1) Civil Engineering Materials a) Traditional Materials i) Stones - Piece of rock shaped or cut for some purpose; pebble; gem;

seed, pit; unit of weight equal to fourteen pounds or 6.36 kilograms (British) ii) Bricks - Building block; a small rectangular block of fired or sun-dried clay. iii) Lime - Calcium oxide, white alkaline substance obtained by heating calcium carbonate at high temperatures (used in building and agriculture); it is used to prepare the construction site by stabilizing the soil or remediating brownfield sites; Lime has been used in building construction for thousands of years to create durable mortar and plaster. iv) Cement - a powdery substance made by calcining lime and clay, used in making mortar and concrete; a soft glue that hardens on setting. v) Timber - wood prepared for use in building and carpentry; a wooden beam or board used in building and ship building. Source: Babylon Online Dictionary; Babylon LTD Source: The Sage’s English Dictionary and Thesaurus (software) Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference 2012; Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Stones Earth or mineral matter hardened in a mass. A piece of rock that is not as fine as gravel. A piece of rock used for some special purpose (as for a monument or in construction) Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference 2012; Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Geological Classifications of Stones 1.) Sedimentary Stones - Sandstone, limestone, dolomite, originally formed mainly in sea water, or lakes, from the remains of animals and plants, also from transportation and deposition of rock products. 2.) Metamorphic Stones - Marble, serpentine, onyx, slate, quartzite, gneiss are produced from sedimentary or igneous rocks by the action of heat and pressure. 3.) Igneous Stones - These stones are formed when the magma from the earth cools inside the earth or on the earth surface. Source: http://www.aboutcivil.org/Stone-Classification.html Physical Classifications of Rocks Based on the structure, the rocks can be classified as following: A. Stratified Rocks: These rocks have layered structure. They possess planes of cleavage or stratification. They can be simply split along these planes. Sand stones, slate, lime stones etc. are the instance of this class of stones. B. Un-stratified Rocks: These rocks are not stratified. They possess crystalline & compact grains. They cannot be split in to thin slab, trap, Granite, marble etc. are the instance of this type of rocks. C. Foliated Rocks: These rocks have a tendency to split along only exact direction. The direction required not parallel to each other as in case of stratified rocks. This type of structure is very frequent in case of metamorphic rocks. Chemical Classification On the basis of their chemical composition engineers prefer to classify rocks as: A. Silicious/Siliceous rocks: The major content of these rocks is silica. They are durable and hard. Examples of such rocks are trap, granite sand stones etc.

which are used in road construction. 6. the value of toughness less than 13 – Not tough. 5. Sandstone. • Attrition Test: This test is done to find out the rate of wear of stones. 4. Solution is agitated at intervals. It is between 14 to 17. Resistance to fire: A good building stone be fire proof.aspx Characteristics of Good Building Stones 1.60. v. the percentage absorption by weight after 24 hours should not exceed 0. Seasoning: Stones should be well seasoned before putting into use. C. A period of about 6 to 12 months is considered to be sufficient for proper seasoning.propertybharat. Their axes make an angle of 30 degree with the horizontal. 7. A good building stone maintains its sharp edges and keeps its surface free from powder at the end of this period. high wind velocity etc affect the durability. Fracture: For good building stone its fracture should be sharp. Percentage wear: For a good building stone. If the edges are broken and powder is formed on the surface. Appearance: Good building stone should be a uniform colour. 11. The results of the test indicate the resisting power of stones against the grinding action under traffic. Durability: A good building stone should be durable. After this period. Cylinders are rotated about the horizontal axis for 5 hours at the rate of 30 rpm. less 14 said be poor hardness. Argillaceous stone resists fire quite well. 9. 8. Samples of stones is broken into pieces about 60mm size. 10. greater than 19. medium hardness. iv. Limestone is a calcareous rock of sedimentary origin whereas marble is a calcareous rock of metamorphic origin.B. between 13 and 19 – Moderate. and free from clay holes. Crushing strength: For a good building stone.com/questions/chemical-classificationof-stones-30118271. 3. The following procedure is adopted: i. The factors like heat and cold alternative wet and dry.expertsmind. 2.php Tests Performed on Stones to find their Properties • Acid Test: Here. it indicates the presence of calcium carbonate and such a stone will have poor weathering quality. Argillaceous rocks: The major constituent of these rocks is argil for instance clay. the crushing strength should be greater than l000kg per cm2. even and clear. These stones are durable and hard but they are brittle. They cannot endure shock. spots of other colour bands etc capable of preserving the colour for longtime. iii. Specific gravity: For a good building stone the specific gravity should be greater then 8. Such pieces. a sample of stone weighing about 50 to 100 g is taken. treated as hard used in road works. Texture: A good building stone should have compact fine crystalline structure should be free from cavities. Cylinders are closed. It is placed in a solution of hydrophobic acid having strength of 1% and is kept there for seven days. This test is usually carried out on sandstones. cracks or patches of stuff or loose material. Diameter and length of cylinder are respectively 20cm and 34 cm. Toughness Index: Impact test. dissolved gases in rain. Source: www.com/construction_stones. weighing 5kg are put in both the cylinders of Devil’s attrition test machine.7 or so. 12.high Source:http://www. the contents are taken out from the cylinders and they are passed through a sieve of . the percentage wear should be equal to or less then 3 percent. Laterites and Slates are instance of this type of rocks. Calcareous rocks: The major constituent of these rocks is calcium carbonate. Water absorption: For a good building stone. Hardness: The hardness greater than 17. ii.

