# TOLERANCE ACCUMULATION

AND

ANALYSIS

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A and B two linear dimensions to be added a1, a2 tolerance on A b1, b2 tolerance on B A+B = C The tolerance on C to be analysed.
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C is max. when A and B are max. C is min. when A and B are min. Cmax Cmin Cmax Cmin = = = = A max + B max A min + B min. ( C + c2 )= (A + a2) + (B + b2) ( C - c1 )= (A – a1) + (B – b1) ------- ( 1 ) ------- ( 2 )

c1, c2 tolerance on C Subtracting C min ( 2 ) from C max ( 1 ) c2 + c1 = (a1+a2) + (b1 + b2) If ( a1 + ( c1 + a2 ) = T a ( b1 + b2 ) = T b c2 ) = T c
c

The Tolerance on the total length will be T

= Ta + Tb
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SUBTRACTION OF TOLERANCES

A and B two linear dimensions to be subtracted a1, a2 tolerance on A b1, b2 tolerance on B A-B = C The tolerance on C to be analysed.
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and B is min. A max B min A min B max = = = = A + a2 B – b1 A – a1 B + b2 C max = ( C + c 2 ) = ( A + a2) – ( B – b1 ) ----------. C is min. when A is min. when A is max.( 3 ) C min = ( C – c1 ) = ( A – a1) – ( B + b2 ) ---------.( 4 ) Subtracting C min ( 4 ) from C max ( 3 ) (c 2 + c 1 ) = ( a2 + a1 ) + ( b2 + b1) If ( a2 + a1 ) = Ta ( b2 + b1 ) = Tb ( c2 + c1 ) = Tc c The Tolerance on the remaining length T = Ta + Tb 5 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . and B is max. C max = A max – B min C min = A min – B max.C is max.

The tolerances are getting added both in addition and subtraction. 6 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

EXAMPLES TO CALCULATE UNKNOWN DIMENSIONS 7 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

a2 z1 X –A = (X –A) = Z Therefore x2 – a1 = z2 x2 = a1 + z2 x1 – a2 = z1 x1 = a2 +z1 Therefore x2 x1 X = (A+ Z) 8 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY a1 + z2 a2 +z1 . Case-1 x 2 a2 z2 x 1 a1 z1 X – A = Z x2 a2 x2 .a1 z2 x1 a1 x1 .The value of „X‟ and tolerances x1. x2 are un-known.

2 x2 + 0. Example: x2 + 0.1 x1 – ( + 0. x2 are un-known.2 x1 – 0.1 + 0.1 -0.2 .1 = – 0.2 – 0.0.2 .2 x2 = + 0.2 X – 5 = 10 x2 – ( – 0.2 x1 .1 .1 .1 x2 x1 + 0.0.2 x1 = – 0.1 5 + 0.2 15 – 5 = 10 9 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .0.2 X – +0.0.1 = + 0.1 + 0.0.1 .1 = 10 + 0.1 ) = – 0.0.1 ) = + 0.The value of „X‟ and tolerances x1.1 = + 0.

z1 Therefore x2 x1 X = (A.The value of „X‟ and tolerances x1.Z ) a1 .z1 a2 . a2 .x1 = z2 x1 = a2 .X) = Z The tolerances of the equation can be equated. Case-2 a2 x2 a1 x1 A – X z2 z1 = Z a2 – x1 z2 a1 – x2 z1 (A .z2 10 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .x2 = z1 x2 = a1 . x2 are un-known.z2 a1 .

2 + 0.2 .X ) = Z The tolerances of the equation can be equated. +0.1 x1 .2 .2 x1 = +0.1 -0.1 +0.0.2 -0.0.1 -0.1 .1 – x2 ( 15 .2 = +0.2 15 .1 .Example: + 0.X = 10 + 0.1 – x1 +0.1 + 0.0.0.2 = -0.2 15 .2 15 .1 .2 .0.1 Therefore +0.0.X = 10 -0.x2 = -0.x1 = +0.1 .1 x1 .0.5 = 10 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 11 .1 x2 + 0.2 x2 = -0.1 +0.1 x2 + 0.

