01 Safety and Hygiene | Occupational Safety And Health | Hygiene

Safe and Hygiene Working Practise

Advanced Technical Skills – FBA 11 In Food & Beverage Service (Theory) Mr J. Zahra

Roderick Zammit


October 2005


CONTENTS Page No 2 2 3 5 7 9 11 12 13 13 14

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10

Introduction The need for safety First Aid Procedures Fire Preventing a fir Fighting Procedures/drill Tracing and avoiding Breaches Methods of Handling and cleaning equipment Personal Hygiene, cleanliness and appearance Training schemes Information( Recording and Delivering if necessary) Young workforce Bibliography Appendices





In the fast-paced environment of Hotels and Restaurants, a common attitude is that accidents are inevitable and a part of doing business. Every injury means losses. Lost money, lost time, and lost productivity. In addition, more importantly they mean that workers and their families suffer pain and have their lives disrupted. If accidents are prevented, the savings can be significant; less over time, less retraining, and less time spent investigating, accidents, to name a few. The other benefits are also rewarding; morale improves and workers feel valued. Hotels and Restaurants take pride in the service they offer tourists and other customers. Most of the employees take customers satisfaction so seriously, they think of their customer’s safety before their own. Hotels and Restaurant could prevent many work place injuries by paying the same kind of attention to employee’s health and safety as they do to customer satisfaction. 1.2 THE NEED FOR SAFETY The need of safety and is the dual responsibility of employers and employees at work is to ensure that the Hotel or Restaurant premises and equipment are safe and that they are kept safe from preventing accidents. Hygiene has to be considered as a safety precaution. Hygiene is the science of preserving health safety. Excluding profit and customer care, safety and hygiene are the most important and common subjects at all levels, for every person in touch with in the Hotel or Restaurant. First is essential to analyze the situation to ascertain what could be unsafe, what may cause risk or be a hazard and to have a system to reduce the risk: ANTICIPATION OF THE EXSISTANCE OR DEVELOPMENT OF WORKPLACE HAZARDS ↓ MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND LEADERSHIP TO A SAFE AND HEALTHY WORKPLACE ↓ IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS ↓ EVALUATION OF EXISTING OR POTENTIAL WORKPLACE HAZARDS ↓ ELIMINATION OF HAZARDS ↓ HAZARD CONTROL THROUGH A HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM




1.3 FIRST AID & PROCEDURES As the term implies this is the immediate treatment on the spot to a person who has been injured or is ill. If the injury is serious the injured person should be treated by a doctor or nurse as soon as possible. The Local – Health and Safety Act 2000 (vide Appendix 1- workplace first aid only) The English – Health and Safety Act 1974 Both Acts aims are to extend the coverage and protection of the law to all employers and employees; to increase awareness of safety amongst those at work, both employers and employees. A First aid should contain the following items: a. A minimum of ten individually wrapped sterile adhesive dressing in various sizes b. Sterile eye pads with attachment c. Triangular bandages d. A minimum of six safety pins e. A minimum of three sterile unmediated dressings in various sizes f. A suitable supply of sterile eye wash g. A minimum of three surgical gloves of different sizes With the above- mentioned also can include: a. b. c. d. A card giving general first aid guidance Cotton wool pack (1oz) Accident Report book to record all injuries( vide Appendix 2) Tweezers & Scissors




The first aid should be hanged near the list of first-aiders and their contact numbers and also the list of emergency telephones in our case the 112. Where there are 200 or over employees a first aid room complete with all necessary equipment and medical staff (nurse) should be appointed. If an accident happen these are the first to bear in mind 1. “Don’t panic” keep calm send some asking for help 2. Analyze, control and monitor the situation as soon as possible. Don’t let people jam around the victim. 3. If you are capable and in position, immediately give fist aid assistance otherwise pass to step 4 4. Call for Medical or qualified staff. Sort of accidents and basic treatment to be carried out. Burns and Scalds – Place the injury part gently under slowly running water or immerse in cool water, keeping it there for at least 10 minutes or until the pain ceases. If serious, the burn or scald should then be covered with a clean cloth or dressing and the person sent immediately to hospital. Cuts - All cuts should be covered immediately with a waterproof dressing, after the skin round the cut has been washed. When there is considerable bleeding it should be stopped as soon as possible. Bleeding may be controlled by direct pressure: banding firmly on the cut, by pressing the artery with the thumb against the underlying bone. Electric shocks - switch of the current or free the person by using a dry insulating material such as wood or rubber. Avoid contact with bare hands otherwise the electric shock will be transmitted. If breathing has stopped give artificial respiration and send for a doctor. Fainting - The signs of an impending faint are whiteness, giddiness and sweating. Treated by – raising the legs slightly above the level of the head and, when the person recovers consciousness. Accompany the person to fresh air for a while and making sure that the person has not incurred any injury in fainting. Fracture – A person suffering from broken bones should not be moved until the injured part has been secured so that it cannot move. Medical assistance should be obtained.