it is not adopted in this test. Average grain size ii. • Freezing and thawing test: Stone specimen is kept immersed in water for 24 hours. sizes of cubes are finely dressed and finished. A steel hammer of weight 2kg is allowed to fall axially in a vertical direction over the specimen. A cylinder of diameter 25mm and height 25mm is taken out from the sample of stone. Quality of material which is retained on the sieve is weighed. Existence of pores. iii. vi. Crushing strength of the stone per unit area is the maximum load at which the sample crushes or fails divided by the area of the bearing face of the specimen. iii. During the rotation of the disc. But as CaSO4 has low solubility in water. After 1000 revolutions. immersion and reweighing is repeated at least 5 times. specimen is taken out and weighed. This should be done in shade to prevent any effect due to wind. It is then placed on cast iron anvil of machine. The coefficient of hardness is found out from the following equation: Coefficient of hardness = • Impact Test: For determining the toughness of stone. Mineral constituents iv. that of second blow is 2cm. v. ‘n’ represents the toughness index of stone. Then it is thawed or warmed at atmospheric temperature. This procedure of drying. It is then placed in a freezing machine at -12 degC for 24 hours. • Hardness Test: For determining the hardness of a stone. Nature of cementing material . The sample is placed in Dorry’s testing machine and it is subjected to a pressure of 1250 gm. change in weight is noted and it is expressed as a percentage of original weight. • Microscopic Test: The sample of the test is subjected to microscopic examination. weighing. vi. Maximum number of specimen to be tested is three. A cylinder of diameter 25mm and height 25mm is taken out from the sample of stones. Blow at which specimen breaks is noted. veins and shakes iii. Load is applied axially on the cube in a crushing test machine. They are dried for 72 hrs and weighed. They are then immersed in 14% solution of Na2SO4 for 2 hours. that of third blow is 3 cm and so on. fissures. Load bearing surface is then covered with plaster of pairs of about 5mm thick plywood.cm per minute. vii. Difference in weight is noted. Such specimen should be placed in water for about 72 hours prior to test and therefore tested in saturated condition. rain etc. iv. sun rays. • Crystalline Test: At least four cubes of stone with side as 40mm are taken. ii.5mm mesh. Annular steel disc machine is then rotated at a speed of 28 rpm. Each time. Height of first blow is 1 cm. Rate of loading is 140 kg/sq. They are dried at 100 degree C and weighed. Percentage wear worked out as follows: Percentage wear = • Crushing Test: Samples of stones are cut into cubes of size 40x40x40 mm. vii. The sections of stones are taken and placed under the microscope to study the various properties such as i. coarse sand of standard specification is sprinkled on the top of disc. it is subjected to impact test in a Page Impact Test Machine as followed: i. the test is carried out as follows: i. iv. v. Crystallization of CaSO4 in pores of stone causes decay of stone due to weathering. If it is nth blow.1. this procedure is repeated several times and the behaviour of stone is carefully observed. It is weighed. ii.

com/construction_stones. piers.v. Structure: Stones are used for foundations. Composed of quart. the tube is vigorously stirred or shaken. commercial. roofs. Presence of any harmful substance vi. hallow blocks etc. The tube is then filled with clear water. Igneous rock 2. abutments. • Water Absorption Test: The test is carried out as follows: i. 5. Its weight is recorded. light houses. Cube is taken out of water and surface water is wiped off with a damp cloth. Let it be gm.php Stones along with their Characteristics and Uses In order to ensure suitable selection of stone of particular work. v. Cube is suspended freely in water and its weight is recorded. After about an hour. Texture of stones etc. They are also adopted to form paving of roads. From the sample of stone. retaining walls. vii. values of the following properties of stones are obtained. Water is boiled and cube is kept in boiling water for 5 hours. Presence of earthy matter will convert the clear water into dirty water. felspar and mica and minerals .Face works. stone will be durable and free from any soluble matter. It is weighed again. dams etc. characteristics. Few chips or pieces of stone are taken and they are placed in a glass tube. floors. Its actual weight is recorded as gm. If water remains clear. Granite 1. Cube is then immersed in distilled water for a period of 24 hrs. • Smith’s Test: This test is performed to find out the presence of soluble matter in a sample of stone.Misalliances: Stones are also used for (i) ballast for railways (ii) flux in blast furnace (iii) Blocks in the construction of bridges. 4. Percentage absorption by weight after 24 hours = Percentage absorption by volume after 24 hours = Volume of displaced water = Percentage porosity by volume = Density = Specific Gravity = Saturation Coefficient = Source: http://theconstructor. Stones are adopted to give massive appearance to the structure. Source:http://www. Basic material: Stones are disintegrated and converted to form a basic material for cement concrete. lintels. 3.propertybharat. a cube weighing about 50gm is prepared. morum of roads. damp proof course etc. ii. industrial etc. vi. Let this be gm. walls. Paving stones: These are used to cover floor of building of various types such as residential. arches. artificial stones. Let the weight be gm. foot paths etc. uses and place of availability. iv. iii. Cube is removed and surface water is wiped off with a damp cloth. This is known as composite masonry. 2. Walls are of bricks and facing is done in stones of desired shades.org/building/tests-on-buildingstones/5552/ Uses of Stones is Civil Engineering Works 1. calcareous cements. columns. From the above observations. one must be conversant with its composition.

