Basic Functions
I. M2PA Link State Control
The M2PA link moves from one state to another in response to various events. The events that may result in a change of state include:
z z z z

MTP3 primitive requests SCTP notifications Receipt of Status messages from the peer M2PA Expiration of certain timers

Following is a list of the M2Pa link states and a description of each.
z z z

IDLE: State of the link during power-up initialization. OOS: Out Of Service. Power-up initialization is complete. AIP: Alignment In Progress. M2PA is attempting to exchange alignment messages with its peer.
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z z

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PROVING: M2PA is sending link status proving messages to its peer. ALIGNED READY: Proving is complete. M2PA is waiting until peer completes proving. INS: In Service. Link is ready for traffic. RETRIEVAL: Link no longer carries traffic. M2PA is waiting for request for message retrieval from MTP3.

z z

Figure 2-33 illustrates state changes in the SCTP association together with the causing events. Note that some of the error conditions are not shown in the state diagram. When START is received in the RETRIEVAL status, the association will enter AIP if it has been established; otherwise, it will enter OOS.
IDLE
Power on (Associate)

OOS
Link Configured (Associate) MTP3 start

AIP
MTP3 stop or T1 expiry

SCTP Comm Error or SCTP Comm Lost

Receive LS Alignment OR LS Proving

PROVING
MTP3 Stop OR Receive LS OOS SCTP Comm Error or SCTP Comm Lost

ALIGNED READY
SCTP Comm Error MTP3 Stop OR T3 Expiry OR Receive LS OOS or SCTP Comm Lost

Receive LS Ready OR Receive User Data

INS
MTP3 Stop OR Receive LS OOS OR SCTP Comm Error OR SCTP Comm Lost OR T6 Expiry M2PA link faulty

RETRIVAL Retrieval complete OR MTP3 Start

Figure 2-33 M2PA Link State Transition Diagram
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Following is a list of the M2PA association states and a description of each.
z z z

IDLE - State of the association during power-up initialization. ASSOCIATE - M2PA is attempting to establish an SCTP association ESTABLISHED - SCTP association is established.

Figure 2-34 illustrates state changes in the M2PA management of the SCTP association together with the causing events. Note that some of the error conditions are not shown in the state diagram.
IDLE

Associate (Issue SCTP associate)

(Issue SCTP associate)

ASSOCIATE

SCTP Comm Error

SCTP Comm Up

ESTABLISHED SCTP Comm Error OR SCTP Comm Lost

Figure 2-34 M2PA association transition diagram

II. Procedures to Support MTP2 Features
1) Signal Unit Format, Delimitation, Acceptance

SCTP provides reliable, in-sequence delivery. Therefore the related functionality of MTP2 is not needed. SCTP does not provide functions related to link state control in MTP2. These functions must be provided by M2PA. 2) Adaptation between SCTP and MTP3

Each MTP link corresponds to an SCTP association. To prevent duplicate associations from being established, it is recommended that each endpoint know the IP address and port number of both endpoints. SCTP prevents two associations with the same IP address and port number from being established. It is necessary for at least one of the endpoints to be listening on the port on which the other endpoint is trying to establish the association. Therefore, at least one of the port numbers should be the M2PA registered port. However, M2PA does not do any processing based on SLC.

Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-43

two IPSPs with two IP addresses each Table 2-2 shows the relationships in tabular form. Each endpoint is identified by an IP address and port number. IPSP X IPSP Y IPA port= PW SLC= a SCTP Association 1 IPB port= PW SLC= a IPC port= PW SLC= b SCTP Association 2 IPD port= PW SLC= b IPx = IP address PW = M2PA registered port number Figure 2-35 Associations and links . z Association and link – two IPSPs.two IPSPs with two IP addresses each Association 1 2 IPSPX IP address IPA IPC IPSPY Port PW PW IP address IPB IPD Port PW PW SLC a b z Associations and links – one IPSP connected to two IPSPs Figure 2-36 and Table 2-3 show an example with three IPSPs. Table 2-1 is only conceptual. each with two IP addresses. Note that a link is an SCTP association identified by two endpoints. The actual method for mapping the SCTP associations to the SLCs is implementation dependent. Table 2-2 Associations and links . each with two IP addresses Figure 2-35 shows a case with two IPSPs. they must have different SLCs. Two associations are the links that connect two IPSPs. Each association is mapped to an SLC.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Following are examples of the relationships between associations and links. Since these links are in the same link set. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-44 .

it is possible that the values a and b may be equal. Table 2-3 Associations and SLCs .one IPSP connected to two IPSPs Note that in this example.two IPSPs with two IP addresses each IPSPX Association 1 IPSPY Port PW IP address IPA IP address IPB Port PW SLC a IPSPX Association 2 IPSPZ Port PW IP address IPC IP address IPD Port PW SLC b Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-45 . Therefore.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway IPSP X SCTP Association 1 IPSP Y Chapter 2 SIGTRAN IPA port= PW SLC= a IPB port= PW SLC= a IPC port= PW SLC= b SCTP Association 2 IPSP Z IPD port= PW SLC= b IPx = IP address PW = M2PA registered port number Figure 2-36 Associations and links . the two links are in different link sets.

Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Associations and SLCs -multiple Associations between two IP addresses Figure 2-37 and Table 2-4 show two associations between the same IP addresses. 3) Link alignment The purposes of the alignment procedure are: z To provide a handshaking procedure so that both endpoints are prepared to send SS7 traffic. This is accomplished by using different port numbers for each association at one endpoint. z z Link alignment procedure: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-46 . Stream 1 is designated for user data messages. to overcome the SCTP slow start period. IPSP X SCTP Association 1 IPSP Y IPA port= P1 SLC= a IPB port= PW SLC= a IPA port= PW SLC= b SCTP Association 2 IPB port= PW SLC= b IPx = IP address P1 = Pre-selected port number PW = Registered port number for M2PA Figure 2-37 Associations and SLCs -multiple associations between two IP addresses Table 2-4 Associations and SLCs -multiple associations between two IP addresses Association 1 2 IPSPX IP address IPA IPA IPSPY Port P1 PW IP address IPB IPB Port PW PW SLC a b The association shall contain two streams in each direction. and to prevent traffic from being sent before the other end is ready. Verify that the SCTP association is suitable for use as an SS7 link. Stream 0 is designated for link status messages. Optionally.

then M2PA shall report to MTP3 that the link is out of service. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-47 . it will not send the link status alignment message to the local M2PA. M2PA sends link status proving messages to its peer at an interval defined by the protocol parameter Proving_Rate. M2PA waits for MTP3 to initiate the alignment procedure again. then m2pa shall initiate the emergency proving period value for T2. However. If timer T1 expires. according to the emergency and emergency ceases commands from MTP3. After the receiving of the link status alignment message from the peer. M2PA stops timer T1 when it has received the link status alignment message from its peer. M2PA uses the value of T2 corresponding to the normal or emergency state. If SCTP fails to establish the association. if M2PA receives a link status proving emergency message from its peer. After the association is established. When M2PA has both sent and received the link status alignment message. These messages are used to verify that both ends have completed proving. it has completed alignment and moves to the proving state. Eventually timer T1 in the local M2PA will expire. M2PA sends the link status alignment message to its peer. then M2PA starts timer T1. M2PA starts the proving period timer T2. then M2PA reports to MTP3 that the link is out of service. M2PA should leave the association established. M2PA shall start timer T3 and send link status ready messages to its peer at interval Status_Interval.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Link alignment takes place after the association is established. If M2PA has not already received the link status alignment message from its peer. During the proving period. M2PA may receive the link status out of service message from its peer. When the proving period timer T2 expires. M2PA sends either the proving normal or proving emergency message. M2PA sends a link status out of service message to its peer. the receiving of the link status out of service message causes M2PA to send the out of service message to MTP3 and return to the out of service state. and M2PA has received a Start request from its MTP3. Note that if the remote M2PA has not received a Start request from its MTP3. M2PA shall send a link status out of service message to its peer. Note: Between the time M2PA sends the link status alignment message to its peer and receives the link status alignment message from its peer. This message is ignored. Once the association is established and M2PA has received a Start request from MTP3. but it shall continue to send the proving message (normal or emergency) determined by its own upper layer MTP3.

