Chemistry, Unit 1, Matter And Its Classification

1. Basic concepts: -Anything which occupies space and has mass is called matter. -Matter can be both living and non-living. E.g. Trees, people, animals, buildings, air, water are all matter in one form or another. -We can identify matter and many of its properties using our five senses - sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing. -So, all the objects we see, smell, taste or touch, in this world are made of matter.

2. Classification of matter: - Study of matter is simplifed by its classification. -Matter is classified according to its state and physical properties. -States of matter - Matter is classified based on state as follows - solids, liquids and gases -Same substance (matter) can exist in three different states at different temperatures. Let us take water as an example. In solid state we see it as ice. In liquid state we see it as water. In gaseous state we call it water vapour. -Solid has definite shape, mass and volume. Example - book, brick etc. The volume of a solid can be changed only by applying external force. -This is because the molecules in a solid are closely packed as if in fixed positions. There is not much space between particles inside a solid. So it is not easy to change the shape of a solid. I.e. a solid cannot be easily compressed or expanded. -Liquid has mass and volume but no definite shape. It flows to take the shape of its container. It cannot be compressed to a smaller volume. -Since liquid can flow, it can be poured from one container to another. But a given volume of a liquid remains unchanged by pouring or transferring it from one container to another. This implies, a given amount of liquid has fixed volume. -Real life example - take 100ml water with a measuring cylinder and pour it in a 1000ml (1 litre) bottle or jar. The volume of water inside the bottle or jar

carbon dioxide. hardness. -This is because molecules of a gas are loosely packed. E. 3. (About 1000 times more space than those in liquids). spring balance. -Elasticity: It is the ability of a substance to return to its original shape and size after being bent. -Density: It is the mass of a substance per unit volume. are all physical properties. -They can also be compressed to a limited space or volume. This allows them to move more freely than the particles of liquid. Another E. melting point etc. -Mass: Mass is the quantity of matter contained in a body. density. say a cylinder. This allows them to move to some extent and take the shape of the container when we pour or transfer. flexiblility. Rubber band. Physical properties of matter: -The characteristics of matter that can be observed without causing any change to the matter are collectively called its physical properties. stretched or compressed.g. It has 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen.still remains 100ml. strength. electrical conductivity. Air is a mixture of gases. Thus the air or gas also takes the shapw of the balloon. They expand to occupy the space or volume available. -Gases have no definite shape or volume. hydrogen. So the volume of gas in a container. shape. fills up the space in the balloon.g. -This is because. There is lot of space between them. -Hardness: The ability to withstand wear and tear and scratches. Diamond .g. is equal to the volume of the cylinder. colour. -Oxygen. boiling point. nitrogen are all examples of gases. In other words they can be easily expanded or compressed to fill a container. size.when we blow a balloon the air or gas we pump in. E. E. But at the same time they are not so far apart that they can expand to take the shape of the container. But we can pump more air into it by compressing the air inside. molecules in a liquid are not in fixed positions and there is space between these molecules. thermal conductivity. -Real life examples . is that a cycle or car tyre has air in it.g. Below are the definitions of common physical properties.

-Glass. Ceramics. Water changes to water vapour at 100 degree celsius. -Boiling point: It is the temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to vapour state. Matter is anything made of atoms and molecules. For example 30g of sugar is soluble in 100 cubic cm of water.g. So we use them for cooking. -Viscosity: It can be described as the ease wtih which a fluid flows.g. Metals are good conductors of heat. E. -Thermal conductivity: The readiness of a substanceto allow heat to flow through. If you are new to the idea of mass. E. Higher the viscosity. that what viscosity is about) 4. -Flexibility: The extent to which the substance changes its shape without breaking even when force is applied on it. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Main classes of materials: -Materials may be classified according to metal and non-metal or natural and man-made.g. Plastics and Fibres are all non-metal. Aluminium and many plastic are flexible substances. less easy is the flow. Ice changes to water at 0 degree celsius. (Oil flows slower than water. it is . -Transparency: It is the ability of a substance to allow light to pass through it. Steel -Solubility: It is the maximum quantity of the solute which can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. Glass and some plastic films are more transparent than brick or wood. -Melting point: It is the temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid states. E. Matter is the Stuff Around You Matter is everything around you. E. Wood.g. -Electrical conductivity: It is the measure of readiness for electricity to flow through a substance. Oil is more viscous than water.-Strength: The ability to support heavy load without tearing and breaking. rubber etc are poor conductors of electricity.

Liquids are all fluidy at room temperature.the amount of stuff in an object. Water (H2O) is another example. A water molecule is made up of two hydrogen . gases. scientists have identified five physical states of matter. They may even discover one more state by the time you get old. Matter is sometimes related to light and electromagnetic radiation. but the molecules (the basic parts) are still the same. Oxygen (O2) as a gas still has the same properties as liquid oxygen. and one state called the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Think about solids. The liquid state is colder and denser. Five States of Matter You should know about solids. They are often hard and brittle. But what makes a state of matter? It's about the physical state of the molecules and atoms. Changing States of Matter Elements and compounds can move from onephysical state to another and not change their basic atomic parts. You don't see them because their molecules are really far apart. We talk about the difference between mass and weight in another section. Even though matter can be found all over the Universe. As of 1995. Gases are there. The scientists who worked with theBose-Einstein condensate received a Nobel Prize for their work in 1995. The BEC is all about molecules that are really close to each other (even closer than atoms in a solid). but you usually smell them before you can see them. plasmas. Scientists have always known about solids. liquids. and gases. Each of those states is sometimes called a phase. liquids. Plasma was a new idea when it was noticed by William Crookes in 1879. you only find it in a few forms.

"What is a chemical change?" Let's start with a glass of pure water. and other physical properties. A chemical change happens when the atoms in a molecule are moved around or when atoms are added or taken away. pressures. It has the same molecular structure whether it is a gas. The molecules in your glass would not be water anymore. SOSC . temperatures. If the formula of water were to change. that would be a chemical change. its chemical state remains the same. you would have hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). If you could just add a second oxygen atom. or solid. Although its physical state may change. liquid. So you're asking. Chemical changes happen when bonds between atoms are created or destroyed. The basic chemical structure does not change when there is a physical change. Changing physical states of matter is about changing densities.(H) atoms and one oxygen (O) atom.