Igneous rock 2. brown and pink and red 4. Hard and durable 5. Specify gravity 2. It is available in variety of formations fine grained. 3. coarse grained compact or porous 3.95 5.com/construction_stones. hearths. It is compact. Specific gravity 2. Bricks are typically produced in common or standard sizes in bulk quantities. . red and yellow. black. Used for paving. table slabs. 4. piers and marine works etc. railway ballast. Used for ashlar works Lime Stone 1. steps of stair case etc. Sand Stone 1.php Bricks A brick is a block or a single unit of a ceramic material used in masonry construction. 2. reddish brown etc. hard and heavy 3. for construction of bridges. Granular lime stone c. green. blue. Metamorphic rock 1. yellow grey. blue. grey. green. dark blue. aggregates for concrete etc. 4. They have been regarded as one of the longest lasting and strongest building materials used throughout history. paving dados etc.propertybharat. Sedimentary rock: It is available in a variety of forms which differ from one another in colour Compaction. Available in white. Compact lime stone b. texture. Magnesia lime stone d. rail road ballast. road metal. Sedimentary rock 2. Specific gravity is 3 and compressive strength varies 1530 to 1890 kg/cm2.Available in red. 5. Kanker lime stone f. Available in white. hardness and durable a. Compressive strength is 650kgs / cm2 6. Used for providing damp proof course. Metamorphic rock 2. Typically bricks are stacked together or laid as brickwork using various kinds of mortar to hold the bricks together and make a permanent structure. Slate 1. Available in grey. road metal. wall lining columns.65 to 2. aggregate for concrete. tiled floors. Ballast 1. Used for ornamental.7 and compressive strength 700 to 1300 kg/cm2 8. yellow black and red colour 3. blue and greenish black colour 4. Non-absorbent. green. Source:http://www. High compactness. compact fine grained and produce metallic ringing sound when struck. Available in black. Used for ornamental. The texture varies with its quality 7.3. High resistance to weathering 6. pile. Suitable for decorative works. etc Marble 1.

is intended for the most visible parts of buildings. It may or may not have holes through the center. forming a dense and strong brick. bricks are made from dried earth. usually from clay-bearing subsoil. Encyclopaedia Britannica. • Refractory brick: which withstands very high temperatures. or other minerals. the brick might be made from clay. In a less clinical and more colloquial sense. or shaped stone. • Brick veneer: a kind of paneling made of shallow bricks joined by mortar. causing the bricks to expand.wikipedia. is made of special clays. such as adobe. When the term is used in this sense.htm Properties of Good Bricks 1. allowing the brick to limit strength and water absorption. chromite. is used in industrial furnaces. • Adobe brick: made of clay mixed with straw or chopped reeds and dried in the sun. is made of clay and sand. sometimes dry and sometimes with mortar. lime-and-sand. Concrete bricks are usually placed in facades. a "brick" is a standard-sized weight-bearing building unit. Size: . Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference 2012. 3. More commonly it is fired in a kiln of some sort to form a true ceramic. and provide an excellent aesthetic presence.In the general sense.com/od/Masonry/a/BricksBricks-Types. northern South America. • Concrete Bricks: Concrete bricks are made from solid concrete.about. dry places such as the Middle East. w hich withstands repeated exposure to acid. fly ash and lime followed by a chemical process during wet mixing. • Firebrick: used in lining boilers and fireplaces. • Fly Ash Clay Bricks: Fly ash clay bricks are manufactured with clay and fly ash. fences. Color: The color of good brick should be uniform. and Mexico. Shape: Bricks should be uniform in shape with sharp straight right angled edges.org/wiki/Brick Types or Kinds of Bricks • Kiln-burned brick: the most common type. concrete. cherry or copper colored. • Flooring brick: used in such places as factories. the brick is merely dried. • Facing brick: a kiln-burned type with a smooth surface and attractive appearance. where the floors receive heavy use. is fastened to interior walls for decorative purposes. • Tapestry brick: has a design pressed onto it in the mold in which it is formed. • Acid Bricks: Laboratories and chemical plants often utilize acid brick. Source: http://construction. • Common brick: less attractive and less expensive. Walls of adobe brick must stand on waterproof foundations and be protected from rain by overhanging roofs of more durable material or they will melt Other Bricks (commonly used in masonry) • Sand Lime Bricks: Sand lime bricks are made by mixing sand. is very hard and dense. Some studies have shown that these bricks tend to fail poor produce pop-outs.000 degrees C. • Engineering Bricks: Engineering bricks are bricks manufactured at extremely high temperatures. In some cases. It contains zirconia. is used in hot. Inc. Source: http://en. is used for sidewalls. at about 1. magnesia. 2. Bricks are laid in horizontal courses. It may deep red. when bricks come into contact with moisture and water.