then M2PA reports to MTP3 that the link is out of service. If M2PA receives a link status processor outage message during alignment. M2PA can just send the link status ready messages to the peer and continue along. M2PA shall report a remote processor outage message to MTP3. M2PA has not received a link status out of service message from its peer since it received a link status alignment message. If M2PA receives a stop command from its MTP3 during alignment.implementation dependent. M2PA shall attempt to complete the alignment procedure during the remote processor outage condition. If there is a local processor outage condition during the alignment procedure. then M2PA shall send a link status processor outage ended message to its peer. If timer T3 expires. M2PA sends a link status out of service message to its peer.implementation dependent.Range: 1-60 seconds Default: 10 seconds Emergency . M2PA's proving period T2 has expired. there is no need to start timer T3. Recommended values: T1 Alignment . Note that if M2PA has already received a link status ready message from its peer when its timer T2 expires. M2PA should leave the association established. When the local processor outage condition ends. M2PA sends a link status processor outage message to its peer. 4) Processor outage Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-48 . M2PA shall send a link status out of service message to its peer and terminate the alignment procedure. M2PA has received a link status ready or user data message from its peer.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN M2PA shall stop timer T3 when it receives a link status ready or user data message from its peer. M2PA has sent a link status ready message to its peer.Range: 1-60 seconds Default: 10 seconds T2 Proving Normal . Then M2PA shall send a link in service message to its MTP3. Proving_Rate .Range: 1-60 seconds Default: 10 seconds Status_Interval . When all of the following are true: z z z z z M2PA has received a Start request from MTP3. M2PA waits for MTP3 to initiate the alignment procedure again.Range: 400-600 milliseconds Default: 500 milliseconds T3 Ready . and M2PA had received a Start request from its MTP3. M2PA shall attempt to complete the alignment procedure during the local processor outage condition.

The local M2PA notifies its peer by sending a link status message with the status of processor outage ended. M2PA should locally mark that it is in local processor outage. M2PA shall take the link out of service. When M2PA detects a local processor outage. shall report the remote processor outage message to its MTP3. 5) Level 2 flow control If M2PA determines that it is in receiving congestion for an association.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN A processor outage occurs when M2PA cannot transfer messages because of the higher layer of M2PA. If the link is out of service. When the peer M2PA receives the link status busy ended message. MTP3 may perform data retrieval as part of a changeover procedure. for example. When the processor outage ceases. M2PA sends the link status OOS message and moves to the retrieval state. it shall stop timer T6. it shall start the remote congestion timer T6. When the peer M2PA receives the link status busy message. it sends a link status message to its peer with status processor outage. M2PA shall also cease sending user data messages to SCTP for transmission. M2PA shall send a link status busy message to its peer on that association. The peer M2PA ceases sending user data messages. M2PA shall send a link status busy ended message to its peer on that association. M2PA stops the remote congestion timer T6 if it is running. MTP3 sends a local processor recovered indication to M2PA. M2PA shall continue transmitting messages while it is in receive congestion. The peer M2PA. Recommended value of T6 is 1–6 seconds. upon receiving the link status processor outage message. M2PA should periodically send a link status busy message as long as it is in receiving congestion. the other end is busy. 6) Error monitoring Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-49 . M2PA shall stop receiving incoming messages from SCTP. If timer T6 expires. If M2PA is no longer in receiving congestion for the association. The peer M2PA shall cease transmitting messages to SCTP while its T6 timer is running. The peer uses the remote processor recovered indication to notify its MTP3 that the remote processor outage condition has ceased. Alternatively. MTP3 may send a Flush Buffers or Continue command to M2PA as part of its processor outage procedure. M2PA shall continue to acknowledge incoming messages. M2PA should periodically send a link status processor outage message as long as there is a local processor outage and the link is in service. See Level 2 Flow Control.

M2PA should give higher priority to link status messages than to user data messages when sending messages to SCTP. 7) Transmission and reception priorities In MTP. After the link is placed in service and before a user data message has been received. When M2PA receives a user data message from SCTP. The backward sequence number is set to the FSN of the last user data message M2PA received from its peer. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-50 . M2PA should give higher priority to receiving notifications from SCTP over reading either the link status stream or the user data stream. the next FSN is 0. the BSN is set to 0. This serves as an M2PA-level acknowledgement of the message. To achieve this in M2PA. Procedures to Support the MTP3/MTP2 Interface 1) Sending/receiving messages When MTP3 sends a message for transmission to M2PA. M2PA shall report to MTP3 that the link is out of service. M2PA link status messages are passed to SCTP using the SEND primitive. M2PA shall send link status and user data messages on separate streams in its SCTP association. the forward sequence number is set to the FSN of the last user data message sent. Link status and user data messages shall be sent through SCTP on separate streams. M2PA passes the corresponding M2PA message to SCTP using the SEND primitive. M2PA passes the message to MTP3. The first user data message sent after the link is placed in services given a forward sequence number (FSN) of 1. M2PA shall discard the message.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN If M2PA loses the SCTP association for a link. All messages are sent using the ordered delivery option. link status messages have priority over user data messages. M2PA should give higher priority to reading the link status stream over the user data stream. The FSN of the header is incremented by 1 for each user data message sent. When the FSN reaches the maximum value. If M2PA receives a message from SCTP with an invalid message class or unsupported message type in the common message header. For message types other than user data. III.

It is suggested to set the value greater than 1. 4) flush buffers. M2PA shall follow the alignment procedure described above. 5) MTP3 signaling link congestion M2PA should receive the notification of SCTP transmission buffer congestion. M2PA does not need to perform retransmissions. Shall discard all messages currently waiting to be passed to MTP3. but how the notification is carried out is implementation dependent. M2PA shall send a link status out of service message to its peer. it may remove all messages with FSN <= n from its queue. If M2PA receives a Flush Buffers command from MTP3. upon receiving the link status out of service message. M2PA shall use the congestion indication primitive to notify its upper layer MTP3 of changes in the signaling link congestion status when it receives the SCTP congestion notification. When there are messages to be acknowledged. 6) Changeover Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-51 . M2PA shall resume receiving and transmitting messages. The peer M2PA. The sending interval should be greater than the value of lower layer SCTP retransmission timer. Note that since SCTP provides reliable delivery and ordered delivery within the stream. These messages shall be discarded. z If M2PA receives either a Flush Buffers or a Continue command from MTP3. but no user data or link status message to be sent. the message should be discarded. shall notify its upper layer MTP3 that the link is out of service. M2PA may send acknowledgement of a received message in an outgoing user data or link status message. If M2PA receives a user data message with an FSN that is out of order. M2PA: z Shall not transmit any messages to SCTP that are currently waiting to be transmitted to SCTP. and the processor outage condition ceases.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN When M2PA receives a message with BSN equal to 'n'. continue The Flush Buffers and Continue commands allow M2PA to resume normal operations such as transmission of messages to SCTP and receiving messages from SCTP after a processor outage (local and/or remote) ceases. 2) Link activation and restoration When MTP3 requests that M2PA activate or restore a link by a Start request. 3) Link deactivation When MTP3 requests that M2PA deactivate a link by a Stop command. M2PA may send the link status in service message.

MTP3 requests the backward sequence number to be transmitted (BSNT) from M2PA through the retrieve BSNT request. Note that only user data messages are retrieved and transmitted over the alternate links. Data retrieval consists of these steps: z Buffer updating. In the same way. duplication. If there are any messages on the M2PA or SCTP receive queues that have not been acknowledged by M2PA. MTP3 retrieves all the unsent and unacknowledged messages starting with sequence number (FSNC + 1). discard these messages. z Then M2PA shall send the retrieval complete indication to MTP3. M2PA determines the FSN of the last user data message received from the peer. that is. the remote end also detects its BSNT. These messages must be delivered to MTP3. For emergency changeover. The MTP3 layers exchange BSNT values through XCO and XCA messages. which is performed before opening the alternative signaling links to the diverted traffic. identifying all those user data messages in the retransmission buffer of the unavailable signaling link which have not been received by the far end M2PA. If M2PA receives a retrieve BSNT request from MTP3. After all the messages are sent from M2PA to MTP3. If M2PA receives a retrieval request and FSNC request from MTP3. Any non-transmitted user data messages exist. M2PA sends a retrieval complete indication to MTP3. M2PA shall retrieve from its buffers in order and deliver to MTP3: z Any transmitted user data messages beginning with the first unacknowledged message with FSN is greater than FSNC. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-52 . or wrong sequencing. For this purpose. The peer will retransmit them on an alternate link. The BSNT value is the FSN of the last user data message received from the peer. M2PA SHOULD. The BSNT received from the other end is called the FSNC. This is accomplished through a retrieval request and FSNC request. the changeover procedure includes data retrieval. For data retrieval. as well as not transmitted messages. M2PA shall respond with the BSNT confirmation. M2PA sends the BSNT value to MTP3 in the BSNT confirmation. Any messages acknowledged by M2PA must not be discarded. MTP3 retrieves only the unsent messages for transmission on the alternate link(s). When MTP3 receives the FSNC from the other end. Link status messages shall not be retrieved and transmitted over the alternate links. and z Transferring those messages to the transmission buffers of the alternate links.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The objective of the changeover is to ensure that signaling traffic carried by the unavailable signaling link is diverted to the alternative signaling link(s) as quickly as possible to avoid message loss. This value is the BSNT.

