27 views

Uploaded by hddhermit

Describes the physics of the Fann Model 35A Rheometer. Provides the equations that describe how torque is developed and transmitted in the rheometer and what that means about the friction de…Full description

save

- Lab report drilling fluids lab
- Enhancement in Viscosity of Diesel by Using Chemical Additive
- Unocas
- fluid mechanics
- 04 Drilling Fluid
- EXP 1.pdf fluid
- SPE-152-PA.pdf
- Lecture-1 2 -Fluid Properties 2
- Sample Exam 1 With Solutions
- Fluid Mechanics Hydraulic Machinery
- Mof
- Chemical Engg 2014_2
- Fluid Mechanics_01.pptx
- Fluid Mechanics d203
- Viscosity
- Gas Dynamics and Boundary Layer Flow
- Tutorial PE104
- Me III Year Ieo Paper i
- Anomalies Critical Fluid
- dsadadadfsfs
- ChE 441 Problem Set 2 Solutions
- lec7-injection-mold-2015.pdf
- Trix Otro Pia
- Viscosity
- G- Liquid Slug Holdup in Horizontal and Slightly Inclined Two-phase Slug Flow
- lab 4 geo
- DETA - TDS DOW.pdf
- Chitosan Aspects of Fiber Spinnability
- Molylube Cam Compound L56
- Interfacial viscous ship waves near the cusp lines
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Yes Please
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- Steve Jobs
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- Bel Canto
- The Master
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Cider House Rules
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- The Wallcreeper
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Interpreter of Maladies
- Good in Bed

Page 1

Rheology Measurements in Fundamental Units

A Technical HDD Article by Manley Osbak

In a previous article

1

, we defined viscosity as the force required to create a velocity

differential of 1 cm/s across 1 cm of fluid, resulting in an expression of viscosity as

dynes/cm

2

/s

-1

. The article showed how we arrived at this expression using the basic units

of mass (force), time and distance (area), and that 1 Poise refers to 1 dyne/cm

2

/s

-1

.

Describing viscosity in terms of basic units is helpful because the basic units refer to and

reveal what is happening on a physical level, making the concept of viscosity easier to

understand.

A rotating viscometer is a popular instrument that is used to

measure the shear stress of a fluid at various shear rates, and

thereby to determine the viscosity of the fluid. Most of the

available literature refers to the shear stress measurement in

terms of lbs/100 ft

2

and the shear rate measurement in terms

of RPM (revolutions per minute) or reciprocal seconds. As

with the general descriptions of viscosity, the literature

involves units of measurement that are not consistent with

previous units along with an over-use of multipliers, thus

making it difficult to understand what is being measured and

what the formulas and units actually refer to. To help us

understand what the shear stress and shear rate values mean,

we can look at how shear stress is developed in the rotating

viscometer and how it is measured.

Shear Stress

A rotating viscometer, such as the Fann Model 35A is used to measure the shear stress

that develops in a fluid at various shear rates. This data is used to calculate the viscosity

of the fluid. A sample of fluid is put into a cup and raised so that the viscometer’s

rotor/bob assembly is immersed in the fluid. The rotor is rotated at a specific RPM via an

electric motor. The fluid in between the rotor and the

bob splits into layers. The layer that is in contact with

the rotor moves at the same rotation velocity as the

rotor. The layer of fluid that is in contact with the bob

exerts a force on the bob that is equal to the sum of

the frictional forces between each layer of fluid

between the bob and the rotor.

The bob is connected to a shaft that is connected to a

spring. The frictional forces that arise between each

layer of fluid are transmitted to the bob and cause a

drag force on the surface of the bob. The drag on the

1

See What is Viscosity, Manley Osbak, 2009

Spring

Shaft

Bob

Rotor

Fluid

Rheology in Basic Units

© 2009, Manley Osbak, Spruce Grove, Alberta. Distribute or reproduce in whole only.

Page 2

bob, causes it to rotate but the rotation of the bob is resisted by the spring. The bob

rotates until the drag on the bob is balanced by the resistance of the spring. A dial is also

attached to the shaft. The shaft rotates the dial so that the dial shows the number of

degrees that the bob rotated.