17 This test is used to indicate the amount of water a dry brick will soak up upon first coming into contact with water. It is an important test to undertake in order to be able to advise a brick layer what kind of mortar should be used in laying the brick. A good brick should have adequate fire resistance. 8.in/node/2531 Laboratory Tests for Brick Unconfined Compressive Strength .AS/NZS 4456. A brick that has a high Initial Rate of Absorption may absorb water at too fast a rate from the mortar causing the mortar to dry out too fast resulting in a weak bond with the brick. 9.4 This test will give an indication of a brick's ability to withstand crushing forces applied to the brick by the weight placed on it. No mark should be left on the surface of the brick when scratched with thumb-nail. 11. Soundness: A good brick should give metallic ringing sound when struck with another brick. swimming pools. Hardness: A good brick should be sufficiently hard which can be tested by a finger nail.Size of the bricks should be standard as prescribed by Indian standards.10 The presence of salt in an environment can have significant damaging effects on both bricks and pavers. Bricks too can be the subject of salt attack in coastal regions due to wind spray and where proper damp proof courses have not been included in the construction of a dwelling where there may be salty water present in soils Laboratory test are undertaken to simulate the conditions which can cause damage from salt attack. Bsmart is able to advice on the appropriate mortar mix for its bricks. bore water sprinklers. [19cm x 9cm x 9cm] 4. Water absorption: First class brick should not absorb water more than 20% of its dry weight when soaked in water for 24hrs. Designers of a building should ensure that their selected brick has the compressive strength for the building's requirements.AS/NZS 4456. Bricks and pavers are classified from Exposure Grade.ustudy. Source: http://www. compact and uniform structure in broken form. 6. etc. rain. Strength: Bricks should not break when dripped on hard ground from a height of about 1m.5N/mm2 7. In some situations pavers can be attacked by salts from ground water. including the roof of a building. Crushing strength: The crushing strength of a brick should not be less than 3. Resistance to Salt Attack . Structure: A good brick should show fine. A weak bond between brick and mortar also occurs if the Initial rate of Absorption is too low as the brick may not absorb water fast enough and not enough wet mortar mix will be drawn into the pores on the surface of the brick. Durability: A good brick should be able to resist the effects of weathering agencies like temperature. All Bsmart products are exceptionally load bearing due to their high density. depending on the amount of mass . Ordinary brick can resist temperature upto 12000C 10.AS/NZS 4456.' 5. to Protected. Thermal conductivity & Fire resistance: It should have thermal conductivity. This would include the weight of the wall in which a brick is laid and any other loads expected to be placed on the wall. Initial Rate of Absorption .