Gassing - do not let the gassed person walk, but carry them into the fresh air. If breathing has stopped give artificial respiration and send for a doctor. Nose Bleeds – Sit the person down with the head forward, and loosen clothing round the neck and chest. Ask them to breathe through the mouth and a pinch the soft part of the nose for several hours. If the bleeding has not stopped. Recurs in 30 minutes. Shock – The signs of a shock are faintness, sickness, clammy skin and pale face. Treated by – Lying down and warm cover the person with a blanket or clothing.

1.4 FIRE PREVENTION & FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURES/DRILL Three components are necessary for a fire to start, if one of the three is not present, or one the fire is removed the fire will extinguished. The tree parts are; FUEL HEAT OXYGEAN

Fuel – the material to burn Oxygen – Air to sustain combustion (keep the fire going) Heat – Gas, electricity, etc Fire Precautions work place Regulations 1997 Fire Precautions work place Amendment Regulations 1999 These law states: Fire safety risk assessment must be carried out for establishment having sleeping accommodation for more than six persons, guests or staff. This applies to hotels and covers the risk of a fire occurring and risk people in the event of a fire. A fire certificate states the means of a safe escape, the fire-fighting equipment available and a means of giving warning in the event of a fire. The local fire authority issues fire certificates. The authority is under duty to inspect the premises to ensure that the means of escape and related precautions are what are required for those particular premises.




Requirements for the fire Certificate • • • • • • The use of the premises The means of escape in case of fire The means of securing that the way of escape can be safely and effectively used at all times. The means of fighting fire for use by person in the building. The means for giving warning in the case of fire. Particulars of any explosive or highly inflammable materials which may be stored or used in the premises.

Methods of extinguish a fire Starving – removing the fuel Smothering – removing the oxygen Cooling - removing the heat Types of use of fire extinguishers. (Vide appendix 3 & 4 ) Fire fighting Equipment, location and identification. Red Rectangular or square shape with a white pictogram. All fire fighting equipment must be identified with a red signboard. General instruction on discovering of fire • • • • • Raise the alarm by breaking the glass in the nearest fire alarm call point. Call the emergency number 112 Turn off gas supplies, (normally are placed near the fire alarm in case of a kitchen) others source of heat and anything which helps the circulation of air like Fans and Air-conditioners. Attempt to fight the fire with the appropriate fire extinguisher or fires blanket but do not put you in danger. If the fire continues to grow despite your efforts leave the building, (find an assembly point) closing door and windows behind you before leaving.

(Vide appendix 5 – the fire procedures at Hilton Malta)_




It is important that in all catering establishments exits and passageways are kept clear and that doors open outwards. Fire doors should be clearly marked and a fire- fighting equipment must be readily available and in working order. Fire doors are installed for the purpose of restricting an area so that the event of a fire, the smoke and flames do not spread to endanger the lives of people present. Therefore, Fire doors must be shut at all time. Do not delay calling the fire brigade while you attempt to fight the fire Do not extinguish gas burns with a fire extinguisher before turning the gas supply. Do not use lifts to leave the building Do not stop to collect your belongings before leaving FIRE ASSESMENT RISK Identify – Potential fire hazard in the workplace, Decide - Who might be in danger in the event of Fire Evaluate – the risks which cold arise from the hazard Keep a record – of the results of the risk assessment and details of action that was taken or needs to be taken as a result. Review and revise the assessment. This should take place when there is a change in work practices or at least every six months. 1.5 TRACING & AVOIDING BREACHES The breaching of rules or procedures when there is involved the health and safety issues can increase the hazard and risk of accidents. This happen due to: • • • Lack of communication Lack of knowledge Lack of attention and carelessness from the Management or staff

Communication and knowledge: The management has to promote health and safety by doing frequent training and transmit very easy understandable information. (N.B. if with in the organization there is foreign staff the employees has to make sure that is clearly understandable for them). The staff is responsible acquire and apply the knowledge delivered by the trainers (can be either from the organization and outside the organization depending on the type of training)