5. 2. Each AS contains a set of application server processes (ASP). so as to implement interworking between TDM SS7 and IP. Signaling Gateway Process (SGP) It specifies a processing instance of a signaling gateway. II. of which one or more is normally actively processing traffic. backup or load-sharing process of a signaling gateway. identified by a routing key “DPC/OPC/CICm~n”. But MTP3 provides for only one XCO/XCA message for sending the last-received sequence number. Another example is a virtual database element.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The changeover procedure makes it problematic for M2PA to have multiple user data streams in one direction for a link. Buffer updating would have to be done for each user data stream separately to avoid duplication or loss of messages. such as softswitch equipment over which a certain AS service is borne.1 Overview As SS7 MTP3-User adaptation layer. An IPSP is essentially the same as an ASP. Messages of ASs convey signaling by means of the association between the ASP and the SG. An example of an application server is a virtual switch element handling all call processing for a unique range of PSTN trunks.2 Concept of M3UA I. Application Server Process (ASP) It specifies a process instance of an application server. III. Application Server (AS) A logical entity represents certain resources and serves a specific “routing key”. IP Server Process (IPSP) It specifies a process instance of an IP-based application. except that it uses M3UA in a point-to-point fashion instead of using the services of a signaling gateway.5. IV. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-53 . One ASP corresponds to one SCTP endpoint. It serves as an active. handling all HLR transactions for a particular “DPC/OPC/SCCP_SSN” combination. 2.5 M3UA 2. M3UA provides primitive communication service for MTP3 users over IP network and MTP3 (in a signaling gateway) at the edge of a network.

Routing Key A routing key describes a set of SS7 parameters and parameter values (such as DPC. 2. which allows the IP-based node to exchange SS7 signaling messages with the SS7-based SEP. SIO+DPC+OPC and SIO+DPC+OPC+CIC) that uniquely define the range of signaling traffic to be handled by a particular application server. This nodal interworking function not only provides network status information to both sides of the Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-54 . The NIF within the SGP serves as the interface within the SGP between the MTP3 and M3UA. VI. SCTP is the lower-layer protocol of M3UA and provides an association to serve M3UA. M3UA has also unique layer management (LM) to provide management services.5.5. Parameters within the routing key cannot extend across more than a single destination point code. Routing Context A 32-bit value uniquely identifies a routing key.3 Architecture of M3UA protocol Figure 2-38 shows the architecture of the M3UA protocol. SIO+DPC. Signaling Point Management Cluster (SPMC) The complete set of application servers that belong to the same signaling point (SP). It provides a standard MTP3 interface for MTP3-User. VII. M3UA Application in SGP-ASP Mode At SGP. and MTP3 and STP or SEP are used to provide reliable transport of MTP3 user signaling messages. used to describe the status of an SP. MTP3-user M3UA SCTP IP LM Figure 2-38 Architecture of M3UA protocol From Figure 2-38 we can see M3UA is the lower-layer protocol of MTP3-User. The SGP provides a nodal interworking function (NIF) between SS7 and IP. 2. a standard SS7 signaling network interface is expected for the transmitting and receiving of SS7 MTP3 user signaling.4 Applications of M3UA I.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN V.

At an ASP. Larger information blocks can be accommodated directly by M3UA/SCTP. M3UA Application in IPSP-IPSP Mode Figure 2-40 shows the application model of M3UA in IPSP-IPSP mode. The M3UA layer does not impose a 272-octet signaling information field (SIF) length limit. ensuring that no mis-sequencing occurs. Figure 2-39 shows the application model of M3UA in SGP-ASP mode. without Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-55 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN network. but also provides necessary protocol information and management information about SS7.5. MGC IP MGC User M3UA SCTP IP User M3UA SCTP IP Figure 2-40 M3UA in IPSP-IPSP mode 2. the M3UA layer must choose through which SGP the message is to be routed or support load balancing across the SGPs. SEP SS7 SG IP MGC MTP User MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 NIF MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 M3UA SCTP IP NIF M3UA SCTP IP Figure 2-39 M3UA in IP signaling gateway II. in case where a destination is reachable through multiple SGPs. Support for the Transport of MTP3-user Messages The M3UA layer provides the transport of MTP-TRANSFER primitives across an established SCTP association between an SGP and an ASP or between IPSPs.5 Services Provided by M3UA I.

local management and/or the peer M3UA. in order to manage the SCTP associations and the traffic between the M3UA peers. z z z The M3UA layer at an ASP saves the route state at remote SS7 destinations. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-56 . such as through the knowledge of the expected local and remote SCTP endpoint addresses). III. one side (client) should be designated to establish the SCTP association. the M3UA layer must also provide interworking with MTP3 management functions to support seamless operation of signaling applications in the SS7 and IP domains. as appropriate. The M3UA layer at an ASP may also indicate to the SG that the M3UA layer itself or the ASP or the ASP’s host is congested. The M3UA layer may be instructed by local management to establish an SCTP association to a peer M3UA node. Support for the Management of SCTP Associations Between the SGP and ASPs The M3UA layer at the SGP maintains the availability state of all configured remote ASPs. IV. This information is requested form the M3UA layer at the SGP. the information block size limit may be increased past 272 octets. Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote MTP3-User peer is unavailable. However. the active/inactive and congestion state of remote ASPs is maintained. Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that messages to a remote MTP3-User peer in the SS7 network are experiencing congestion. II. or the M3UA configuration knowledge maintained to detect redundant associations. As well. The route state may initiate an audit of the availability or the congested state of remote SS7 destinations.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN the need for an upper layer segmentation/re-assembly procedure. Interworking with MTP3 Network Management Functions At the SGP. If the SS7 network is provisioned to support the broadband MTP. Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote destination in the SS7 network is now reachable. Native Management Functions The M3UA layer provides the capability to indicate errors associated with received M3UA messages and to notify. In order to avoid redundant SCTP associations between two M3UA peers. the maximum 272-octet block size must be followed when SG interworks to an SS7 network. This includes: z Providing an indication to MTP3-Users at an ASP that a remote destination in the SS7 network is not reachable.

Support for the Management of Connections to Multiple SGPs As we know. determined either within the M3UA layer or by a primitive from the SCTP. 1) Common message header The protocol messages for MTP3-User adaptation require containing the version.5. In such a case a particular SS7 destination may be reachable through more than one SGP and/or SG. Version: Release 1. an ASP may be connected to multiple SGPs. 3 0 1 2 01234567890123456789012345678901 Version Spare Message class Message type Message length Figure 2-41 Common message header z M3UA protocol version The version field contains the version of the M3UA adaptation layer. M3UA Message Format The general M3UA message format includes a common message header followed by zero or more parameters as defined by the message type. The supported version is: Value: 00000001. V. derive the overall availability or congestion status of the destination from the status of the individual routes.6 M3UA Protocol Unit I. that is. message type. Also. The message header is common for all signaling protocol adaptation layer messages. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-57 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Local management may request from the M3UA layer the status of the underlying SCTP associations. through more than one route. the M3UA may inform local management of the reason for the release of an SCTP association. the M3UA layer must maintain the status (availability and congestion of route to destination) of the individual routes. and inform the MTP3 users of this derived status whenever it changes. As MTP3 users only maintain status on a destination and not on a route basis. as shown in Figure 2-41. For forward compatibility. Also the M3UA layer may inform the local management of the change in status of an ASP or AS. 2.0 protocol. all message types may have attached parameters. message length and message content.

Table 2-10 and Table 2-11 list the message types defined by M3UA. Table 2-5 M3UA message type Message class Management (MGMT) message Transfer messages SS7 signaling messages network management (SSNM) 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A-7F 80-FF Message class code (hexadecimal) ASP state maintenance (ASPSM) messages ASP traffic maintenance (ASPTM) messages Reserved for other Sigtran adaptation layers Reserved for other Sigtran adaptation layers Reserved for other Sigtran adaptation layers Reserved for other Sigtran adaptation layers Routing key management (RKM) messages Reserved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Reserved for extensions IETF-defined message class Table 2-6 M3UA management (MGMT) message types Message type Error (ERR) Notify (NTFY) Reserved by the IETF Reserved for IETF-defined MGMT extensions 00 01 02-7F 80-FF Message type code (hexadecimal) Table 2-7 M3UA transfer message types Message type Reserved 00 Message type code (hexadecimal) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-58 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Message classes and types Table 2-5 lists the message classes defined by M3UA. 0. Table 2-6. Table 2-9. Table 2-7.

Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Message type Data (DATA) Reserved by the IETF Reserved for IETF-defined transfer extensions 01 Message type code (hexadecimal) 02-7F 80-FF Table 2-8 M3UA signaling network management (SSNM) message types Message type Reserved Destination unavailable (DUNA) Destination available (DAVA) Destination state audit (DAUD) SS7 network congestion (SCON) Destination user part unavailable (DUPU) Destination restricted temporarily) Reserved by the IETF Reserved for IETF-defined SSNM extensions (DRST) (not in use 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 7-7F 80-FF Message type code (hexadecimal) Table 2-9 M3UA state maintenance (ASPSM) message types Message type Reserved ASP up (ASPUP) ASP down (ASPDN) Heartbeat (BEAT) ASP up acknowledgement (ASPUP ACK) ASP down acknowledgement (ASPDN ACK) Heartbeat acknowledgement (BEAT ACK) Reserved by the IETF Reserved for IETF-defined ASPSM extensions 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 7-7F 80-FF Message type code (hexadecimal) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-59 .

2) Variable-length parameter format M3UA messages consist of a common header followed by zero or more variable length parameters. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-60 . the parameter padding must be included in the message length. including the common header. Figure 2-42 shows the format of all the parameters contained in a message. For messages with a final parameter containing padding.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Table 2-10 M3UA traffic maintenance (ASPTM) message types Message type Reserved ASP active (ASPAC) ASP inactive (ASPIA) ASP active acknowledgement (ASPAC ACK) ASP inactive acknowledgement (ASPIA ACK) Reserved by the IETF Reserved for IETF-defined ASPTM extensions 00 01 02 03 04 5-7F 80-FF Message type code (hexadecimal) Table 2-11 M3UA routing key management (RKM) message types Message type Reserved Registration request (REG REQ) Registration response (REG RSP) Deregistration request (DEREG REQ) Deregistration response (DEREG RSP) Reserved by the IETF Reserved for IETF-defined RKM extensions 00 01 02 03 04 5-7F 80-FF Message type code (hexadecimal) z Message length The message length defines the length of the message in octets.

A receiver should accept the parameters in any order. Table 2-12 lists the common parameter tags defined. the parameters may be in any order. M3UA-specific parameters have tags in the range from 0x0200 to 0x02FF. except where explicitly mandated. It’s value ranges from 0 to 65534. z Parameter tag The tag field is a 16-bit identifier of the type of parameter. Table 2-12 Common parameter tags Parameter Reserved Not used in M3UA Not used in M3UA Not used in M3UA INFO string Not used in M3UA Routing context Diagnostic information Not used in M3UA Heartbeat data Not used in M3UA Traffic mode type Error code Status Not used in M3UA Not used in M3UA Parameter tag code (hexadecimal) 0x0000 0x0001 0x0002 0x0003 0x0004 0x0005 0x0006 0x0007 0x0008 0x0009 0x000a 0x000b 0x000c 0x000d 0x000e 0x000f Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-61 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Parameter tag Parameter length Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Parameter value Figure 2-42 Variable-length parameter format When more than one parameter is included in a message. Common parameters used by adaptation layers are in the range from 0x00 to 0x3F.

Table 2-13 M3UA specific parameters Parameter Network appearance Reserved Reserved Reserved User/cause Congestion indications Concerned destination Routing key Registration result Deregistration result local_routing key identifier Destination point code Service indicators Reserved Originating point code list Circuit range Protocol data Reserved Registration status Deregistration status Reserved by the IETF 0x0200 0x0201 0x0202 0x0203 0x0204 0x0205 0x0206 0x0207 0x0208 0x0209 0x020a 0x020b 0x020c 0x020d 0x020e 0x020f 0x0210 0x0211 0x0212 0x0213 0x0214-0xffff Parameter tag code (hexadecimal) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-62 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Parameter Not used in M3UA ASP identifier Affected signaling point code Correlation ID Parameter tag code (hexadecimal) 0x0010 0x0011 0x0012 0x0013 Table 2-13 lists the M3UA specific parameters.

The parameter length does not include any padding bytes. The length of the parameter value is variable-. The parameter value field contains the actual information to be transferred in the parameter. including the complete MTP3 routing label. The length of the padding is not included in the parameter length field. The total length of a parameter including tag. II. If the length of the parameter is not a multiple of four bytes. The DATA message contains the SS7 MTP3-User protocol data. parameter length and parameter value fields. A sender should not pad with more than three bytes. The receiver must ignore the padding bytes. the sender pads the parameter at the end with all zero bytes.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Parameter length The parameter length is 16-bit. 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag(0x0200) Network appearance Tag(0x0006) Routing context Tag (0x00210) Protocol data Tag(0x0013) Correlation Id Length=8 Length=8 Length=8 Length=8 Figure 2-43 Data message parameter format 1) Network appearance Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-63 . parameter length and value fields must be a multiple of four bytes. The DATA message contains the following parameters: Network appearance Routing context Protocol data Correlation ID Optional (not in use temporarily) Optional Mandatory Optional Figure 2-43 shows the parameter format for the data message. Data Message (DATA) A DATA message contains a common message header and zero or more parameters defined by the message type. The parameter length field contains the size of the parameter in bytes. including the parameter tag.

two areas belong to the same NI (national master network) while the signaling point formats are different. it represents the routing key. The protocol data parameter contains the following fields: z z z z z Service indicator (SI) Network indicator (NI) Destination point code (DPC) Originating point code (OPC) Signaling link selection code (SLS) User protocol data includes MTP-User protocol elements such as ISUP. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-64 . the SS7 network indicator value. When the network appearance parameter is present. it must be the first parameter in the message as it defines the format of the protocol data field. and the MTP3/MTP3-User protocol type/variant/version. the network appearance parameter in the message is required. 2) Routing context The routing context is a 32-bit value. 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Idle Idle Idle SI Idle NI Protocol data OPC DPC Idle SLS Figure 2-44 Format of protocol data z z OPC: 24 bits. In a message. One area employs the 24-bit signaling point encoding scheme. 3) Protocol data The protocol data parameter contains the original SS7 MTP3 message. Figure 2-44 shows the format of the protocol data parameter. In such a case. For example. In a DATA message.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN It is a parameter in the message to supplement the network indicator (NI). DPC: 24 bits. SCCP or TUP parameters. including the service information octet and routing label. the network appearance implicitly defines the SS7 point code format used. The network appearance parameter is not used in the M3UA protocol specification temporarily. and the other employs the 14-bit signaling point encoding scheme.

SLS: 4 bits. SI: 4 bits. 1) Destination unavailable (DUNA:) The DUNA message is sent from all SGPs in an SG to all concerned ASPs to indicate that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are unreachable.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z z z z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN NI: 2 bits. The DUNA message contains the following parameters: z z z z Network appearance Routing context Affected destinations INFO string Optional (not in use temporarily) Optional Mandatory Optional 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag(0x0200) Network appearance Tag(0x0006) Routing context Tag(0x0012) Reserved Length Affected destinations DPC1 : Reserved Tag (0x0004) INFO string Affected destinations DPCn Length Length Length=8 Figure 2-45 DUNA message format The routing context parameter contains the routing context values related to the DUNA message. III. If multiple routing keys and routing contexts are used for a common association. It is also sent by an SGP in response to a message from the ASP to an unreachable SS7 destination. The MTP3-User at the ASP is expected to stop traffic to the affected destination in the DUNA message. Correlation Id: MSU in an AS to uniquely identify the load in the protocol data. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-65 . the routing contexts for the receiver can identify the traffic flow affected by the DUNA and assist in outgoing service management and internal distribution of MTP-PAUSE indication to the MTP3-User. SS7 Signaling Network Management (SSNM) Messages All M3UA protocol messages (including SSNM messages) contain a common message header and zero or more parameters defined by the message type.

For example. multiple affected DPCs may be useful when an SG cluster route or a link event simultaneously affects multiple destinations. The ASP MTP3-User protocol should resume traffic to the affected destination in the DAVA message. 2) Destination available (DAVA) : The DAVA message is sent from the SGP to all concerned ASPs to indicate that the SG has determined that one or more SS7 destinations are now reachable. but all affected DPCs must be within the same network appearance. The optional INFO string parameter can carry any 8-bit ASCII character string along with the message. No procedures are presently identified for its use but the INFO string may be used by operators to identify in text form the location reflected by the affected DPC for debugging purposes. Length of the INFO string parameter is from 0 to 255 characters. or in response to a DAUD message (refer to the following part). The DAUD message contains the following parameters: z z z z Network appearance Routing context Affected destinations INFO string Optional (not in use temporarily) Optional Mandatory Optional The format and description of the DAUD message parameters is the same as that of the DUNA message. It is optional to send an affected destinations parameter with more than one affected DPCs. 3) Destination state audit (DAUD) : The DAUD message may be sent from the ASP to the SGP to audit the availability/congestion state of SS7 routes to one or more affected destinations. The DAUD message may contain multiple affected DPCs parameter. The DAVA message contains the following parameters: z z z z Network appearance Routing context Affected destinations INFO string Optional (not in use temporarily) Optional Mandatory Optional The format and description of the DAVA message parameters is the same as that of the DUNA message. each 3-octet parameter allowing for 24-bit signaling point code format. but all the affected DPCs included must be within the same network appearance. 4) SS7 network congestion (SCON) :SCON Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-66 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The affected destinations parameter contains up to sixteen affected destination point code fields.

