Internet Terminology

What do all these acronyms and terms mean? World Wide Web | Email | General

World Wide Web Terms
Banner Advertising
The term used for ads that appear usually on the top of the screen of a web page. Usually will show up first when you load a page, and usually is flashy. Sometimes additional window(s) will open up automatically leading you to full web pages for a particular product. Clicking on this ad will usually open up at least one additional window to a web site that wants to sell you something (usually somehow related to your search or web page you have found). In general, for this course, I'd recommend you NOT click on these ads as they sometimes open multiple windows and can eventually crash your computer. They can also waste your time.

Blackboard

A product name for courseware. Courseware is a software program an instructor

uses to deliver a course through the World Wide Web. Other examples of courseware include WebCT, Course Compass, and Etudes.

Blog

Short for Web log, a blog is a Web page that serves as a publicly-accessible personal

journal for an individual. Typically updated daily, blogs often reflect the personality of the author. Sometimes a blog functions like a discussion board because users are often invited to respond to the author's comments and create an online discussion.

Browser

The name for software packages that allows us to explore the World Wide

Web. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer are two such browsers.

Cookie

A message given to a Web browser by a Web server. The browser stores the message in

a text file called cookie.txt. The message is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server. The main purpose of cookies is to identify users and possibly prepare customized Web pages for them. When you enter a Web site using cookies, you may be asked to fill out a form providing such information as your name and interests. This information is packaged into a cookie and sent to your Web browser which stores it for later use. The next time you go to the same Web site, your

these sites are placed in a special category and may be so marked that they are "Sponsored" web sites. but others may require a payment just for consideration. instead of seeing just a generic welcome page you might see a welcome page with your name on it. but not always. It also provides commands as to where items from other files should be placed. will also NOT be picked up by most search engines (Google. For example. The server can use this information to present you with custom Web pages. They are filed in a way that each individual page CANNOT be retrieved except from the site's database. Special web directories called Invisible Web directories are now being created to simply index the various specialized DATABASES a lot of particular web sites have out there. It is a coding language where a block of text is surrounded by codes to indicate how should the text appear. there is an automatic guarantee the web site will be listed. Also. Files that end with . such as images. any text that contains "links" to other documents . HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) The primary protocol for the World Wide Web. The text is usually underlined or highlighted.words or phrases in the document that can be chosen by the user and which cause another document to be retrieved and displayed. Domain HTML Look under General (Hypertext Markup Language) The programming language that is used to create web pages. first. Sometimes. usually because to get to these sites you need to be at a particular site or domain. those picked up by Adobe Acrobat). you can only retrieve certain census documents by first going to the United States census web site. Usually.html are files that contain Hypertext Markup Languages and can be viewed through a Browser.browser will send the cookie to the Web server. Invisible Web The term used to describe those web sites that search engines CANNOT pick up. sites that are not HTML files. they will be . Often. such as FTP files and PDF files (the latter. Hypertext Generally.htm or . With this protocol. at present can pick up SOME PDF files). Paid for Inclusion Advertising A new trend where search engines charge money to companies or organizations or persons who want to make sure their web page is listed in the search results page. for example. you can access any web page on any public World Wide Web Server on the Internet. So.

From having the scope of every subject to just to a particular subject.com A URL can also be very long.placed on top of the list and usually will be in bigger fonts. and Hotbot at once.edu/Library/abby/internet. and those such as Yahoo! lead you to the indexed sites. users are encouraged to get to know the INTERFACE of each search engine and web directory's search results screen. Yahoo." "megasite. To avoid simply going to sites that are "bought" rather than those that may be of better quality.chabotcollege. the URL for this page is: http://www. Altavista. and are of fine quality. and Infoseek.com (all its listings). For example. before searching the World Wide Web as a whole. URL (Uniform Resource Locator) A web address. all search engines that use the Inktomi database. but most simply list the sites deemed valuable. Search Engine Sites that aid users in finding Web pages relating to chosen topics. This is an addressing scheme that allows you to locate Internet documents on the World Wide Web and other places on the Internet A URL looks like this: http://www.html . Users should judge and evaluate the quality of a portal. first. LookSmart (sponsored ads are listed under "Featured Listings"). A meta-search engine is a search engine that acts as an interface as it searches more than one of the other search engines at once." or "webliography" is used for such sites). may be rich in information. just like any other web page. FAST (AlltheWeb). Ask Jeeves. and others. Many libraries' web sites have subject guides and online reference directories that would definitely fit this category. Portals or meta sites are those that select web sites that are of considerable quality. sponsored sites are in a blue box field). Academic Info and Librarians' Index to the Internet.webwx. Those containing search engines will lead you to a list of sites that are indexed. Sometimes a portal will have a search engine as well. These sites contain programs that allow users to search through at least one database that searches for words throughout the internet. Dogpile will search the databases of Yahoo!. Google. a Portal is a web site where the creator(s) have taken time to find sites that are considered useful. Alta Vista. Portal (Sometimes the term "metasite. (In Google. For example. sometimes based on particular subjects. Some portals actually have a rating system. For example: Google. Web directories are those that actually index the Web (usually only a portion). Portals include such sites as INFOMINE. Note: a portal is NOT the same as a web directory (one which only indexes the World Wide Web). The following search engines/web directories use this practice: GoTo.