The management should never tolerate or accept a carelessness or lack of Attention because the can lead to fatal accidents. Who ever shows one of the above-mentioned attitudes. The management has to consider discipline action against Safety tips for preventing common accidents Cuts: • Throw away broken or chipped glassware. • Use a cutting board for safe cutting and chopping • Make sure that you receive proper training and safe procedures • Do not place hands near the edge of cutting blades.(example when slicing the bread) • Do not try to catch falling objects. Slips and falls: • Make sure that walking surface is uncluttered, non-slippery clean and adequately lighted. • If you drop or spill something, clean it up immediately. • Report if floors have any trip hazards such as raise or broken sections. • Place wet floor warnings signs to prevent people from slippery. • Walk don’t run • Mark swing doors with in and out signs • Keep stairs clear from obstructions and use hand rails Storage Areas • Make sure the shelves are firmly secured in place against walls and on the floor. • Store heavy items on lower shelves, • Use bins and racks • Store cartoons in dry area • Do not overstock Burns and scalds • Assume that all pots handles and plates from the hotplate are hot. • Open hot water and hot liquid faucets slowly to avoid splashes. • Do not overfill pots • Lift lids by opening away from you. Fires • Do not throw cigarettes in the bins • Keeps flammable liquids away from flames




• •

Use the right type extinguisher depends on the fire. Ex use foam with burning fryer not water. Avoid moving your hands upon a burner example when using a gueridon.

1.6 METHODS OF HANDLING & CLEANING OF EQUIPMENT The most common Accident in catering industry is the overexertion. Awkward back Posture – ex linen or supplies located on high shelves. Heavy or frequent lifting, pushing, pulling and carrying- ex Lifting and carrying of chairs Prolonged sitting or standings – people who is their duties consist of greeting customers and working cash. Considering the need to handling equipment and the risk of overexertion accidents before assigning handling duties. The organization has to: • • • • • • • Examinee jobs where these accidents are occurring. Identify risk factors within those jobs Assessing the risk to workers Consulting with workers Designing and implementing solutions and safe work procedures Training workers in a safe work procedure and the of tools and equipment From time to time Re-examining the job or task to evaluate if the risk to workers have been eliminated or reduced

Examples how to reduce overexertion accidents (vide appendix 6) This also will provide a very efficient and professional system of handling of equipment, and storage system. Both light but frequent as plate’s cutlery etc. and heavy like chairs traceless gueridons etc. Cleaning and disinfecting be defined as the application of energy to remove dirt, grease and other soiling. Cleaning is essential to food safety as well as being a legal requirement for food business. The need for cleaning • Reduce the risk of food poisoning • It removes material and food that could provide harbor and nourishment for pests. • It prevents the physical contamination of food.




• • •

It assists in maintaining a comfortable working environment that is safe and attractive. It promotes a quality image to customers. It assist in reducing maintenance costs, reduce damage and equipment.

When cleaning is not carried out frequently and properly, various problems can arise: loss of product quality, Customers complaints, food poisoning, loss of sales and profit and legal action. Cleaning requires energy – Consisting of: Physical, mechanical, thermal and chemical energy. Usually a combination of two or more forms of energy is used. Disinfectants – The process of disinfectant reduces pathogenic bacteria, but not spores or toxins, neither to levels that are neither harmful to human health nor to quality of food. Disaffection may be carried out using: Heat (moist heat at temperature above 82 degree C) Steam, Chemicals, either separately or in combination. Disinfect only surfaces where bacteria present may have an adverse on the quality or safety of food should be disinfected regularly. Always use fresh solution of disifectant never top up existing solutions. The four stages clean process if the disinfectants may be incorporated in the main clean using a chemical sanitizes are: PRE-CLEAN→MAIN CLEAN→DISINFECTION→ RINSE & DRY Cleaning schedulesIt is important for every restaurant to have a cleaning schedule. Cleaning schedule communicates standards and ensures that cleaning is carried out and managed effectively. A cleaning shekel shoal include: All items to be cleaned. The persons responsible for carrying out the tasks. When the cleaning must be done. The methods of cleaning must be done The time required for each cleaning process The chemicals/ Special agents and equipment needed The safety precautions to be taken and protective clothing to be worn. The signature of the persons who carries out the task The supervisor Signature confirming that the Job done has been checked.




Cleaning of
Wine Glasses

By using steamed water and clean cloth after been washed with hot clean water

Time required
15 minuets for 1 crate of 25 glasses

Safety precautions
Hold the glass from leg and don’t do excessive force

When should be done
Before Lunch and dinner

The above-shown table has to be placed somewhere where every one can refer, to ensure that the duties are done properly as mentioned in the above schedule Date and time
Lunch 15 Oct 2005

Name of the person
Roderick Zammit

Checked by
Anthony Scibberas

The second above-shown table is there for reference to ensure that the duties are done and checked that are done properly. Ideally near each piece of equipment, has to be hanged a set of instructions: Ex: ice machine • • • • Always use the scoop when removing ice from the collecting bin. Do not dip into the ice with drinking glasses. If glasses are ever broken over the ice bin, make certain that all the ice is removed and glass is eliminated from the bin. Immediately pick up all spilled ice to prevent slips.