+ 0.0.0.0. 0 .05 .13 .20 Dimension B = 60.0 Calculate the nominal size and the variation for the dimension C.03 Dimension A = 100 . 12 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

13 ) – ( – 0.03 ) + ( – 0.15 0.15 = 0.13 – 0.20 60 c2 = + 0.Nominal size ‘ C ’ = Nominal size ‘ A ’ – Nominal size ‘ B ’ C = 100 – 60 = 40 c2 a2 b2 c1 a1 b1 C = A – B c2 c1 40 + 0.1 40 Verification: Tc = Ta +Tb Ta + Tb = + 0.20 ) = + 0.25 + 0.25 c1 = – 0.2 ) = 0.15 Tc = 0.13 ) = + 0.15 13 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .05 – ( – 0.03 – ( – 0.1 c2 c1 C = +0.05 – 0.03 = 100 – – 0.05 – ( – 0.

Calculate the dimension ‘x’ and tolerance on ‘x’ with ‘M-M’ and ‘L-L’ as references 14 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

1 8 = 22 +0.0 + 0.x1 -0.x2 x2 = + 0.1 = 0.0.1 ( 30 – 8 ) = 22 0.0.0 – x1 x1 – 0.1 .1 = – 0.1 30 x2 x1 ± 0.1 x2 x1 The value of X = 8 15 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .1 = – 0. 0 .Considering MM as reference a2 x2 b2 a1 x1 b1 A .X = B + 0.0 .x2 ±0.0 .1 .

2 16 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .1 x1 30 – 22 = 8 x2 x1 = + 0.0 – ( – 0.0.1 = 8 .1 = – 0.0 x2 .1) = + 0.Considering LL as reference a2 b2 a1 b1 A – B x2 x1 = X + 0.2 x2 x1 X + 0.1) = – 0.1 – ( +0.0.1 ± 0.

if multiplied by a positive constant number.MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION BY A CONSTANT NUMBER “Any dimension with tolerances. the tolerance of the result. similarly decreases proportionately” 17 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . the tolerance of the result also increases proportionately. When divided by a constant number.

1 + 0.9 = 12 18 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .3) 3 = (4 * 3) +0.3 +0.3 4 * (3) (+0.MULTIPLICATION BY A CONSTANT NUMBER a2 a1 When A is multiplied by a constant K .1) 3 (+0. it becomes a2 a2 * K a1 (A ) * K = (A* K ) Example : a1 * K + 0.

3 0.1 +0.9/3 ( 12 ) ‚ 3 = ( 12 / 3 ) +0.9 0.3/3 +0.3 = 4 19 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .DIVISION BY A CONSTANT NUMBER a2 a1 When A is divided by a constant K . it becomes a2 a2 ‚ K a1 a1 ‚ K ( A ) ‚ K = (A ‚ K) Example : +0.

EXAMPLE 1 Find out the variation of dimension „x‟ with reference to „LL‟ 20 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

6 0.1 = 0.2 – ( + 0.2 +0.x2 x1 +0.1 + 0.3 = – 0.1 ) – 0.3 -0.2 + 0.3 = 2 ± 0.0 +0.6 T x = 0.2 ) – ( – 0.2 + 0.3 = 0.1 -0.6 = 0.3 x2 x1 x2 x1 X = 2 +0.0 -0.0.6 21 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .1 ) = + 0.0 -0.3+0.0 -0.0 – ( – 0.2 +0.0 = – 0.0 .3 Verification: Ta + Tb + Tc + Td = T x Ta + Tb + Tc + Td = 0.0 ) – ( – 0.1 X x2 x1 = 50 – 5 – 38 – 5 = 2 = + 0.

119–(–0.Example 2 : -0.0120–(+0.119 .15 + 65 + 15 x2=(0.136 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 22 .073)] + [0.006 -0.013 -0.017)] = 0.017) = – 0.073 +0.009 + 95 +0.136 T x = [0.136 = 0.0.000 +0.017 0.017 = 290 x2 x1 .073)+(0.001 -0.012)+(-0.040)–(–0.001)] + (–0.019)+ [(–0.013–(–0.012 +0.009)] + [(+0.000)+(-0.136 = 290 + 0.001)+(0.000)-(-0.119 x1=(0.20 .009)-(0.006)–( –0.019 -0.040)+(-0.040 150 -0.040)-(.040+ [(–0.040 +0.017)] = 0.013)-(0.019)+(-0.006) = + 0.0.017 x2 x1 X Verification: Ta+ Tb+ Tc + Td + Te + Tf = Tx Ta+ Tb+ Tc + Td + Te + Tf = 0.