The frog of brick is filled flush with 1:3 mortar and brick is stored under damp jute bags for 24 hours followed by immersion in clean water for three days. Co-efficients of expansion and contraction . Depending on the manner in which a product has been installed. Maximum load at failure divided by average area of bed face gives compressive strength.AS/NZS 4456.11 & 4456. it affects the aesthetic quality of the product. Water absorption . and for the final look of an installed product. rather than its structural qualities. Source: http://www. Bsmart bricks and pavers tend not to expand or contract in the way that ordinary clay-fired products do over time. Protected grade products should not be installed in salt-prone environments.com/our_bricks/brick_ quality_testing Field Tests for Bricks 1. Bricks immersed in water at 27° ± 2° C for 24 hrs. discolouration on the surface of a brick or paver. Room temperature cooled bricks weighed W1. a high rate of water absorption can indicate a likelihood of problems emerging with the product down the track. The specimen is then placed between plates of compression testing machine. and usually off-white. Soaked bricks weighed W2.6 Efflorescence refers to the build up of salts on the surface of a brick or paver which affects the visual appearance of an installed product. Load is applied axially at uniform rate till failure. .12 These tests are undertaken to determine the amount by which a brick or paver is likely to expand and contract during wetting and drying phases. This test involves a simple process of measuring the variations of a sample of specimens that are representative of a batch to determine those variations.3 It is important for ease of laying bricks and pavers. to allow for this naturally occurring phenomenon.bsmartaustralia. The salts can come from salty water which the product has come into contact with. such as expansion joints. Compressive Strength Test Specimen brick is immersed in water for 24 hrs. Some deviation will always be inevitable of course. It appears as a cloudy. Absorption Test 24 hrs immersion cold water test Dry bricks are oven dried at 105° ± 5° C. or from within the paver itself due to the presence of salts in the clay soils used to make the product. that deviations in the dimensions of a batch of products are kept to a minimum. Potential to effloresce . can be used as a simple method of obtaining an indication of the extent to which a product will resist salt attack and other problems caused by the entry of water into the product such as efflorescence.AS/NZS 4456. It is none-the-less important that the expanding and contracting properties of a product are assured so that brick layers can use appropriate measures.14 This test is undertaken to determine the porosity of pavers and gives an indication of the amount of moisture that a brick or paver is likely to absorb over a period of time. Determining dimensional deviations .that is lost when subject to this test in the laboratory. generally speaking. however while it is there. Often efflorescence on the surface of a product is only temporary. such as groundwater.AS/NZS 4456. 2. and it will be question of keeping that deviation to a minimum. The amount of water absorbed by a brick or paver. This test indicates whether efflorescence will occur as a result of the salts already present in the product.AS/NZS 4456.

brick pavement was found incapable of withstanding heavy traffic. It should be homogeneous. Efflorescence Test The soluble salts if present in bricks cause efflorescence on the surface of brick. Their edges are somewhat distorted. Observation is made with naked eyes and classified as below. Nil – Imperceptible efflorescence Slight – Deposit covers area < 10% of exposed area Moderate – deposit covers exposed area 10% to 50% Heavy – Deposit covers exposed area > 50% Serious – Deposits are heavy and powder or flake away the surface 4.civilengineeringx. Today. Soundness Test This test is performed by striking two specimen bricks with each other. etc. They are burnt in kilns. The shape is irregular. floors and roads. They are used for temporary and unimportant structures. chamotte and neutral (chromomagnesite) refractory bricks. Bricks in the metallurgy and glass industries are often used for lining furnaces. magnesia. They fulfill all desirable properties of bricks. The bricks should not break and a clear ringing sound should be produced.Water absorption in % = (W2 – W1)/W1 x 100 Five hours boiling water test Oven dried bricks weighed W1. Cooled down bricks weighed W3. but it is coming back into use as a method of traffic calming or as a decorative surface in pedestrian precincts. in particular refractory bricks such as silica. and free from defects e. This type of . In the USA. For example. The surface may be some what rough. Structure Test A specimen is broken and its structure is examined. there are only about 20 blocks of brick paved streets remaining (totalling less than 0.5 percent of all the streets in the city limits). They are used as aggregates for concrete in foundations. They produce dull sound when struck together. in the early 1900s. The edges may not be sharp and uniform. Source: http://lecture. 5. The absence of grey or white deposits on its surface indicates absence of soluble salts. Such bricks are commonly used for the construction of walls which are going to be plastered. (iv) Fourth Class Bricks: These are the over burnt bricks.g. It is then taken out and allowed to dry in shade. (iii) Third Class Bricks: These bricks are ground moulded and burnt in clamps. Michigan were paved with brick.com/traditionalmaterials/classification-of-bricks-based-on-their-quality/ Uses of Bricks Bricks are used for building. most of the streets in the city of Grand Rapids. the brick is considered to be sufficiently hard. (ii) Second Class Bricks: These bricks are ground moulded and burnt in kilns. Source: http://cescientist. They are dark in colour.com/testing-of-bricks/ Classifications of Bricks base on their Quality (i) First Class Bricks: These bricks are of standard shape and size. Bricks immersed in water and boiled for 5 hrs and then cooled down at room temperature in 16-19 hrs. If no impression is left on surface. compact. block paving and pavement. Water absorption % = (W3 – W1)/W1 x 100 3. Brick is immersed in water for 24h. Hardness Test This test is performed by making a scratch on brick surface with the help of finger nail. lumps and holes. 6.