This procedure has to be done for every single equipment need to be cleaned. More technical Terms (vide appendix 7)

1.7 PERSONAL – HYGIENE, CLEANLINESS & APPERANCE Self –respect is necessary because the appearance promotes a high standard of cleanliness and physical fitness. Persons suffering from ill health or who are not clean about themselves should not handle food. The staff which constantly handling food and working near customers. Personal hygiene is essential. It is necessary to take a shower or bath every day.




Male staff; should be shaven, well clean hands, trimmed clean nails, hair must be short and well groomed. Female staff; Well cleaned hands, trimmed clean nails, hair should be short or tied up, no excessive make-up or jewellery should be worn, The front of house staff can wear only a plain wedding ring and watch (on a purpose) Sneezing, coughing, blowing the nose and spitting (objectionable habit) whether in preparation or service must never occur because germs can be spread. The nose, mouth, lips, Ear-holes and Hair must not be touched when food is being handled. Ideally if there is need of touching a disposal handkerchiefs has to be used and then hands washed afterwards. Mouth - no cooking utensils should be used for tasting neither food, nor fingers as germs may be transferred to food. Smoking must never take place in any part of the restaurant. The only persons who can smoke are the customers if there is an open-air where is permitted. Teeth - should be cleaned and kept in a good healthy condition The uniform should always be clean and well pressed, and shoe polished. Uniform must be clean and smart. Feet should be washed regulary and the toenails kept short and clean. Footwear should be safe important non-slip. Sandals, open backed shoes or high pointed heels are inappropriate. Cuts, Burns and sores – should be covered with a waterproof dressing. They will carry bacteria. If necessary people suffer from this type of injury should not handle food. 1.8 TRAINING SCHEMES Training and promotions are two essential tools to building awareness on health and safety issues among all the personnel of the hotel or restaurant. Training can be delivered in various ways. Training ca be organized and delivered Trough Manuals, reflects, seminars, day to day training can be done either by another external organization or by the hotel it self. Example is the food and hygiene course. In addition, make sure that from time to time are revised. Example fire drills should be held at least once a year and be taken seriously.




The hotel have to make sure that every single employee know all the hazard signs, basic first aid procedures, and fire drill procedures. The hotel has to make sure that every person using a machine is certified that the person can use it safety. Sometimes organizing training can be seen as a spent of time and money. Lives may be at risk if an accident might happen. example fire. Also it is part of the health and safety legislation a to provide training for the staff.


Hotels and Restaurant keeps whole libraries for the sake of reference to improve and control the business. A very important section of this library is the health and safety. Where there should be included; • The instructions of every equipment in their possession • Standard of procedures( health and Safety) • A copy of every training held in the hotel or restaurant • A copy of every accident occurred • Legal notices and amendments ( health and safety) It is important that a department or a person is responsible to record update and distributes information. File every accident report. sort them by years and types of accidents, record every time training is held by doing these it can get statistics, help the Hotel to analyze, monitor, control, and improve the health and safety conditions more efficiently with less expense due to no reassert is required. A good idea could be to do a suggestion box to let the staff point out their point of view and ideas. Also it is important that the same information is distributed through communications meeting, notice boards, memos, word of mouth if necessary training. To make sure that everyone understand the information as soon as possible. 1.10 YOUNG WORKFORCE Workers of all ages face hazards on the job. However, a number of factors raise special concern about working youth. Young workers typically work at a series of part-time, temporary, minimum wage jobs, often going to their jobs after putting the equivalent of a day of work at school. Many positive youthful traits such as energy, enthusiasm, and a need for increased challenges and responsibility. Can result in young workers taking on tasks for which they are neither prepared nor capable of doing safely.



Authors Year Tom Powers Clayton W. Barrows 2003 Ricky W. Griffin 2002 Edition Richard L. Daft 2000 H.L Cracknell, 2000 Richard Kotas 1999 Book Publisher Name Introduction to Management in the Hospitality Industry . Management Houghton Mifflin Company Management Harcourt Collage Publishers Edition Seventh Edition

Seventh Fifth Edition

Practical Professional Catering Management Macmillan Press Fifth Edition Food and Beverage Management Hodder & Stoughton Publishers Sixth Edition Ninth Edition

Kinton, Ceserani & Foskett Theory Of Catering 1999 Hodder & Stoughton

Dennis R Lillicrap 1997

Food and Beverage Service Hodder & Stoughton Publishers

Third Edition

Other Useful Web sites : Worksafe.com HSE.com






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