Ta + Tb+ T c+ Td = 0.011 ) = 0.046 + 0.008 ) – ( + 0.021– 0.030 +0.030 +0.Example 3 : + 0.097 = +0.057 -0.097 23 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .000 + 0.046 + 0.011 ) + ( 0.030 – ( + 0.011 +0.030 – 0.011 – ( + 0.021 +0.097 0.008 ) + ( 0.030 ) = – 0.011 240 +75 – 20 – 60 = x2 x1 X X = (240 + 75 – 20 – 60) = 235 x2 = + 0.040 x2 x1 235 Verification: Ta + Tb + T c + Td = Tx.011 ) = + 0.008 +0.097 = 0.046 + ( 0.021 ) – ( + 0.057 x1 = + 0.040 235 Tx = 0.030 – 0.

032) = 0.008–(–0.128 0.128 24 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .009 -0.128 = 0.012 – (– 0.003) = – 0.000 ) – ( + 0.007)+ 0.128 T-x = 0.013 –(–0.003) = 0.009 – (–0.096 x1 = – 0.009) + 0.0 96 x1 -0.063–(–0.013 +0.008 -0.007 -0.009 +0.003 65 -20 +450 -120 +12 = x2 x1 387 x2 = + 0.004 ) + 0.032 387 = 387 Verification: Ta+Tb+T-c+Td+Te = T-x Ta+Tb+T-c+Td+Te =0.008 = + 0.007 – ( + 0.063 -0.004 +0.009 ) + ( + 0.009)+0.063+0.012–(–0.004)+0.096– (–0.013) + (–0.012 +0.Example 4 : +0.032 x2 +0.

25 ± 0.Calculate the value of „x‟ to have the axial clearance between bearing and the shaft.25 mm 25 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . as 1.

L L Considering LL as reference The value of X must lie as the difference between the sum of the dimension of B. 26 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . D. and E to A. C.

25 5 + 140 + 1.1 + 0.05 + 0.25 + 0.0 +0.0 + 0.1 – 0.25 +0.25+0.25 + 0.05 – 0.00 +0.25 Verification: Tb+Tc+Td+Te+Ta = Tx Tb+Tc+Td+Te+Ta = +0.25 =1.05 -0.25 + 5 .2 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 27 .05 +0.2 Tx = 1.25 – 0.5 x1 = – 0.00 – ( – 0.10 -0.25) = 51.05 -0.2 =1.5 x1 -0.25 – 100 ) x2 = + 0.25 ) = + 0.7 (51.25 ) x2 x1 X = ( 151.25 -0.2 1.05 – ( + 0.7 x2 +0.00 + 0.25 -0.25 +0.100 x2 x1 = ( 51.25 ) = – 0.EQUATION : x2 x1 X x2 x1 = +0.00 +0.

A hole 16H6 has to be drilled and reamed The dimension is 79  0.1 from one side of the component.1 28 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . Calculate the tolerance for the dimension 12 from one end in a box jig plate to obtain the resultant dimension 79  0.

05 .05 – ( – 0.05)-(-0. limit : + 0.05 x1 79 = 111 – 20 – 12 Max.05 + 0.05)+0.0.05 ± 0.05 +0.+0.2 = 0. limit : – 0.2 29 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .0.1 = .0.0) = 0.00 79 = 111 .05 The tolerance for the dimension 12 is 12 or 12.1 = + 0.00 + 0.05)-(-0.05 .00 .01 ± 0.05 – 0.2 0.0.05 ) – x1 x1 = 0 Min.0 + 0.2 Ta + Tb + Tc = (0.05)+(0.20 – 12 Td = 0.1 ± 0.00 x2 ± 0.05 – ( + 0 ) – x2 x2 = 0.05 Verification: Td = Ta + Tb + Tc + 0.0-(-0.

05 Calculate the tolerance for the dimension 97 to position the drill jig bush to drill and ream dia 16H7 hole.A hole of 16H7 is to be made with reference to another predrilled and reamed hole 10H7 which lies on a perpendicular plane The dimension of the hole 10H7 with reference to one side of the box jig is given as 245  0. 30 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

05 –0.1 = 0.2 Tc = 0.05 x1 = + 0.05 – 97 x1 + 97 = 45  0.05 x2 = – 0.05 = 148  Ta +Tb = 0.1+ 0.1 31 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .1 – ( x1 ) = + 0.Dimension should be 148 148  0.05 .2 0.2 0.05 +0.2 = 0.05 The tolerances for the dimension 97 is  0.97  0.1 = 245 x x 2 1 x2  0.1 – ( x2 ) = – 0.05 Verification: 245  0.1  0.

