# ROUNDNESS

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Roundness

Roundness refers to a condition of a circular line or the surface of a circular feature wherein all points on the line or on the periphery of a plane cross section of the feature, are equidistant from a common center point .

Examples : Disc, Sphere , Cylinder, Cone

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Errors of Roundness 3 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

4 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .Errors of Roundness Ovality : Difference appear in major and minor axes.

5 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .Errors of Roundness Lobing: Small Variation in diameter as shown in figure.

Errors of Roundness Irregularity : Random irregularities from a true Circles 6 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

having a diameter 75% of the feature control symbol frame height. ROUNDNESS SYMBOL 7 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .ROUNDNESS SYMBOL The geometrical characteristic symbol for roundness is simply a circle.

ROUNDNESS TOLERANCE The variation should lie within the width of the Annular space between two concentric circles 8 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

radial separation between two concentric circles within which all points on measured surface to lie. 9 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .ROUNDNESS TOLERANCE Incorrect  Incorrect Correct Roundness error is min.

 The outer diameter of the roundness tolerance zone exceeds the actual measured diameter of the part by the amount of roundness tolerance.ROUNDNESS ERROR MAY EXCEEDS SIZE BOUNDARY  Measurements between any two opposing points along the circumference shall be within the specified diameter tolerance limits. 10 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

11 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .ROUNDNESS OF CYLINDERS AND SPHERES ROUNDNESS FOR A CYLINDRICAL FEATURE INTERPRETATION OF ROUNDNESS TOLERANCE  It is preferable to direct a roundness tolerance for a cylindrical feature to the view in which the feature appears as a circle.  The tolerance applies to all planes perpendicular to the axis.

12 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . which pass through a section of maximum diameter.ROUNDNESS TOLERANCE APPLIED TO A SPHERE  The tolerance is shown in the same manner and applies to any or all planes.

ROUNDNESS OF NON-CYLINDRICAL PARTS Non-cylindrical parts refer to conical parts and other features which are circular in cross-section but which have variable diameters. 13 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . Since many sizes of circles may be involved it is usually best to direct the roundness tolerance to the longitudinal surface as shown.

Indirect measurement involves establishing the relationship of the periphery of a feature with the geometry of a perfectly round form. regardless of its size or the exact position of its center. It is immaterial whether the part is revolved in contact with a fixed indicator or whether the indicator is revolved around the part.ROUNDNESS MEASURING PRINCIPLE The measurement of roundness presents some problems. 14 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . as it does not lend itself to direct measurement.

The profile is evaluated by means of transparent overlay chart on which concentric circles are scribed to the same scale as the polar chart. Note : There are a number of commercial instruments available. some of which produce a polar chart automatically as the part is revolved 15 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . or electronic principles. mechanical. based on optical.POLAR CHART & TRANSPARENT OVERLAY CHART POLAR CHART PROFILE OF PART TRANSPARENT OVERLAY CHART   The indicator readings are entered directly on polar chart during roundness measurement of cylinder.

while measuring the upper surface with an indicator gage This method does not measure in accordance with the definition of roundness. and is therefore not recommended for precise results.ALTERNATIVE MEASURING PROCEDURES (NOT) RECOMMENDED It is sometimes suggested that parts be checked for roundness by revolving them in suitable V-block. 16 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

instead of a radius. If all measurements show little or movement it might be assumed that satisfactory. The roundness error will therefore be roughly half the indicator movement. for example 180. no indicator the part is   (NOT) RECOMMENDED  Full indicator reading is approximately equal to measurement over a diameter. 17 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . 120. 90 and 60.ALTERNATIVE MEASURING PROCEDURES An estimate of out of roundness errors can sometimes be obtained by making separate measurements on a part in V-blocks having different included angles.

In this method one of the vee-blocks must always be directly under the point of measurement.ALTERNATIVE MEASURING PROCEDURES USE OF TWO – BLOCKS To avoid errors of readings due to bending of the parts it may be necessary to employ two narrow vee-blocks. 18 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

ALTERNATIVE MEASURING PROCEDURES HOW LOBING CAUSES ERRORS IN MEASURING V-blocks (not)recommend -Reasons Five Lobed part in 60 V-block-.indictor reading practically zero even though the component is out of round 19 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .

ALTERNATIVE MEASURING PROCEDURES V-blocks (not)recommend -Reasons Three Lobed part in 60 V-block-. 20 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .indictor reading greatly exaggerated for small variation of roundness.

similar methods used for external measurement can be used. If the holes are large enough for insertion of a gaging probe. Indicator gauges used for measurement of internal roundness for bigger hole diameters.ROUNDNESS OF INTERNAL DIAMETERS (NOT RECOMMENDED) ROUNDNESS OF INTERNAL DIAMETERS Round holes can be toleranced for roundness in the same manner as external cylindrical features. it is recommended that roundness tolerances be replaced by cylindricity tolerances of zero MMC 21 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . Drawback of this method is same as that of V-blocks For small holes. where suitable gaging probes or indicators cannot be used.

ROUNDNESS ON MMC BASIS It is often desirable to ensure that any errors of roundness do not cause the periphery of the feature to cross the maximum material boundary. such as the zero MMC tolerance. 22 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY . This shall ensure that the part will assemble satisfactorily with its mating part. A tolerance on this basis is generally directed to the diametric dimension. This is accomplished by specifying a roundness tolerance on an MMC basis.

of Tolerance Zone Mean Tolerance Zone = 50. Dia.12mm PART MAY CROSS THE LEAST MATERIAL BOUNDARY 23 THE INSTITUTE FOR ENHANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY .76mm = 0. of Tolerance Zone Min.ROUNDNESS ON AN MMC BASIS ROUNDNESS TOLERANCE ON MMC BASIS Max.88mm = 49.00mm = 49. Dia. of Part Minor Dia.