The amount of torque applied to the shaft, and therefore

the spring, is equal to the drag or force applied on the

surface of the bob times the distance from the surface of

the bob to the centre of the shaft. The standard spring

(S1) that comes with the Model 35A has a torsional

resistance or torsional spring constant of 386 dyne•cm/º

deflection. If we applied a force of 386 dyne at a radial

distance of 1 cm, the shaft would rotate 1 degree. If we applied a force of 386 dyne over a

radial distance of 2 cm, the shaft would rotate 2 degrees. The standard bob (B1) that

comes with Model 35A has a radius of 1.7245cm. The drag on the bob that would rotate

the shaft by 1 degree can be calculated using:

I = FJ →

I

J

= F =

S86 Jync ∙ cm

1.724S cm

= 22S.8SS Jync

The drag on the bob is 223.83 dyne for every degree of deflection on the dial. This is the

drag per degree of deflection, that is exerted on the entire bob surface that is in contact

with the fluid, including the side and bottom of the bob. We are only concerned however,

about the shear stress that is created between the rotor and the bob, so the drag that is

exerted on the bottom of the bob needs to be taken out of our consideration. The drag on

the bottom of the bob is estimated to be about 6% of the total drag. If we decrease the

total drag by 6%, we get a value of 210.399 dyne, representing the drag on the side og

the bob per degree of deflection.

If we take the drag on the side of the bob and divide it by the cylindrical area of the bob,

we get the drag that is being exerted on each square centimetre of the bob, which is the

shear stress (

A f

) that is being exerted on the bob. The shear stress ( ) experienced

by the bob per degree of deflection is thus determined by dividing the force per degree of

deflection by the cylindrical area of the bob. The shear stress or drag per square

centimetre on the vertical surface of the B1 bob per degree of deflection is:

Arco = 2nr x bob bcigbt

A = 2n x 1.724S cm x S.8 cm = 41.174 cm

2

¡ =

F

A

=

21u.S99 Jync

41.174 cm

2

= S.11 Jync¡cm

2

During operation of the viscometer, we can calculate the stress that is developed in the

fluid by multiplying the degrees of deflection by 5.11 dyne/cm

2

.

Torque Force

Radial

Distance

Iorquc = Forcc x Ðistoncc

Rheology in Basic Units

© 2009, Manley Osbak, Spruce Grove, Alberta. Distribute or reproduce in whole only.

Page 3

Shear Rate

The Fann Model 35A rotates at six speeds which is given in RPM. The viscometer rotates

at 3, 6, 100, 200, 300 and 600 RPM. To express shear rate in basic units of cm/s/cm, we

have to convert the rotational velocity to an equivalent lineal velocity. The rotational

velocity can be converted to a lineal velocity by first calculated the equivalent rotations

per second. Using the 600 RPM rotational velocity as an example we would have, 600

rpm ÷ 60 seconds = 10 revolutions/second. We then calculate the angular velocity or

angular displacement of the rotor per second by multiplying the revolutions per second

by 2π, which would give, æ = ¡2n = 1us

-1

x 2n = 62.8S roJions¡scconJ. Since 1

radian of a unit circle (a circle with a radius of 1 cm) is equal to a linear distance of 1cm,

we can calculate the equivalent lineal velocity of the inside face of the rotor by

multiplying the angular displacement (in radians) by the internal radius of the rotor. The

internal radius of the R1 rotor is 1.8415cm. The lineal velocity equivalent to a rotational

speed of 600 rpm is then : = æ x r = 62.8S roJ¡s x 1.841S cm = 115.705 cm/s.

The layer of fluid that is in contact with the rotor, is moving at the same speed as the

rotor, while the layer of fluid that is in contact with the bob isn’t moving at all. So the

fluid at the rotor has an equivalent lineal velocity of 115.705 cm/s, while the fluid at the

bob has an equivalent lineal velocity of 0 cm/s. Since the radius of the B1 bob is 1.7245

cm and the radius of the R1 rotor is 1.8415 cm, the distance between these two layers is

0.117 cm. The velocity differential of 115.705 cm/s occurs across a distance of 0.117 cm.