1 ) .05 . is dimensioned by two methods.1 ) .0.05 .25 = .05 .( . 130  0.2 ) = + 0.0.35 x 2 x 1 X = 30  0.2 are toleranced .35 In case 2 considering ‘AA’ as reference x2 Xx1 x 2 x 1 X2 Xx1 = 130  0.2 ) = .2 x2 = + 0.( + 0. In case 1 the dimensions. 50  0. .05 are toleranced In case 2 .The component shown in Fig. 100  0.1 – 100  0.0. 2 = + 0.05and 30  0.( .100  0.0.( .35 x1 = .05 – 50  0.2 .0. dimensions 100  0. and the overall dimensions 180  0.0.2 ) = .25 = 30  0.05 .( + 0.05 In case 1 considering ‘ LL’ as the reference X2 x1 X = 180  0.2 ) = + 0.0. 25 32 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .( + 0. Analyses the more practical one.1.05 .

0. which is also reference for manufacturing.08 . C and their tolerances are evaluated as follows. 33 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY + 0. It is impracticable to measure the depth ( 20 ) of the hole having diameter D1 from the functional reference „ LL ‟ Hence the best auxiliary reference selected in this case is „ MM ‟.The dimension „C‟ from the functional reference „ LL ‟. In view of this new reference the dimensions of A. B.14 .

08 20 .09 A = 30 +0.03 a1 -0.14 a1 = – 0.B = C a2 b2 c2 a1 b1 c1 A .B = C 30 a2 a1 – 10  0.0.05 = + 0.14 a2 – ( – 0.08 a2 = 0.09 a2 +0.05 ) = – 0. 34 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .0.0 5 = +0.05 ) = + 0.Nominal dimension of ‘A’ = Nominal dimension ‘B’+ Nominal dimension ‘C’ A = B+C A = 20 +10 = 30 Total Tolerance of ‘C’ = Total tolerance of ‘A’-Total tolerance of ‘B’ The equation will be A .09.03 a1 – ( + 0.03 The depth of hole is = 30 -0.08 .

Series and Parallel – A combination of the above two methods 35 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .TOLERANCING DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS Methods of dimensioning between centers of holes Series or chain dimensioning Parallel dimensioning of each hole with respect to the datum.

TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF TWO HOLES Case1: Sizes of the holes and shafts are identical. „d‟ is the diameter of the shafts „D‟ is the diameter of holes in two plates A set up for the worst case of interchangeability 36 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

2m .2d 2m = 2 ( D-d ) 2m = 2L m = L As this is a critical value.d+ D/2 + ( M-m ) + D/2 -d 0 = 2D .1-1 = Axis of holes in the plate1 2-2 = Axis of the holes in the plate 2 CC = Axis of the shafts mating the holes. as 100% interchangeability is to be achieved.( M+ m ) + D/2. M = The distance between the centers of holes ± m = The tolerance on M on the respective holes ( D-d ) = Clearance between hole and shaft = L Considering a datum line of no clearance from the figure The following chain of dimension can be placed keeping in view the signs An equation for the expression of tolerance is as 0 = D/2 . Therefore m = L 37 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . m can be less than L but not more.

38 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . It could be less or equal to the clearance. the tolerance on dimension between the two holes cannot be more than twice the diametrical clearance between the holes and shafts.CONCLUSION If 100% interchangeability is to be achieved in the above case.

for the mating shaft d1.TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF TWO HOLES Case II: The size of the holes and shafts vary D1 be the diameter of the holes in plates 1 and 2. D2 be the diameter of the holes in plates 1 and 2 for the mating shaft d2 . A worst case set-up for 100% interchangeability is shown. 39 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

0 = D2/2 .d1 ) = L1 and ( D2 .2m + ( D1 + D2 ) . ( D2 . a set of chain dimensions can be placed as follows. keeping in view the directional sign and equating it to zero.m ) + D2/2 .d2 0 = .d1 ) + ( D2 .d1 ) .d1 + D1/2 + ( M .( d1 + d2 ) 2m = ( D1 .1-1 = Axis of holes in the plate 1 2-2 = Axis of holes in the plate 2 c1 -c1 = Axis of the shaft of diameter d1 c2 -c-2 = Axis of the shaft of diameter d2 M = The distance between the centers of holes ± m = The tolerance on M. Starting from a point of no clearance.( M+ m )+ D1/2 . = The clearance between the holes and Shafts. Since ( D1 .d2 ). ( D1.d2 ) 2m = ( L1 + L2 ).d2) = L2 m = ( L1 + L2 ) ‚ 2 40 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

41 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .CONCLUSION The critical tolerance „m‟ on the centers of two holes in the above case should be equal to half the sum of clearances in both holes and could be less for 100% interchangeability between the two plates.

is shown.the diameter of mating shafts The holes displaced according to the tolerance for the worst case.TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF THREE HOLES Series Dimensioning D . 42 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .is the diameter of holes in the plates 1 and 2 d .

