Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control

Adaptive Cruise

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Every minute, on average, at least one person dies in a crash. If you read this article from start to finish 30 or more deaths will have occurred across the globe by the time you are done. Auto accidents will also injure at least 10 million people this year, two or three million of them seriously. All told the hospital bills, damaged property and other cost will add up To 1-3% of the world’s gross domestic product according to the Paris based organization for economic cooperation and development. And of course, the losses that matter most is not even captured by these statistics, because there is no way to put a dollar value on them. Engineers have been chipping away at this staggering numbers for a long time. Many safety innovations in the areas of banking systems, air bags, seat belts, body structures, steering and suspension have had a beneficial effect. Airbags and seat belts save thousands of people a year by preventing their head from crashing in to the windshield. Super computers now let designers create car frames and bodies that protect the people inside by absorbing much of energy of crash as possible. As a result, number of fatalities per million kilometers of vehicle travel has decreased. But the ultimate solution and the only thing that will save far more lives, limbs and money are to keep out cars from smashing in to each other in the first place. That is exactly what engineers in the United States Europe and Japan are trying to. They are applying advanced microprocessors, radars, high-speed ICs and signal-processing chips and algorithms in R&D programs that mark an about face in the automotive industry: From safety systems that kick in after an accident occurs, attempting to minimize injury and damage, to ones that prevent collisions altogether.

Dept of Automobile Engg

1

SSM Polytechnic College, Tirur

Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control The first collision avoidance features are already on the road, as pricey cruise control options on a small group of luxury cars. Over the next few years thus systems will grow more capable and more widely available, until they become standard equipment on luxury vehicles. Meanwhile, researchers will be bringing the first cooperative systems to market. This will take active safety technology to the next level, enabling vehicles to communicate and coordinate responses to avoid collisions. Note that to avoid liability claims in the event of cars equipped with cruise control systems, manufactures of these systems and the cars companies that use them are careful not to refer them as safety devices. Instead they are being marketed as drivers aids, mere convenience made possible by latest innovative technology.

Dept of Automobile Engg

2

SSM Polytechnic College, Tirur

This feature can be handy for long drives along sparsely populated roads and usually results in better fuel efficiency. Most cruise control system don’t allow the use of cruise control bellow a certain speed. The Chrysler corporation on the 1958 Chrysler imperial introduced first car with cruise control systems. In congested traffic conditions where speeds vary widely these systems are no longer effective. which automatically controls the speed of an automobile. who kept speeding up and slowing down as he talked.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise CHAPTER 2 WHAT IS CRUISE CONTROL Cruise control is a system. Tirur . Dept of Automobile Engg 3 SSM Polytechnic College. The use of cruise control will be significantly increased if the vehicle speed could automatically adapt to the traffic flow. The system is there by improving driver comfort in steady static conditions. It is also known in some places as “poor man’s radar detector”. The driver sets the speed and the system will take over the throttle of the car to maintain the speed. His idea was born out of the frustration of riding in a car driven by his lawyer. Blind inventor and mechanical engineer Ralph teetor invented cruise control in 1945. a driver who otherwise tends to unconsciously increase speed over the course of a highway journey may avoid a speeding ticket. as by cruise control.

resume. Most systems do not allow the use of cruise control below a certain speed to discourage use in city driving. accelerate and coast functions. The car will maintain that speed by actuating the throttle. Most systems can be turned off both explicitly or automatically. Most designs have a separate “on” switch. Driver should bring the car to speed manually and then use a button to set cruise control to the current speed. The cruise switches of a latest Ford car are shown in the figure below. Tirur . usually with two or more buttons on steering wheel or on the wind shield wiper or turn signal stalk.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise CHAPTER 3 HOW TO SET CRUISE CONTROL In modern designs. the cruise control may or may not need to be turned on before use – in some designs it is always “on” but not always enabled. when the Dept of Automobile Engg 4 SSM Polytechnic College. The system is operated with controls easily within the driver’s reach. as well as set.