moderately hydraulic. the volume of fat lime gets increased to about 2 . who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. and satisfactory porosity. 18 inch drop. mold). a cement is a binder. or adding clay materials to the lime stone while burning." These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials (including limestone products.2 1/2 times. Depending upon the hydraulicity. oxides and hydroxides predominate. When compared with quick lime. and can bind other materials together.us/pub/txdot-info/cst/TMS/100E_series/archives/121-0899.dot. Hydraulic Lime Hydraulic lime has the capacity to set and harden even under water. it is divided into feebly hydraulic. rich lime..org/wiki/Lime_%28material%29 Fat Lime This fat lime is named as high calcium lime. Strictly speaking. where the quick lime cant able to do it.Compressive Strength Test Methods (Laboratory Mixed)' determines the unconfined compressive strength as an index of the effectiveness of hydrated lime treatment in improving desirable properties in flexible base and subgrade materials (10lb. The composition of the hydraulic lime is different from quick lime. Belgium and the Netherlands. There is a large refractory brick industry.pdf Cement In the most general sense of the word. and gets transferred into calcium carbonate. concrete and mortar) and as chemical feed stocks. cäment. especially in the United Kingdom. Source:http://classof1.wikipedia.state.tx. and eminently hydraulic. It absorbs carbon dioxide when it is left in air. lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is obtained from the pure limestone. For more info. pure lime. cimentum. Hydraulic lime consists of 70-80% of CaO and clay about 15 – 30%. Japan. II. Lime is used extensively for waste water treatment with ferrous sulfate. or white lime.wikipedia.com/homework_answers/civil_engineering/ classification_of_lime/ Tests Carried to Lime I.brick must have good thermal shock resistance. Please open (double click) this file below: Source: http://ftp. the United States. it contains a definite quantity of clay which gives its hydraulic property. Source: http://en. 50 blows/layer using 6 x 8 in. hammer. The word "lime" originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of "sticking or adhering. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric periods in both the Old World and the New World.org/wiki/Brick#Use Lime Lime is a general term for calcium-containing inorganic materials. Compaction Testing of Road Mixed Material' applies to lime treated materials sampled from the roadway during construction. Source: http://en. The word "cement" traces to the Romans.Hydraulic lime is obtained by burning the limestone containing rich in clay. in which carbonates. . high melting point. a substance that sets and hardens independently. shell and coral. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum. refractoriness under load. It is also the name of the natural mineral (native lime) CaO which occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered limestone xenoliths in volcanic ejects. among other uses.

The setting times of the two cements are similar Source: http://en. A Pozzolan is any material which in the presence of lime and water will react hydraulically to form a cemented mass. Pozzolan/Pozzolana Cement: Pozzolanic cement is a cement which consists of pozzolanic materials like fly ash. slaked limes harden by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. they can harden underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. Non-hydraulic cements do not harden underwater. bauxite. The chemical reaction results in hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water. Expanding cements were first produced in France about 1945. (ordinary portland cement).com/Q/What_is_pozzolan_cement Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica Ultimate Reference 2012. Portland blast furnace cement contains up to 70% ground granulated blast furnace slag. for example. It is generally used now a days. . All compositions produce high ultimate strength. Coloured Cement (Coloured cements) are used for decorative purposes. Provides many improved performance ove OPC. the addition of pigments to produce “coloured Portland Cement”. and gypsum.answers. pumicite.au/s_01/01_lowheat.. Contains pozzolanic materials of 10-95% by weight.and cement. volcanic ash.builderschoice. Also used to adhere roll roofing laps applied by the concealed nail method. Inc. Portland Cement: Portland cement blends are often available as inter-ground mixtures from cement producers..g. Expanding Cement Expanding and non-shrinking cements expand slightly on hydration. but as slag content is increased. The American type is a mixture of portland cement and an expansive agent made by clinkering a mix of chalk.org/Roofing-Glossary. Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-hydraulic.com. Thus. Pozzolanic cement can be made from 95 % recycled materials. In some standards.org/wiki/Cement#Portland_cement Source: http://www.htm Low-Heat Cement: Low-heat cement is a specially engineered cement for use where the heat evolved during the cement hydration process needs to be reduced.html Source: http://wiki. It can also be used in soil stabilisation.wikipedia. with the rest Portland clinker and a little gypsum. Used as an economic alternative to Portland sulfate-resisting and low-heat cements. early strength is reduced. Source:http://www. a chemical reaction between the anhydrous cement powder and water. thus offsetting the small contraction that occurs when fresh concrete dries for the first time. Encyclopaedia Britannica. while sulfate resistance increases and heat evolution diminishes. Quick Setting Cement: An asphalt-based cement used to adhere tabs of strip shingles to the course below.pmel. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rapid hardening portland cement has a higher rate of hardening and a higher rate of heat development than ordinary portland cement. Portland cement) harden because of hydration. but similar formulations are often also mixed from the ground components at the concrete mixing plant. Less heat evolved when compared to OPC.etc. underground mining and marine concrete applications where engineering properties such as durability is required. Hydraulic cements (e.