The concerned destination parameter is only used if the SCON message is sent from an ASP to the SGP. routing context. 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0200) Length=8 Network appearance Tag(0x0006) Routing context Tag (0x0012) Reserved Length Affected destination DPC1 : Reserved Tag (0x0206) Reserved Tag (0x205) Reserved Tag(0x0004) INFO string Concerned DPC Length Congestion indications Length Affected destination DPCn Length Length Figure 2-46 Format of SCON message The format and description of the network appearance. It contains the point code of the originator of the message that triggered the SCON message. The SCON message contains the following parameters: z z z z z z Network appearance Routing context Affected destinations Concerned destination Congestion indications INFO string Optional (not in use temporarily) Optional Mandatory Optional Optional Optional Figure 2-46 shows the format for the SCON message parameters. Any resulting transfer controlled (TFC) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-67 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The SCON message can be sent from the SGP to all concerned ASPs to indicate congestion in the SS7 network to one or more destinations. The SCON message may also be sent from the M3UA layer of an ASP to an M3UA peer indicating that the M3UA layer or the ASP is congested. or to an ASP in response to a DATA or DAUD message as appropriate. affected DPCs and INFO string parameters is the same as that of the DUNA message. The concerned destination parameter contains one concerned destination point code field.

The DUPU message contains the following parameters: Network appearance Routing context Affected destinations User/cause INFO string Optional (not in use temporarily) Optional Mandatory Mandatory Optional The format for DUPU message parameters is as follows: 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag(0x0200) Network appearance Tag(0x0006) Routing context Tag(0x0012) Reserved Tag(0x0204) Cause Tag(0x0004) INFO string Length=8 Affected destination DPC Length=8 User Length Length Length=8 Figure 2-47 Format of DUPU message The format and description of the network appearance. 5) Destination user part unavailable (DUPU): The DUPU message is used by an SGP to inform an ASP that a remote peer MTP3-User part at an SS7 node is unavailable. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-68 . affected DPCs and INFO string parameters is the same as that of the DUNA message except that only a single affected DPC is included in the affected destination parameter in the DUPU message. routing context. User/cause and MTP3-User are associated with the affected DPC. The congestion indications parameter is used to check if congestion occurs.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN message from the SG is sent to the concerned point code using the single affected DPC contained in the SCON message.

Table 2-14 Valid values for the unavailability cause parameter Description Unknown Unequipped remote user Inaccessible remote user 0x0000 0x0001 0x0002 Value The MTP3-User identity describes the specific MTP3-User that is unavailable.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The user/cause parameter provides the reason for the unavailability of the MTP3-User. such as ISUP. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-69 . The values align with those provided in the SS7 MTP3 user part unavailable message and service indicator. The valid values for the MTP3-User identity are shown in Table 2-15. ASP Management (ASPM) Messages 1) ASP Up message: The ASP Up message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer that the adaptation layer is ready to receive any SSNM or ASPM messages for all routing keys that the ASP is configured to serve. SCCP. The values agree with those provided in the SS7 MTP3 user part unavailable message. Table 2-15 Valid values for the MTP3 user identity Description Reserved SCCP TUP ISUP Reserved Broadband ISUP Satellite ISUP Reserved AAL type 2 signaling BICC Gateway control protocol Reserved Value 0x0000 –0x0002 0x0003 0x0004 0x0005 0x0006 – 0x0008 0x0009 0x000a 0x000b 0x000c 0x000d 0x000e 0x000f IV. and so on. The valid values for the unavailability cause parameter are shown in the following table.

SSNM. 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0011) ASP identifier Tag (0x0004) INFO string Length Length Figure 2-48 ASP Up message parameter format The optional ASP identifier parameter contains a uniquely meaningful value locally between ASPs supporting an AS. The format and description of the optional INFO string parameter is the same as that of the DUNA message. 3 0 1 2 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag(0x0004) INFO string Length Figure 2-49 ASP Up Ack message parameter format The format and description of the optional INFO string parameter is the same as that of the DUNA message. 2) ASP Up Ack message: The ASP Up Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP Up message received from a remote M3UA peer. The ASP Up Ack message contains the following parameters: INFO string Optional Figure 2-49 shows the format for the ASP Up Ack message parameters. RKM or ASPTM messages. The SGP should save the ASP identifier used in the NTFY message. The ASPDN message contains the following parameters: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-70 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The ASP Up message contains the following parameters: ASP identifier INFO string Optional Optional Figure 2-48 shows the format for the ASP Up message parameters. 3) ASP Down (ASPDN) message: The ASP Down (ASPDN) message is used to indicate to a remote M3UA peer that the adaptation layer is not ready to receive DATA.

. It is recommended for use when the M3UA runs over a transport layer other than the SCTP.. or in response to an ASPM message received by the ASP and locked due to management reasons.. The heartbeat data could include. 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0004) Heartbeat data .. 3 0 1 2 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0004) INFO string Length Figure 2-50 ASPDN message parameter format The format and description of the optional INFO string parameter is the same as that of the DUNA message.. The receiver of a BEAT message does not process this field. The BEAT message does not contain any parameter. 5) Heartbeat (BEAT) message:BEAT The BEAT message is optionally used to ensure that the M3UA peers are still available to each other. Figure 2-51 shows the format for the BEAT message. 4) ASP Down Ack (ASPDN Ack) message: The ASP Down Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASP Down message received from a remote M3UA peer. The ASPDN Ack message contains the following parameters: INFO string Optional The format for the ASPDN Ack message parameters is the same as that of the ASPDN message parameters.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN INFO string Optional Figure 2-50 shows the format for the ASPDN message parameters. for example. a heartbeat sequence number and/or timestamp. The receiver must respond with a BEAT Ack message. 6) Heartbeat acknowledgement (BEAT Ack) message:BEAT Ack Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-71 . Length Figure 2-51 BEAT message format The heartbeat data parameter contents are defined by the sending node.

It includes all the parameters of the received BEAT message. Typically. This is used to allow the registration of multiple routing keys in a single message.. if the routing key entry does not already exist. M3UA Routing Key Management (RKM) Messages 1) Registration request (REG REQ) The REG REQ message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer that it wishes to register one or more given routing keys with the remote peer.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The BEAT Ack message is sent in response to a received BEAT message.. and expect to receive an REG RSP message in return with an associated routing context value. The routing key parameter may be present multiple times in the same message. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-72 .. Tag (0x0207) Routing key n Length Length Figure 2-52 REG REQ message format The sender of this message expects that the receiver of this message will create a routing key entry and assign a unique routing context value to it. V. The format for the routing key parameter is shown in Figure 2-53. an ASP would send this message to an SGP... The REG REQ message contains the following parameters: Routing key Mandatory The format for REG REQ message is as follows: 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0207) Routing key 1 .

z Local-RK-identifier Figure 2-54 shows the format of the local-RK-identifier field. The identifier value is assigned by the ASP.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Local-RK-identifier Traffic mode type (optional) Destination point code Network appearance (optional) SI (optional) Origination point code list (optional) Circuit range list (optional) . and is used to correlate the response in an REG RSP message with the original registration request. The traffic mode type is shown in Figure 2-55: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-73 . Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Destination point code (DPC) SI(optional) Originating point code (OPC) list (optional) Circuit range list (optional) Figure 2-53 Routing key parameter format The mandatory local-RK-identifier field is used to uniquely identify the registration request. . The identifier value must remain unique until the REG RSP message is received. 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x020a) Length=8 Local RK identifier Figure 2-54 Local-RK-identifier parameter format z Traffic mode type Traffic mode type: 32-bit The traffic mode type parameter is mandatory and identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP(s) within an application server. .

excluding MTP management. z Service indicators (SI) The optional SI field contains one or more service indicators. then the traffic mode type sets the traffic mode for the new application server. the traffic mode type must match the existing traffic mode for the AS. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-74 . Where an SI parameter does not contain a multiple of four Sis. The absence of the SI parameter in the routing key indicates the use of any SI value. If the receiver of the REG REQ determines that a matching routing key already exists. Its format is shown in Figure 2-56.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x020b) Length=8 Traffic mode identifier Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Figure 2-55 Traffic mode type parameter format The valid values for traffic mode type are as follows: z z z over-ride load-share broadcast If the receiver of the REG REQ creates a new routing key entry. 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x020b) Reserved Length=8 Destination Point Code Figure 2-56 Destination point code parameter format z Network appearance The network appearance parameter is not in use temporarily. The format of SI is shown in Figure 2-57. z Destination point code The destination point code parameter is mandatory. and identifies the destination point code of incoming SS7 traffic. the parameter is padded.