tapping it once will make the car goes 1km/hr faster. If recently disengaged the cruise control by hitting the break or clutch pedal.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control driver hits the break or clutch. Holding down the set/accelerate button will make the car accelerate. just as if you down by 1km/hr. 3. Now lets us see the individual functions of each cruise switches in detail. The on and off buttons really don’t do much. Tirur . 4. although the car will then slow down until it reaches the previously set speed. The set/accelerate button tells the car to maintain the speed you are currently driving. the car will maintain your speed at 45km/hr. they turn off when the driver hits the breaks. hitting resume button will command the car to accelerate back to the most recent speed hitting. 1. and turn on when the driver hits the set button. Some cruise control don’t have these buttons. instead. took your foot completely off the gas. Holding down the coast button will cause the car to decelerate. Dept of Automobile Engg 5 SSM Polytechnic College. So you can disengage the cruise control with a light tap on the brake or clutch. On most cars. 2. the throttle can still be used to accelerate the car. The brake pedal and clutch pedal each have a switch that disengages the cruise control as soon as the pedal is pressed. If you hit the set button at 45km/hr. On most cars. When the cruise control is in effect. tapping the coast button once will cause the car to slow 5.

unlike conventional cruise control. Tirur . this new system can automatically adjust speed in order to maintain a proper and safe distance between vehicles in same line. Two companies. TRW and Delphi Automotive Systems are developing a more advanced cruise control that can automatically adjust a car’s speed to maintain a safe following distance.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise CHAPTER 4 ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL There is a new type of cruise coming on to the market called adaptive cruise control. The adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems $1500-$3000 to the cost of cars uses laser beams or forward looking radars to measure the distance from the vehicle they are in to the car ahead and its speed relative to theirs. If a car crosses in to the lane ahead or if the lead Dept of Automobile Engg 6 SSM Polytechnic College. However. Adaptive cruise control is similar to conventional cruise control in that it maintains the vehicle’s pre-set speed.

If the leading car speeds up or moves out of the lane. which are available in Europe. Lexus offers an ACC option for its top-of-the-line LS430. the assembly that manipulate the throttle. In May 1998. and the distance is now less than the preset minimum (typically a 1 or 2 second interval of separation) or if another stationary object is detected. The Nissan followed suit with a radar based system. it is the only ACC system available in the United States. Dept of Automobile Engg 7 SSM Polytechnic College. and Siemens. Mercedes-Bens and Lexus joined the adaptive cruise control movement. Tirur . say. in the company’s Cima 41LV-2. the systems opens the throttle until the car has returned to the cruise control speed set by the driver. a luxury sedan also sold only in Japan. which it sold in Japan. until it is following at the desired distance.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control vehicles slow down. Delphi Delco Electronic System supplies the radar sensing unit. TRW Automotive Electronics. the system applies breaks. Mercedes’ system is an option on its CClass and S-Class models. the brake control. Last fall. slowing down the vehicle. In September 1999 Jaguar began offering an ACC for its XKR coupes and convertibles sold in Germany and Britain. at the movement. Toyota became the first to introduce an ACC system on a production vehicle when it unveiled a laser-based system for its progress compact luxury sedan.

pushing down the signalto-noise ratio in bad weather. if something activates the anti-lock braking system (which helps the driver maintain a steering control and Dept of Automobile Engg 8 SSM Polytechnic College. Another problem is that accumulations of mud. We will see the radar-based system in detail later. uses a laser-based ACC system. System engineers have acknowledged lidar’s shortcoming and taken steps to make the system unavailable in situations where the weather may limit its effectiveness. The light beams are narrower than water droplets and snowflakes. the laser based analog to radar). only automaker. Lexus. The choice of sensors presents classic design tradeoffs. in its LS430 luxury sedan. dust or snow the car can block lidar beams. Lidar is less expensive to produce and easier to package but performs poorly in rain and snow. Tirur . According to the LS430 owner’s manual. the system will automatically shut itself off the windshield wipers turned to a rapid setting indicating heavy rain or snow. At present.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise All of the ACC systems available today are built around sensors that detect the vehicle ahead through the use of either radar or lidar (light detecting and ranging.

Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control reduces stopping distances during emergency braking situations). or if the vehicle skid control system detects the slipping of tires on turns that is common in wet weather. THE LEXUS LS430 LASER SENSOR BUILT INTO THE FRONT GRILLE Dept of Automobile Engg 9 SSM Polytechnic College. Tirur .