The end of the needle is flat. This . which will permit the vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould when tested as described below: APPARATUS 1.2 Split type vicat mould:. i) Needle for determining the initial setting time ii) Needle for determining the final setting time iii) Plunger for determining the standard consistency 2. GRUADUATED SCALE Graduated scale is 40mm in length and the smallest division of scale is 1mm.Consistency test is used to find the amount of water to be mixed with cement.1. MOVABLE ROD Movable rod carries an indicator which moves over a graduated scale attached to the frame (certain models have an additional attachment of dash pot. 1. The lower end is flat.NEEDLES NEEDLE FOR INITIAL SETTING TIME The needle is having a cross sectional area of 1mm2.pdf Standard Consistency of Cement Consistency means amount of water needed to prepare a plastic mix. Standard consistency is indicated by the vicat plunger reading (5 to 7) from the bottom of mould(IS 4031 (part 4)1988). Consistency test is done using Vicat's appartus. 70 +/.2. which facilitates lowering of movable rod slowly).5mm.0. The standard consistency is that consistency. The needle is fitted with a metal attachment.ce. VICAT APPARATUS The vicat apparatus consists of a frame having a movable rod with a cap at one end and at the other end any one of the following attachment. Please open (double click) this file below: Source: http://people. 4. VICAT MOULD Single mould: – The vicat mould is in the foam of a frustum of a cone having an internal diameter of 60+/-0. which are interchangeable.2.gatech. NEEDLE FOR FINAL SETTING TIME The needle is circular having a cross sectional area of 1mm2. Consistency of cement should be less than 30%. PLUNGER FOR STANDARD CONSISTANCY It is of polished brass 10 ± 0.05mm in diameter with a projection at the upper end for insertion into the movable rod.The split type vicat mould is used as an alternative to single mould.5mm at the top. It is necessary to find the consistency because amount of water present in the cement paste may affect the setting time.edu/~kk92/testskek. 5. The end of the needle projects beyond the cutting edge of the hollowed out metal attachment.Chemical Properties Chemical Analysis Compound composition Chemical Units Physical Properties Fineness False Set and Flash Set Soundness Compressive Strength Consistency Heat of Hydration Setting Time Loss in Ignition Density Sulfate Expansion Bulk Density For more info.5mm at the bottom and height 40 +/_ 0..

Work the plunger a number of times. The split mould is provided with a suitable clamping ring. 8. Lower the plunger gently to touch the surface of the cement paste and quickly release. Smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the moulder.mould consist of a split ring having an internal diameter 80+/. QUANTITY OF WATER ADDED (ml) DEPTH OF PENETRATION (mm) Standard Consistency = (Quantity of water for 5-7 mm penetration/Weight of cement) X 100 POINTS TO BE NOTED 1. 3. 5. A nonporous base plate is provided. Prepare a paste with the water added to cement. Place the test block resting on the non-porous plate under the movable rod. 4.com/Q/Consistency_of_cement Source: http://theconstructor. PROCEDURE Keep the vicat apparatus on a level base (when using vicat apparatus with dash pot. keep the bearing movable rod to its highest position and pin it.2oC 3. After completely filling the mould. This operation shall be done immediately after filling the mould. The test should be conducted at room temperature 27oC +/. 6. shake it slightly to expel the air. Work the plunger a number of times. Half fill the dash pot with any suitable oil of viscosity and screw the top. The plunger should be cleaned during every repetition.5mm. There should be no vibration on the working table.org/practical-guide/standardconsistency-of-cement/1549/ . Express the water required as percentage by weight of the dry cement. OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Weight of cement taken (g) = _________ Initial percentage of water added to cement = __________ Quantity of water added to cement =_______ TABLE SL. Prepare trial test specimens with varying percentages of water until plunger penetrates to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the vicat mould.answers. Start a stop watch at the time of adding water to cement. 4.) Unscrew the top of the dash pot. Raise the plunger of the dash pot. Gauging time is the time elapsing from the time of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould. 7. The time of gauging should not be less than 3 minutes and not more than 5 minutes.0. bring it in contact with the top cap of the movable bearing rod. Keep the vicat mould on a non porous plate and fill the cement paste in it. 2. RESULT Percentage of water content for standard consistency = % Source: http://wiki. (when vicat apparatus with dash pot is used. Take 400 gm of cement in a pan and a weighed quantity of water in a beaker.1mm and a height 40+/_0. bearing the needle. place the mould filled with cement paste and the non-absorbent plate on the base plate of the vicat apparatus. The cement paste thus prepared is the test block. Remove the pin holding the movable bearing rod to the surface of the cement paste and quickly release by pushing down the plunger to sink in to the paste). NO. Attach the plunger for determining standard consistency to the movable rod. which is read on the scale.