. Length=variable SI#3 SI#4 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN SI#n 0 padding if necessary Figure 2-57 SI parameter format z Originating point code The optional originating point code (OPC) list parameter contains one or more OPC entries. DPC and CIC value. Its format is as follows: 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x020e) Reserved .. A circuit is uniquely identified by the SS7 OPC. The DPC is implicit as it is mandatory and already included in the DPC parameter of the routing key.. The OPC is encoded the same as the DPC. For the purposes of identifying circuit ranges in an M3UA routing key. and its format is the same as the destination point code parameter.. Length=variable OPC#1 Reserved OPC#n Figure 2-58 OPC parameter format z Circuit range list The circuit range list parameter is optional. while the CIC values are 12-bit integers.. each identified by an OPC and upper/lower CIC value.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x020c) SI#1 SI#2 ... Its format is as follows: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-75 . the optional circuit range parameter includes one or more circuit ranges..

The format of each result is shown in Figure 2-61: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-76 .....Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x020f) Reserved Lower CIC value #1 Reserved Lower CIC value #2 .. The REG RSP message contains the following parameters: Registration results The format for the REG RSP message is shown in Figure 2-60: 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0208) Length=variable Registration result 1 .. Reserved Lower CIC vlaue #n OPC#n Upper CIC value #n Length=8 OPC#1 Upper CIC value #1 OPC#2 Upper CIC value #2 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Figure 2-59 Circuit range list parameter format 2) Registration response (REG RSP) The REG RSP message is used as a response to the REG REQ message from a remote M3UA peer.... The number of results in a single REG RSP message may match the number of routing key parameters found in the corresponding REG REQ message. each containing the registration status for a single routing key in an REG REQ message.. It contains indications of success/failure for registration requests and returns a unique routing context value for successful registration requests for the subsequent M3UA traffic management protocol. Registration result n Figure 2-60 REG RSP message format The registration results parameter contains one or more results.

3) De-registration request (DEREG REQ) The DEREG REQ message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer that it wishes to de-register a given routing key. It is set to “0” if the registration was not successful. an ASP would send this message to Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-77 . The registration result status field indicates the success or the reason for the failure of a registration request.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag=0x020a Length=8 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Local-RK-identifier value Tag=0x0212 Registration status Tag=0x0006 Routing context Length=8 Length=8 Figure 2-61 Registration result parameter format Local-RK-identifier identifies 32-bit integers and contains the same value as that is found in the REG REQ message. Its values may be: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Successfully registered Error – unknown Error – invalid DPC Error – invalid network appearance Error – invalid routing key Error – permission denied Error – cannot support unique routing Error – routing key not currently provisioned Error – insufficient resources Error – unsupported RK parameter field Error – unsupported/invalid traffic handling mode The routing context field contains the routing context value for the associated routing key if the registration was successful. Typically.

..... Length Figure 2-62 DEREG REQ message format Routing context is an n X 32-bit parameter. Tag (0x0209) De-registration result n Length Length Figure 2-63 DEREG RSP message format The de-registration results parameter contains one or more results. The routing context parameter contains a list of integers indexing the application server traffic. The number of results in a single DEREG RSP message may match the number of routing contexts found in the corresponding DEREG REQ message... The DEREG REQ message contains the following parameters: Routing context The format for the DEREG REQ message is shown in Figure 2-62: 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0006) Routing context .. If multiple DEREG RSP messages are used to respond the DEREG REQ message.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN an SGP.. only one specific result can be contained in the DEREG RSP message. The DEREG RSP message contains the following parameters: De-registration results The format for the DEREG RSP message is as follows: 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0209) De-registration result 1 . 4) De-registration response (DEREG RSP) The DEREG RSP message is used as a response to the DEREG REQ message from a remote M3UA peer. The format of each result is as follows: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-78 . each containing the de-registration status for a single routing context in a DEREG REQ message. and expects to receive a DEREG RSP message in return with the associated routing context value..

ASP Traffic Maintenance (ASPTM) Messages 1) ASP active (ASPAC) The ASPAC message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer that it is ready to process signaling traffic for a particular application server. as found in the DEREG REQ message. Its values may be: 0 Successfully de-registered 1 Error – unknown 2 Error – invalid routing context 3 Error – permission denied 4 Error – not registered 5 Error – ASP currently active for routing context VI. The de-registration result status field indicates the success or the reason for the failure of the de-registration. The ASPAC message affects only the ASP state for the routing keys identified by the routing contexts. The routing context field contains the routing context value of the matching routing key to deregister. The ASPAC message contains the following parameters: z z z Traffic mode type Routing context INFO string Optional Optional Optional The format for the ASPAC message is shown in Figure 2-65: Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-79 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 2 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag=0x0006 Routing context Tag=0x0213 Length=8 De-registration status Length=8 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Figure 2-64 De-registration result parameter format Routing context is a 32-bit integer.

identified by separate SS7 DPC/OPC/CIC ranges. over-ride and load share. a routing context defines a range of signaling traffic that the ASP is currently configured to receive from the SGP.. There is a one-to-one relationship between an index entry and an SGP routing key or AS name. For example. and the ASP takes over all traffic in an application server. The over-ride value indicates that the ASP is operating in over-ride mode.. The routing context parameter contains a list of integers indexing the application server traffic.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x000b) Traffic mode type Tag (0x0006) Routing context . The valid values for traffic mode type are shown in Table 2-16: Table 2-16 Valid values for traffic mode type Value 1 2 3 Over-ride Load-share Broadcast Description For a particular routing context. From the perspective of an ASP. In broadcast mode. In load-share mode. the ASP will share in the traffic distribution with any other currently active ASPs. an ASP could be configured to support call processing for multiple ranges of PSTN trunks and therefore receive related signaling traffic.. the ASP will receive messages the same as other active ASPs. An application server process may be configured to process traffic for more than one logical application server. such as primary/backup operation. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-80 . Tag (0x0004) INFO string Length Length Length Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Figure 2-65 ASPAC message format z Traffic mode type The traffic mode type parameter identifies the traffic mode of operation of the ASP within an AS. z Routing context Routing context is an optional n X 32-bit integer parameter.. must not be mixed. either active or standby.

4) ASP inactive acknowledgement (ASPIA Ack) A Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-81 .. 3) ASP inactive (ASPIA) The ASPIA message is sent by an ASP to indicate to a remote M3UA peer that it is no longer an active ASP to be used from within a list of ASPs.. The ASPAC Ack message contains the following parameters: z z z Traffic mode type Routing context INFO string Optional Optional Optional The format for the ASPAC Ack message is similar to that for the ASPAC message. The ASPIA message affects only the ASP state for the routing keys identified by the routing contexts.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN INFO string The format and description of the optional INFO string parameter is the same as that for the DUNA message. 2) ASP active acknowledgement (ASPAC Ack) A The ASPAC Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASPAC message received from a remote M3UA peer.. The format and description of the optional INFO string parameter is the same as that for the DUNA message. The ASPIA message contains the following parameters: z z Routing context INFO string Optional Optional The format for the ASPIA message parameters is as follows: 3 0 1 2 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x0006) Routing context .. The format for traffic mode type and routing context is the same as the parameter format for the ASPAC message. Tag (0x0004) INFO string Length Length Figure 2-66 ASPIA message format The format and description of the optional routing context and INFO string parameters is the same as that for the ASPAC message.

Management (MGMT) Messages 1) Error (ERR) The ERR message is used to notify a peer of an error event associated with an incoming message. The ERR message contains the following parameters: z z z z z Error code Routing key Network appearance Affected signaling point code Diagnostic information Mandatory Mandatory Optional Mandatory Optional The format for the ERR message is shown in Figure 2-67. the unexpected message type might be given the current state. VII. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-82 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The ASPIA Ack message is used to acknowledge an ASPIA message received from a remote M3UA peer. The ASPIA Ack message contains the following parameters: z z Routing context INFO string Optional Optional The format for the ASPIA Ack message parameters is similar to that for the ASPIA message parameters. For example. or a parameter value might be invalid. The format and description of the optional routing context and INFO string parameters is the same as that for the ASPAC message.