2. The main components of a typical radar-based ACC system are the following. The fusion sensor consist of the following components. 4. 2. 1.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise CHAPTER 5 PARTS AND WORKING We have already seen the working of a laser-based ACC system. 4. its limitations and all. 5. 3. Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur . in details. Millimeter-wave radar Stereo camera Image processor Fusion processor 10 SSM Polytechnic College. Now let us take a look at how radar-based ACC system works. Fusion sensor Headway control unit Throttle Brake Dashboard display Fusion sensor is a combination of sensors and processors. 3. 1.

Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 11 SSM Polytechnic College. their individual roles. in detecting hazards in the roadway and responding in the correct manner so as to avoid those detected hazards.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise ARCHITECTURE OF A RADAR-BASED ACC SYSTEM Let us take a close look at each of these components. .

C=2*R/T Where ‘C’ is the velocity of light ‘R’ is the range ‘T’ is the time of flight of transmission. A major advantage of the radar is that the performance is not affected by the time of the day. the sensor sends out a trio of overlapping beams of electromagnetic radiations of approximately 3 degrees each (roughly the width of one traffic lane). The beam runs up to 500 feet ahead of the vehicle. Velocity and range is derived.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise MILLIMETER-WAVE RADAR Fundamental to any cruise control system is a sensor that can reliably detect obstacles in the traffic environment in variety of conditions. This information is then fed into a microprocessor (fusion processor) inside the passenger compartment. System that rely on visible light are known to suffer significantly in the very Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 12 SSM Polytechnic College. The radar unit is housed behind the radiator grille. Every 60 milliseconds. Millimeter-wave radar is a method used for detecting the position and velocity of a distant object. Range is calculated using the formula. . The performance advantages of radar over other sensors are enhanced during poor weather conditions. and therefore no driver adaptation is required for night time driving. This radar has a forward-looking range of up to 500 feet. by measuring the Doppler frequency shift and time of flight of transmission. and the sensor receives signals that are reflected back from objects in the roadway.

it processes the image from the stereo camera and the data is then fed into the fusion processor. Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 13 SSM Polytechnic College. The lane marking on the road are also detected by processing images from the camera. Experience of radar operations has shown that reliable results can be obtained. Data fusion is a collection of techniques for combining the measurements from more than one sensor to provide a more unified result. The image is then sent to the image processor. What image-processing unit is doing is that. It is also situated by the rear view mirror. detection of cars and other objects in the roadway. but it is enable to provide good estimates of range. as that of radar. heavy enough to cut the driver’s ability to see down to 10 meters or less. IMAGE PROCESSOR The image-processing unit acts an intermediate between the stereo camera and the fusion processor. This has several benefits. STEREO CAMERA The camera’s function is the same. .Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control conditions for which they are relied upon the most. The stereo camera is situated by the rear view mirror. Camera view reaches to a distance of 60 maters ahead of the vehicle. The camera view produces good lateral image. even in inclement weather conditions. along with the stereo camera. Radar-based systems can “see” at least 150 meters ahead in fog or rain. FUSION PROCESSOR The function of fusion processor is termed as Data Fusion.

This has benefits of Fault Tolerance by allowing redundancy to be introduced into the system. thin objects.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control  The overall estimates of parameters can be more accurate than for individual sensor estimate. For example. The video produces good lateral image. as they both are tall. Another possible benefit of data fusion is that of object identification. but has poor lateral positional accuracy. the image processing may confuse a stationary pedestrian and a traffic sign. but it is not able to provide good estimate of range. millimeter-wave radar and stereo camera. it could survive the failure of either of these and continue to function although accuracy and performance in certain conditions can be reduced.  Any parameters do not depend on one sensor alone. if the system had infrared and video based sensors. However fusing data would allow an unambiguous decision to be reached immediately as the two objects have radically different radar responses. range etc relative to host vehicle. For example. Thus by fusing data from these two sensors the object position can be localized to a better accuracy by considering the intersection of the two areas of positional uncertainly generated by each sensor. . as they reinforce each other. The data contains information like line path. The radar conversely produces good estimates of range and hence good relative velocity estimates. by combining the expected responses of an object in the sensors. especially at longer ranges. Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 14 SSM Polytechnic College. vehicle speed. The fusion processor receives information from the two sensors.