( M + m ) +D/2 . 43 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . 0 = D/2 + ( M.m ) + ( M – m ) + D/2 – d + D/2 .d 0 = 2D . Since ( D .( M+ m ).4m 4 m = 2 ( D – d ) = 2 L.1-1 = Axis of the holes in plate 1 2-2 = Axis of the holes in plate 2 c-c = Axis of the shafts M = Dimension between holes ±m = The tolerance of the dimensions.2d .d ) = L m = L/2 Similarly For 4 holes dimensioned in series m=L/3 For 5 holes dimensioned in series m=L/4 If n holes are in series m= L/n-1 For ‘n’ holes dimensioned in series tolerance between the holes should be equal to or less than L/n-1 for 100% interchangeability.

44 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .Series or Chain dimensions between centers For ‘n’ holes dimensioned in series tolerance between the holes should be equal to or less than L/n-1 for 100% interchangeability.

CONCLUSION As the number of holes increases in case of series dimensioning. the tolerance. Hence the cost of production increases and it is difficult to make. If same tolerances are given to the large dimensions as that of small dimensions. 45 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . it will be in many instances impracticable. between the holes decreases.

shows the holes displaced according to the tolerances for the worst case. 46 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .is the diameter of holes in the plates 1 and 2 d .TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS BETWEEN CENTERS OF THREE HOLES Parallel Dimensioning D .is the diameter of the shafts Fig .

as follows.1-1 = Axis of holes in plate 1 2-2 = Axis of holes in plate 2 c-c = Axis of the shafts M1 = The distance of the second hole from the first M2 = The distance of the third hole from the first ± m’ = The tolerance of M1 dimension ± m’’ = The tolerance of M2 dimension Considering a datum line of no clearance from the figure the following chain of dimensions can be laid down taking care of the signs of the dimensions. the expression for the tolerances is. -d+D/2+(M1-m’)+D/2-d+D/2-(M1+m’)+(M2+m”)-D/2+d-D/2-(M2-m”)-D/2+d= 0 2 m’ – 2 m” = 0 m’ = m” 47 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

Parallel Dimensioning 48 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

CONCLUSION As the number of holes increases the tolerance remains the same L The tolerance between the first hole and second hole is equal to tolerance between the first hole and third hole. it has no bearing on the number of holes . 49 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . if the tolerance is equal. We also conclude that.

FOUR-HOLE GROUP WITH COORDINATE TOLERANCES 50 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

tolerance decreases which is difficult to achieve and expensive. By series dimensioning. 51 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .Comparison between series & parallel Dimensioning: If the number of holes exceeds 3. parallel dimensioning is only recommended.

TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS OF HOLES IN PLATES I AND II FROM THEIR COMMON EDGE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY: Case1: Fastener having clearance in both the plates

Two plates are to be assembled by a fastener of dia‘d’, passing through the holes of dia ‘D’. The locations of holes are with reference to the common edge ‘0’. The distance of the holes from the common edge is M ± m , where m is the tolerance.
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Center of the hole in plate 1 is ( M + m ) Center of the hole in plate 2 is ( M – m ) In the plan view a line joining the common edge and the centers makes an angle of 45 degrees and the figure shows the respective distance from the common edge. Applying the principles as before, 0 = (D/2)-2 (M+m) +2(M-m) + (D/2)-d 0 = (D-d) - 2 2m, Therefore 2*2m = (D –d) (D–d)=L 2m = ( D – d ) ‚ 2 = 0.7 * L
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TOLERANCE ON DIMENSIONS OF HOLES IN PLATES I AND II FROM THEIR COMMON EDGE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY: Case II: Fastener having clearance in plate 1 and press fit in plate 2.