To determine what the velocity differential would be across a gap of 1 cm, we simply

divide the velocity differential of 115.705 cm/s by the gap of 0.117 cm to yield of shear

rate value of 988.906 cm/s/cm. Notice that the shear rate is now in basic units. The

general formula to convert shear rate in rpm to cm/s/cm is:

Shear Rate (cm/s/cm) = 648 . 1

51 . 3 117 . 0 30

117 . 0

30

rpm

r rpm r rpm r rpm

For the Fann Model 35A, with an R1 rotor and B1 bob configuration, the shear rate in

cm/s/cm corresponding to the 3, 6, 100, 200, 300 and 600 rpm rotation velocities is

9.944, 9.888, 164.8, 329.6, 494.4 and 988.8 cm/s/cm respectively.

Viscosity

The shear stress developed in a 100 cP oil was

measured using the Fann Model 35A. The results

of the measurements are shown in Table 1 and

Figure 1. The viscosity of the fluid can be

calculated directly by simply dividing the Shear

Stress by the Shear Rate.

Table 1: Shear Stress/Shear Rate of 100 cP Oil

RPM Lineal

Velocity

Dial Reading

(degrees)

Shear Stress

(dyne/cm

2

)

3 4.94 1 5.11

6 9.89 3 15.33

100 164.82 36 183.96

200 329.64 70 357.7

300 494.47 94 480.34

600 988.93 206 1052.66

Rheology in Basic Units

© 2009, Manley Osbak, Spruce Grove, Alberta. Distribute or reproduce in whole only.

Page 4

Poise

s cm dyne

cm

s cm

cm dyne

cm

s cm

cm dyne

11 . 1

/ / 11 . 1

/

/ 11 . 1

1

/ 82 . 164

/ 96 . 183

1 2

2 2

The construction of the Fann Model 35A, with

the B1, R1, S1 configuration results in a shear stress of 5.11 dyne/cm

2

(the drag or force

on every square centimeter of the bob) for every degree of deflection that is shown on the

dial reading. After converting the RPM to an equivalent linear velocity per radial

centimeter (cm/s/cm) as shown above, we are able to express the viscosity of a fluid in a

simple, clear and dimensionally consistent way.

Figure 1: Shear Stress/Shear Rate of 100 cP Oil

- Lab report drilling fluids labUploaded byLaura Demarch
- Enhancement in Viscosity of Diesel by Using Chemical AdditiveUploaded byeditor_ijtel
- UnocasUploaded byIan As
- fluid mechanicsUploaded byxitta00
- 04 Drilling FluidUploaded byMh Amri
- EXP 1.pdf fluidUploaded byShalini Krishnan
- SPE-152-PA.pdfUploaded byAhmed Ali Alsubaih
- Lecture-1 2 -Fluid Properties 2Uploaded byAngie Gaid Tayros
- Sample Exam 1 With SolutionsUploaded byAzhim Aris
- Fluid Mechanics Hydraulic MachineryUploaded byRamphani Nunna
- MofUploaded byAnonymous 7J96P4AN
- Chemical Engg 2014_2Uploaded byAppanna Babu
- Fluid Mechanics_01.pptxUploaded byarunyoga
- Fluid Mechanics d203Uploaded byVignesh Sundaram
- ViscosityUploaded byakilan
- Gas Dynamics and Boundary Layer FlowUploaded bymustafasandikci
- Tutorial PE104Uploaded byaquabeefman
- Me III Year Ieo Paper iUploaded bysaurabh
- Anomalies Critical FluidUploaded byMario Blanco
- dsadadadfsfsUploaded bycarlette11
- ChE 441 Problem Set 2 SolutionsUploaded byไตเติ้ล สบม.
- lec7-injection-mold-2015.pdfUploaded bypatahul
- Trix Otro PiaUploaded byDemian Pereira
- ViscosityUploaded bygee-ess-dee
- G- Liquid Slug Holdup in Horizontal and Slightly Inclined Two-phase Slug FlowUploaded byramihey
- lab 4 geoUploaded byfadhilahmad
- DETA - TDS DOW.pdfUploaded byAlexander Juan
- Chitosan Aspects of Fiber SpinnabilityUploaded byd_toor06
- Molylube Cam Compound L56Uploaded bydhowardj
- Interfacial viscous ship waves near the cusp linesUploaded byDong-Qiang Lu