warning the driver. Headway control unit makes necessary adjustments to the brakes and throttle that would allow maintaining a constant and safer distance behind the vehicle in front.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise HEADWAY CONTROL UNIT Having detected a hazard the system must respond in the most appropriate mannar so as to avoid the hazard. In additional to all these. This can be achieved by intervening with the controls of the vehicle. a red triangle flashes on the dashboard. Evidence suggests that a small reduction in driver reaction time will dramatically reduce the number of accidents. . Then the driver must stop the vehicle by applying brakes manually in the first two cases and steer the vehicle in the third case. Headway control unit takes up this job. Headway control unit has control on the brakes and throttle. if a suddenly stopped vehicle or a large object in the roadway or even a bend in the road is detected. Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 15 SSM Polytechnic College.

.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise CHAPTER 6 FUTURE ASPECTS Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 16 SSM Polytechnic College.

Meanwhile at Fujitsu Ten Ltd. is already being used in California and elsewhere. the next generation. that would amount to a distance between cars of less than 14 meters (roughly two car lengths). called co-operative adaptive cruise control. the technology may let cars follow each other at intervals as short as half a second. Ultimately. or CACC. Ordinary ACC systems maintain a safe distance between cars at speeds above 40 km/hr. . cooperative systems will two or more cars to communicate and work together to avoid a collision. experiments say. Fujitsu Ten’s system will Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 17 SSM Polytechnic College. While ACC can only respond to a difference speed its own speed and the speed of the car ahead. Japan. engineers are working towards another version of the future of adaptive cruise control-one targeted squarely at the realities of driving on often-congested urban and suburban highways.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control Through conventional cruise control is still an expensive novelty. Fujitsu Ten has demonstrated a prototype system for so called stop-and-go adaptive cruise control . At 100 km/hr.

the drivers of the most advanced cars will only have to steer. If the car in front stops. Afterward. people might not be even entrusted with that task. at least on limited access highways. it will accelerate and decelerate along with the leading car over any range of speeds between zero and the cruising speed set by the driver. Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 18 SSM Polytechnic College.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Adaptive Cruise Control Work primarily at lower speeds in heavy traffic. . it will bring a vehicle to a complete stop. it will not re-engage the throttle-that’s up to the driver but as soon as the throttle is engaged. Eventually. Within a decade or so.

That is because most cruise control systems are designed for normal dry conditions and can’t sense whether the wheels are spinning uselessly. It is very dangerous to use cruise control in any slippery conditions like rain. Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 19 SSM Polytechnic College. If your car begins to careen out of control. snow. .Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise CHAPTER 7 DANGERS OF CRUISE CONTROL The only danger with cruise control is the use of cruise control in wet and slippery roads. cruise control will continue to accelerate as it tries to maintain a constant speed. You should turn off cruise control while driving through such conditions. It would put your car in to a sideway spin cause the vehicle to flip over. or ice as it takes the complete control of the vehicle out of your hands.

Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 20 SSM Polytechnic College. The automobile. . It will probably take decades. Fully autonomous car is the United States and Ertico program in Europe are among dozens of groups working on technologies that may ultimately lead to vehicles that are wrapped in cocoon of sensors. almost bumper to bumper. at speeds above 100km/hr. will finally stop exacting such an enormous cost in human lives. which transformed the developed world by offering mobility and autonomy.Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION This seminar has described about the cruise control systems that are commonly seen in luxury cars now a day. Then nearby vehicles would be in constant communication with each other and act co-operatively. with a 360 degree view of their environment. but car accidents may eventually become almost as rare as plane crashes are now. enabling groups of cars to race along like train cars.

Dept of Automobile Engg Tirur 21 SSM Polytechnic College.cars. .Seminar Report 2013-2014 Control Adaptive Cruise REFERANCE 1. www.howstuffworks. 2.com/features/adaptivecruisecontrol www.com 3.autorepair.com www.