For the position as shown 0 = (D/2)-2(M+m)+2(M-m)-(d/2) (D-d)/2 = 2*2m ; ( D – d ) = L 0.35 L = 2m.
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TOLERANCES OF DIMENSIONS IN TWO PLATES FROM COMMON SURFACE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY Case I : Fastener having clearance in both plates

D – Dia. of hole in Plates 1 & 2 ( M + m ) and ( M –m ) - distance of holes d – dia. of fastener

Applying the principle 0 = ( D/2 ) – ( M + m ) + ( M - m ) + ( D/2 ) – d D–d = 2m D – d = L, L = 2m 0.5 L = m for complete interchangeability m ≥ 0.5 L
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25 L 56 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .TOLERANCES OF DIMENSIONS IN TWO PLATES FROM COMMON SURFACE FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY Case II: Fastener having clearance in one plate and press fit in other plate 0=D/2-(M+m)+(M–m)– (d/2) (D–d)/2=2m (D–d) = L L/2 =2m m = 0.25 L For complete interchangeability m ≥ 0.

e1. L2. L2 = Clearance (around) between the slip bush and liner bush for the first and second holes respectively. e2………. L1. THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . e1. e2 = eccentricity of inside diameter of slip bush with respect to its outside diameter for the two bushes respectively.CALCULATION OF TOLERANCE FOR DISTANCE BETWEEN HOLES ON DRILL JIGS Two holes are to be drilled and reamed at a distance W0 within the limits ±T0 . L1. 57 So that W0 = f (w1. by using a jig plate with slip bushes as shown in Fig. W1  T1 be the distance between the liner bushes in jig plate.).

O1. OO1 = L1 + e1 OO2 = L2 + e2. ( W1 + T1 + L1 + e1 + e2 ) ≤ W0 + T0. This distance between holes on the component W 1 + T1 + OO1 + OO2 The sum of these distance should be less than the maximum distance given on the component. 58 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .CONDITION 1: When the distance between liner bushes in the jig plate is at maximum distance (W1+T1) and slip bushes at far off position. O2 are centers of the slip bushes which are eccentric with respect to their outside diameter of slip bushes by e1 and e2.

( L1 + e1 ) . O2 are the centers of the slip bushes.T1 ) .L2 .OO2 = ( W1 .CONDITION 2: When the distance between liner bushes in jig plate is at minimum distance (W1-T1) and when slip bushes are also at minimum distance: O1.L1 .L1 .L2 .e2 ≥ ( W o .OO1 . which are eccentric with respect to outside by e1 and e2 respectively.e1 .T1 ) .e1 .T1 ) .To ) 59 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .T1 . OO1 = L1 + e1 OO2 = L2 + e2 The distance between the holes obtained on the component ( W1 + T1 ) = ( W1 .e2 ) The sum of these distances should be more than the minimum distance ( Wo .To ) given on the component ( W1 .( L2 + e2 ) = ( W1 .

EFFECT OF CLEARANCE BETWEEN THE DRILL AND THE SLIP BUSHES ON DISTANCE BETWEEN THE HOLES ON THE COMPONENT Case I : The drill size is minimum . THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 60 .Td ) The sum of these distances should be less than or equal to Wo + To. With the effect of clearance between the drill and the slip bushes. bushes and the drill are at far off position O1. the maximum extreme dimension obtained is as = W1 + T1 + L1 + L2 + e1 + e2 + OO1 + OO2 = W1 + T1 + L1 + L2 + e1 + e2 + ( d b + Tb ) . O2 are the positions of the centres of the slip bush when the clearance between the drill and the slip bush are considered.( d .

e2 .CASE II: When drill size is minimum the bushes position is also at minimum distance .Td ) ≤ ( W0 + T0 ) W1 .e2 .OO1 .T1 .( d .L1 .L2 .e2 .T1 .L2 – e1 .OO2 = W1 .( d .L2 . OO1 = OO2 = ( d b .T0 The tolerance of the hole in slip bush is = F 7 The clearance between the liner bush and the slip bush is = F 7 / h 6 (If the liner bush is used for drilling also) THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY 61 .T0 ) given on component.Td ) ‚ 2 Actual distance between holes on component = W1 .e1 .( d .Td ) This should be more than the minimum distance ( W0 .L2 .( d b + Tb ) .T1 .Td ) Final conditions are W1 + T1 + L1 + L2 + e1 + e2 + ( d b +Tb ) .e1 .Td ) As per Indian standard the tolerance on drill is = h 9 > ( W0 .Tb ) .( d b + Tb ) + ( d .e1 – e2 .L1 .L1 . the drill is at minimum distance.T0 ) > W0 .( d b + Tb ) + ( d . W1 .L1 .T1 .

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