..... The error parameter value can be one of the values in Table 2-17..Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway 2 0 1 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x000c) Error code Tag (0x0006) Routing context . Table 2-17 Valid values for error parameter Value 0x01 0x02 0x03 0x04 0x05 0x06 0x07 0x08 0x09 0x0a 0x0b 0x0c Invalid version Not used in M3UA Unsupported message class Unsupported message type Unsupported/invalid traffic handling mode Unexpected message Protocol error Not used in M3UA Invalid stream identifier Not used in M3UA Not used in M3UA Not used in M3UA Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-83 Description .. Affected signaling point code n Tag (0x0200) Network appearance Tag (0x0007) Length Length Length Length=8 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Diagnostic information Figure 2-67 ERR message format z Error code The error code parameter indicates the reason for the ERR message.... Tag (0x0012) Length Affected signaling point code 1 .

The “protocol error” error is sent for any protocol anomaly.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Value 0x0d 0x0e 0x0f 0x10 0x11 0x12 0x13 0x14 0x15 0x16 0x17 0x18 0x19 0x1a Description Refused – management blocking Requiring ASP identifier Invalid ASP identifier Not used in M3UA Invalid parameter value Parameter field error Unexpected parameter Unknown destination status Invalid network appearance Loss of parameter Not used in M3UA Not used in M3UA Invalid routing context Not configuring AS for ASP The “invalid version” error is sent if a message was received with an invalid or unsupported version. The “unsupported message type” error is sent if a message with an unexpected or unsupported message type is received. reception of a parameter that is syntactically correct but unexpected in the current situation. The ERR message could optionally provide the supported version in the diagnostic information area. The “unsupported message class” error is sent if a message with an unexpected or unsupported message class is received. The ERR message contains the supported version in the common header. The “unexpected message” error may be sent if a defined and recognized message is received that is not expected in the current state (in some cases the ASP may optionally silently discard the message and not send an ERR message). for example. The “unsupported/invalid traffic handling mode” error is sent by an SGP if an ASP sends an ASP active message with an unsupported traffic mode type or a traffic mode type that is inconsistent with the presently configured mode for the application server. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-84 . An example would be a case in which the SGP did not support load-sharing.

The “unknown destination status” error is sent if a DUAD message is received by an SG to audit the availability/congestion state of the destination but the SG does not expect to provide the state. The “invalid ASP identifier” error is sent in response to an ASP Up message when the ASP Up message is received by an SGP with invalid. The “loss of parameter” error is sent if a message is received without mandatory parameters. In the case of an invalid traffic handling mode. The “invalid parameter value” error is sent if a message is received with an invalid parameter value. the sender has no right to know the state). The “requiring ASP identifier” error is sent in response to an ASP Up message when the ASP Up message is received by an SGP without the ASP identifier parameter and the SGP requires this parameter. the diagnostic Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-85 . For example. the ERR message must contain the invalid routing context. z Diagnostic information Diagnostic information: variable length When included. or not unique. a DUPU message was received with a mask value other than “0”). For such error.If this error is in response to an ASP-Active message. The “invalid routing context” error is sent if a message is received from a peer with invalid (not configured) routing context value. a management message was received on a stream other than “0”. The “refused – management blocking” error is sent when an ASP-Up or ASP-Active message is received and the request is refused for management reasons like management lock-out). The “unexpected parameter” error is sent if a message is received with an invalid parameter. For example. to assist in identification of the error condition. ASP identifier. the ERR message should contain the routing context found in the ASP-Active message. The “not configuring AS for ASP” error is sent if a message is received from a peer without a routing context parameter and it is not known by configuration data which application servers are referenced. the optional diagnostic information can be any information germane to the error condition.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The “invalid stream identifier” error is sent if a message is received on an unexpected SCTP stream. routing context or parameter value. The “parameter field error” error is sent if a message is received with an error length field in the parameter. For example.

2) Notify (NTFY) The NTFY message is used to provide an autonomous indication of M3UA events to an M3UA peer. the following status information values in Table 2-19 are used. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-86 .Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN information parameter must be added and include the offending parameter. Table 2-18 lists the valid status type values.. the diagnostic information may be the first 40 bytes of the offending message. The NTFY message contains the following parameters: z z z z Status ASP identifier Routing context INFO string Mandatory Optional Optional Optional The format for the NTFY message is shown in Figure 2-68. In the other cases. Table 2-18 Status type parameter of the NTFY message Value 1 2 Description Application server state change AS_State_Change Other z Status information parameter The status information parameter contains more detailed information for the notification. 0 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901 Tag (0x000d) Status type Tag (0x0011) ASP identifier Tag (0x0006) Routing context Tag (0x0004) INFO string Length Length Length=8 Status information Length Figure 2-68 NTFY message format z Status type parameter The status type parameter identifies the type of the NTFY message. based on the value of the status type. ERR messages must not be generated in response to other ERR messages. If the status type is AS_State_Change.

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Table 2-19 Status information values if the status type is AS_State_Change Value
1 2 3 4 Reserved Application server inactive (AS_Inactive) Application server active (AS_Active) Application server pending (AS_Pending)

Description

These notifications are sent from an SGP to an ASP upon a change in status of a particular application server. The value reflects the new state of the application server. If the status type is “other”, then the following status information values in Table 2-20 are defined.

Table 2-20 Status information values in the case of other Value
0x01 0x02 0x03

Description
Insufficient ASP resources active in AS Alternate ASP active ASP failure

These notifications are not based on the SGP reporting the state change of an ASP or AS. In the insufficient ASP resources case, the SGP is indicating to an ASP-INACTIVE ASP in the AS that another ASP is required in order to handle the load of the AS (load-sharing mode or broadcast mode). For the alternate ASP active case, an ASP is informed when an alternate ASP transitions to the ASP-ACTIVE state in over-ride mode. The format and description of the optional ASP identifier, routing context and INFO string parameters are the same as that for the ASPAC message.

2.5.7 Functions Supported by M3UA
I. Signaling Point Code Representation
In an SS7 network, a signaling gateway represents a set of nodes in the IP domain through which the SS7 network is routed.. The SG itself, as a physical node in the SS7 network, might also be represented by an SS7 point code for MTP3 management purposes. The SG point code might also used for addressing any local MTP3-Users at the SG such as an SG-resident SCCP function.

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II. Routing
The distribution of SS7 messages between the SGP and the application servers is determined by routing keys and associated routing contexts. Possible SS7 address/routing information that comprise a routing key entry includes, for example, the OPC, DPC, SIO found in the MTP3 routing label, or MTP3-User specific fields such as the ISUP CIC, SCCP subsystem number, and TCAP transaction ID.

III. SS7 and M3UA Interworking
In case of SS7 and M3UA inter-working, the M3UA adaptation layer is designed to provide an extension of the MTP3 defined user primitives. 1) Signaling gateway SS7 layers

The SG terminates MTP level 3 of the SS7 protocol, and offers an IP-based extension to its users. From an SS7 perspective, it is expected that the signaling gateway transmits and receives SS7 message signaling units (MSUs) to and from the PSTN over a standard SS7 network interface, using the SS7 message transfer part (MTP) [14,15,16] to provide reliable transport of the messages. The SS7 interface of SG may be 64kb/s signaling link, or 2Mb/s high-speed signaling link. 2) SS7 and M3UA inter-working at the SG

The SGP provides a functional inter-working of transport functions between the SS7 network and the IP network by also supporting the M3UA adaptation layer. It allows the transfer of MTP3-user signaling messages to and from an IP-based application server process where the peer MTP3-user protocol layer exists. 3) Application server From an SS7 standpoint, a signaling point management cluster (SPMC)

A cluster of application servers provides the overall support for one or more SS7 upper layers. provides complete support for the upper layer service for a given point code. As an example, an SPMC providing MGC capabilities must provide complete support for ISUP and any other MTP3 user located at the point code of the SPMC for a given point code, according to the local SS7 network specifications. In case that an ASP is connected to more than one SGP, the M3UA layer must maintain the status of configured SS7 destinations and route messages according to availability/congestion/restricted status of the routes to these SS7 destinations. 4) IPSP considerations

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Chapter 2 SIGTRAN

Since IPSPs use M3UA in a point-to-point fashion, there is no concept of routing of messages beyond the remote end. Therefore, SS7 and M3UA inter-working is not necessary for this model.

IV. Congestion Management
At an ASP or IPSP, the M3UA layer indicates congestion to local MTP3-users by means of an MTP-STATUS primitive, as per current MTP3 procedures, to invoke appropriate upper layer responses. When an SG determines that the transport of SS7 messages to a signaling point management cluster (SPMC) is encountering congestion, the SG may trigger SS7 MTP3 transfer controlled management messages to originating SS7 nodes, per the congestion procedures of the relevant MTP3 standard.