a web directory indexes a portion of the World Wide Web (that portion contains sites that were registered directly to the search engine's company and/or found by people employed by the search engine's company). If the attachment is a binary file or formatted text file (such as a MS-Word document). it must be encoded before it is sent and decoded once it is received.Web Directory Usually a type of search engine. a small icon composed of punctuation characters that indicates how an e-mail message should be interpreted (that is. and Open Directory are web directories. a :-) emoticon indicates that the message is meant as a joke and shouldn't be taken seriously. When e-mail is addressed to a LISTSERV mailing list. the writer's mood). Web Directories usually can only index a small portion of the Web. Because the World Wide Web is always growing and URLs are always changing. Domain Emoticon Look under General An acronym for emotion icon. Yahoo!. Recent versions of Email software such as Hotmail and Eudora most often do the encoding and decoding automatically. The indexing is usually done by humans and a controlled vocabulary is given so that web sites on similar subjects can be grouped together. An emoticon is also called a smiley. Many e-mail systems only support sending text files as e-mail. it is automatically broadcast to everyone on the . Emoticon :-) :-0 . For example. LookSmart. A web directory could sometimes also have the elements of a metasite or a portal as well E-Mail Terms Attachment A file attached to an e-mail message.-) :-( :-< Joking Bored Winking Sad Frowning Meaning Listserv An automatic mailing list server developed by Eric Thomas for BITNET in 1986.

do research. or simply window shop. etc. create a cyberspace within which people can communicate with one another (via e-mail). Online systems. though. exploring cyberspace does not require any physical movement other than pressing keys on a keyboard or moving a mouse. The result is similar to a newsgroup or forum. Spam (or spamming) An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list. These emails can often be seen as "tall tales" or may be simply "pulling your leg. When the user receives e-mail. Mailbox An area in memory or on a storage device where e-mail is placed. cyberspace contains objects (files. Urban Legends The term used for emails you will often receive that usually will have some type of warning or some type of story and may encourage you to send this message to many others. or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn't ask for it. Virus Worm Look under General Look under General General Internet Terms Cyberspace A metaphor for describing the non-physical terrain created by computer systems. mail messages. for example. Often. each user has a private mailbox. the mail system automatically puts it in the mailbox. where you send multiple messages to other people. except that the messages are transmitted as email and are therefore available only to individuals on the list. Mass junk Email. In e-mail systems. stories are made up or taken out of context or are simply not true." Some virus warnings are really urban legends (and often untrue). . graphics. or there to serve like spam. Some Email chain letters are also Urban Legends. Unlike real space.list.) and different modes of transportation and delivery. Like physical space.

org most often identify United States businesses.com or .gov .nom . both Email and Web addresses end with these suffixes.ca or . As of right now. For example.info .web . On the Internet. web addresses that have the domains such as . These files can be from any program and the only way they can be viewed is if you have the program that matches the particular file.edu . Domain Typically the last three letters of an Internet address represent the domain or particular section of the Internet.net . or what is called a "viewer" to see them.firm Businesses or Firms .us or . . etc (though that is slowly changing). a PowerPoint presentation that is not converted to html can only open up if you're in PowerPoint or .rec . when you download you are taking information from a remote computer.il for Italy and . these domains have codes that represent particular countries (such as . organizations.com . Educational Institutions U.store Businesses offering goods .arts Cultural Groups Download To take information from one computer to another computer or to a floppy disk. etc. Messages are usually grouped by topics and such topic groups are usually called threads.mil . FTP (File Transfer Protocol) The protocol used on the Internet for sending files. If you notice.jp for Japan).org . Domain suffixes include: .S.Discussion Boards Also known as Bulletin Boards or Discussion Groups.uk. A web site with the address that has a country domain can be ANY of the types of entities listed above. Discussion Boards are online forums where users can post messages. Government Commercial (Business) Network Infrastructure Organizations Usually a Non-Profit Organization Military Organization Information Services Individuals with personal sites entities emphasizing the World Wide Web Recreational or Entertainment Activities Recognized by only two letters.

a program that runs on your computer and connects you to a news server on the Internet. ISP (Internet Service Provider) An institution (usually a private company) that provides access to the Internet in some form. sometimes to the same floor or same building. UNIX A computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer. LAN (Local Area Network) A computer network limited to the immediate area. or to the machine on which the software is running. It is the most common operating system for servers on the Internet. Plugin A hardware or software module that adds a specific feature or service to a larger system.your web browser has a type of plugin which can view PowerPoint presentations. Any time you connect two or more computers together so that they can share resources. Server A computer. you need a news reader. or the etiquette of the Internet. A forum or an on-line discussion group. The term can refer to a particular piece of software. usually for money. there are a number of plug-ins for the Netscape Navigator browser that enable it to display different types of audio or video messages. The telnet command/program gets you to the "login" prompt of another host computer. Telnet The command and program used to login from one internet site to another. usually covering any conceivable interest. . as a WWW server. For example. underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). A typical telnet screen is one with a plain background (usually black or white) and does not contain any graphics. that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. Netiquette Network Network etiquette. you have a computer network Newsgroup USENET. To view and post messages to a newsgroup. or a software package.

Worm (1) A worm is a special type of virus that can replicate itself and use memory. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself across networks and bypassing security systems. and Happy99 viruses are called worms. mainly because they fit definition one.Virus A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. the PC Webopedia and from the University of Arizona Library's "Internet Jargon and Terms" NB 10/10/03 . a message can be automatically sent to all addresses in the user's address book without the user ever knowing. the sender unknowingly sends the virus to anyone they are emailing (usually as a separate message). Most viruses can also replicate themselves. The infamous I Love You. Or. but cannot attach itself to other programs. All computer viruses are manmade. in some Email software programs. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. (2) A term used loosely for more recent viruses that are sent through Email and affect Email software programs such as Microsoft Outlook." Definitions adapted from previous "Internet Skills" courses at Chabot. Melissa. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Once the virus is opened. and the "layman" began thinking of these type of Email viruses as "worms.