. Determining the Initial Setting and Final Setting: • The setting time test is conducted by using the same Vicat apparatus. timber is the common name used for wooden boards. 2006 Source: "Concrete Technology .. whether still standing in the form of trees or felled and turned into boards for construction. lumber is generally accepted as the wood that is no longer attached to the ground and is often seen as the laid down or processed wood. However.INITIAL SETTING TIME: Occurs when the paste begins to stiffen considerably.. and in most parts of . except that a 1mm diameter needle is used for penetration.S. Chand and Company Ltd. the "timbers" in nautical slang are an important structural component of a ship's frame. S. Source: http://www. Timber Lumber and timber are obviously wooden products. Mehta and Palulo J. Properties and Materials"..Microstructure. A.org/what-is-timber. Fourth Edition Pearson Education Asia pvt. M. People have been referring to timber since at least the seventh century. The timber industry around the world is huge. 2000. these two terms are being used interchangeably.Theory and Practice". Tata Mcgraw Hill. Ltd. Depending on the country. Monteiro. The latter usually undergoes a drying process and has a firm finish to it. Some people may also refer to it as lumber. and Australia whereas lumber is the one used for the same kind of product in the U. • The initial setting time is defined as the length of time between the penetration of the paste and the time when the needle penetrates 25mm into the cement paste. dating to the settlement of America in the 1600s. • The test is started about 15 minutes after placing the cement paste (wh ich has normal consistency) into the mold. Early citizens in the Massachusetts Bay Colony started to refer to sawed planks as lumber.wisegeek.M. timber is said to be the wood that is currently erect and is attached fir mly to the earth’s ground. In many places worldwide.K. or differentiate between unprocessed wood and lumber as cut wood packaged for commercial sale.M. Lumber is often prepared with accurate measurements and is almost always ready for use in construction and furniture making. timber is usually the term used for a piece of wood that still has its bark on whereas lumber is usually bark-less in nature. Source:"Concrete. On the contrary. Incidentally. Neville.htm Lumber vs. although "lumber" is a relatively recent word. Source: "Properties of Concrete". FINAL SETTING TIME: Occurs when the cement has hardened to the point at which it can sustain some load.. In the U. there are some regions that make certain distinctions between the two. Secondly. • The final setting time is defined as the length of time between the penetration of the paste and the time when the needle(with annular ring) no longer sinks visibly into the paste. Trials for penetration of the needle are made.S.K. In most cases. This is the term used for a tree that has not yet been processed into lumber. providing wood for a variety of products from paper to particleboard. Shetty. setting them apart from the raw wood that still had to be processed before it could be used. 2005 Timber Timber is another name for wood. P.

edu. treated with chemicals.Timber is widely accepted as the wood with its bark still on whereas lumber no longer has the wooden bark.Lumber is the finished wood product that is often made commercially available especially in construction whereas timber still has to be cut and processed for it to be sold for construction purposes. 4. huts and simple tools as some still do today. can hold up to 30 tonnes. Electric and telephone poles are still timber. they adopt the term timber for a piece of lumber with a relatively small measurement of no less than five inches or 127 mm.eq. Many floors. 3. it is usually necessary for it to undergo finishing first before it is sent to the market. it is the word ‘lumber’ that is dominantly used for commercial purposes and sale. As early as the 7th century. Early aboriginal people started using timber for weapons. Australia has 43 million hectares of native forests. Timber is burnt and used for fuel and people use wood for cooking and heating.differencebetween. Source: http://www.K. Timber produces frames for our homes. windows and door frames use timber. once produced at the paper mills. rayons and other products. Huts would be made from slabs of timber with a roof held down by poles and stones. The rest is National Parks and publicly owned.net/object/differencebetween-lumber-and-timber/#ixzz2Wyz6uCLH Uses of Timber: Timber has been used for many things for thousands of years. 2.Timber is an older term compared to lumber. In this same region (U. For timber to be made commercially available for construction. left over bits such as sawdust and small chips are collected.Canada.S. In history. Source: http://rochedalss. USES FOR THE PRODUCT Timber is used for many things needed every day. they went straight to work clearing the land to build their huts. Tools and most railway sleeoers require timber. It was only about the 1600s that the word lumber began to flourish. it can also be accounted for that timber is the earlier word to be formulated and used by the masses. which was coined more recently.htm . In Australia. One reel of paper. paper is made from a mixture of hardwood and soft wood fibres. Every time a piece of wood is cut. people have already been using timber to refer to all types of wood products. Most furniture and fencing around the home is made of timber. & Canada). Summary: 1.Timber is the word used to refer to wooden boards in the U. Due to its processed or finished nature. BY-PRODUCTS Almost all modern paper is made from wood fibres. 5. timber is also the nonprocessed standing wood. For them. Australia needs to produce more than 30 000 hectares of pine trees each year to keep up the demand for paper production.Timber is dominantly considered as the wood that is still attached to the ground whereas lumber is no longer standing on the ground.au/timber. tables and beds. and Australia while lumber is the wooden board for the American and Canadian denomination. Furniture on their huts consisted of timber chairs. made into pulp and used to produce hardboard. plastics. About 7 million hectares (les than 25%) is used for wood production. When the early settlers arrived in 1788.