V. SCTP Stream Mapping
The M3UA layer at both the SGP and ASP also supports the assignment of signaling traffic into streams within an SCTP association. Traffic that requires sequencing must be assigned to the same stream. To accomplish this, MTP3-User traffic may be assigned to individual streams based on, for example, the SLS value in the MTP3 routing label or the ISUP CIC assignment, subject of course to the maximum number of streams supported by the underlying SCTP association. The use of SCTP streams within M3UA is recommended in order to minimize transmission and buffering delays, therefore improving the overall performance and reliability of the signaling elements. The distribution of the MTP3 user messages over the various streams should be done in such a way to minimize message mis-sequencing, as required by the SS7 user parts.

VI. Client/Server Model
It is recommended that the SGP and ASP be able to support both client and server operation. The peer endpoints using M3UA should be configured so that one always takes on the role of client and the other the role of server for initiating SCTP associations. The default orientation would be for the SGP to take on the role of server while the ASP is the client. In this case, ASPs should initiate the SCTP association to the SGP. In case of IPSP to IPSP communication, the peer endpoints using M3UA should be configured so that one always takes on the role of client and the other the role of server for initiating SCTP associations. The SCTP registered user port number assignment for M3UA is 2905.

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dynamic registration This scenario is the same as the former one but with the optional exchange of registration information.8 M3UA Message Procedures The following examples show M3UA message flows for the establishment of traffic between an SGP and an ASP.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN 2.RKn) ASP active (RCn) ASP active Ack (RCn) LRC: Local Routing Context RK: Routing Key RC: Routing Context ASP1 Figure 2-70 Procedure to set up an M3UA message (example 2) Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-90 . It is assumed that the SCTP association is already set up. I. SG P/IPSP ASP1/IPSP1 ASP Up ASP Up Ack ASP active (RCn) ASP active Ack (RCn) RC: Routing Context (optional) Figure 2-69 Procedure to set up an M3UA messageof (example 1) z Single ASP in an application server (“1+0” sparing). where only one ASP is configured within an AS (no backup). In such conditions. SGP ASP Up ASP Up Ack REG REQ (LRCn. the sending of M3UA messages is shown in Figure 2-69.RKn) REGRSP (LRCn.5. In this case the registration is accepted by the SGP. Establishment of Association and Traffic Between SGPs and ASPs 1) Single ASP in an application server This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment of traffic between an SGP and an ASP. z Single ASP in an application server (“1+0” sparing). the sending of M3UA messages is shown in Figure 2-70. no registration In such conditions.

active/backup) This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment of traffic between an SGP and two ASPs in the same application server. the sending of M3UA messages is shown in Figure 2-71.RK1) REG RSP(LRC1. SGP ASP Up ASP Up Ack REG REQ(LRC1. although typically this example would use an over-ride mode. where ASP1 is configured to be in the ASP-ACTIVE state and ASP2 is to be a “backup” in the event of communication failure or the withdrawal from service of ASP1. The example message flow is the same whether the ASP active messages indicate “over-ride”. or cold back-up depending on the extent to which ASP1 and ASP2 share call/transaction state or can communicate call state under failure/withdrawal events. The SGP may start sending any relevant DUNA and SCON messages to ASPs as soon as they enter the ASP-INACTIVE state.RC1) ASP active(RC1) ASP active Ack (RC1) LRC: Local Routing Context RK: Routing Key RC: Routing Context ASP1 REG REQ (LRCn. “load-share” or “broadcast” mode. In such conditions. warm.RCn) ASP active (RCn) ASP activeAck (RCn) Figure 2-71 Procedure to set up an M3UA message (example 3) 2) z Multiple ASPs in application server Two ASPs in application server (“1+1” sparing.RKn) REG RSP (LRCn. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-91 . ASP2 may act as a hot. dynamic registration In such conditions. the sending of M3UA messages is shown in Figure 2-72.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway z Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Single ASP in multiple application servers (each with “1+0” sparing).

In such conditions. load-sharing case) This scenario shows the example M3UA message flows for the establishment of traffic between an SGP and three ASPs in the same application server. In such conditions.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway SGP ASP Up ASP Up Ack ASP Up ASP Up Ack ASP Active ASP Active Ack ASP1 ASP2 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN Figure 2-72 Procedure to set up an M3UA message (example 4) z Two ASPs in an application server (“1+1” sparing. where two of the ASPs are brought to the state ASP-ACTIVE and subsequently share the load. the sending of M3UA messages is shown in Figure 2-74. In this case. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-92 . load-sharing case) This scenario shows a similar case to the former one but where the two ASPs are brought to the state ASP-ACTIVE and subsequently share the load. SGP ASP Up ASP-Up Ack ASP Up ASP-Up Ack ASP Active (load-share) ASP Active Ack NFTY (AS_Active) ASP Active (load-share) ASP Active Ack ASP1 ASP2 Figure 2-73 Procedure to set up an M3UA message (example 5) 3) Three ASPs in an application server (“n + k” sparing. one ASP is sufficient to handle the total traffic load. a minimum of two ASPs are required to handle the total traffic load (2 + 1 sparing). the sending of M3UA messages is shown in Figure 2-73. In this case.

the initial ASP inactive message exchange (for example. back-up over-ride Refer to Figure 2-72 for the process that ASP1 withdraws from service as shown in Figure 2-75. 2) 1+1 sparing. between the SGP and the ASP1) would not occur.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway ASP3 Chapter 2 SIGTRAN SGP ASP Up ASP Up Ack ASP Up ASP1 ASP2 ASP Up Ack ASP Up ASP Up Ack ASP Active (load-share) ASP Active Ack NTFY (AS_Active) NTFY (AS_Active) ASP Act (load-share) ASP Active Ack Figure 2-74 Procedure to set up an M3UA message (example 6) II. back-up over-ride Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-93 . withdrawal of ASP. ASP Traffic Fail-over Examples 1) 1+1 sparing. SGP ASP inactive ASP inactive Ack NTFY (AS-Pending) ASP active ASP active Ack ASP2 Figure 2-75 ASP traffic fail-over exampleof 1 Note: If the SGP M3UA layer detects the loss of the M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss or detection of SCTP failure).

Normal Withdrawal of an ASP from an Application Server and Teardown of an Association An ASP which is now confirmed in the state ASP-INACTIVE (for example.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN The following is based on the example in Figure 2-72. III. the SG maintains knowledge of the minimum ASP resources required. the initial ASP inactive message exchange (for example. load-sharing case. and ASP2 wishes to over-ride ASP1 and take over the traffic. between the SGP and the ASP1) would not occur. For example. Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-94 . if it is to be removed from service. Note: If the SGP detects loss of the ASP1 M3UA peer (M3UA heartbeat loss or detection of SCTP failure). SG ASP1 ASP2 ASP3 ASP inactive ASP inactive Ack NTFY ((insufficient ASPs) ASP active (load-sharing) ASP active Ack Figure 2-77 ASP traffic fail-over example 3 For the NTFY message to be sent. then “n” currently equals “1”). if the SG knows that “n + k” = “ 2 + 1” for a load-share AS. See Figure 2-76. See Figure 2-77. withdrawal of ASP The following is based on the example in Figure 2-72 and ASP1 withdraws from service. the ASP has received an ASP inactive Ack message) may now proceed to the ASP-DOWN state. SG ASP1 ASP active ASP active Ack NTFY (alternate ASP-active) ASP2 Figure 2-76 ASP traffic fail-over example 2 3) n+k sparing.

as shown in Figure 2-79. data exchange and disconnection) for IPSP communication.RCn ) ASP Down ASP Down Ack RC: Routing Context ASP1 Figure 2-78 Example of normal withdrawal of an ASP from an application server and teardown of an association IV.Technical Manual – Signaling and Protocols U-SYS SG7000 Signaling Gateway Chapter 2 SIGTRAN See Figure 2-78. this example indicates the three stages (setup. M3UA Message Communication Example in IPSP-IPSP Mode Supposing an SCTP association has been set up. SGP ASP inactive (RCn) ASP inactive Ack (RCn) DEREG REQ(RCn) DEREG RSP( LRCn. ASP Up ASP Up Ack ASP active (RCb) RC: Routing Context ( (optional) ) ASP active Ack (RCb) DATA ASP inactive (RCb) RC: Routing Context (optional) ) ASP inactive Ack (RCb) ASP Down ASPDown Ack Figure 2-79 M3UA message communication example in IPSP-IPSP mode Huawei Technologies Proprietary 2-95 .