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Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 to 10)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 34 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE
7. 10 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE
Subject : Mathematics
Topic : DETERMINANTS & MATRICES
Student’s Name :______________________
Class :______________________
Roll No. :______________________
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1. 1. 1. 1. Def i ni t i on: Def i ni t i on: Def i ni t i on: Def i ni t i on:
Let us consider the equations a
1
x + b
1
y = 0, a
2
x + b
2
y = 0
⇒ –
1
1
b
a
=
x
y
= –
2
2
b
a

1
1
b
a
=
2
2
b
a
⇒ a
1
b
2
– a
2
b
1
= 0
we express this eliminant as
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
= 0
The symbol
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
is called the determinant of order two.
Its value is given by: D = a
1
b
2
− a
2
b
1
2. 2. 2. 2. Expansi on of Det er mi nant : Expansi on of Det er mi nant : Expansi on of Det er mi nant : Expansi on of Det er mi nant :
The symbol
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
is called the determinant of order three.
Its value can be found as:
D = a
1
3 3
2 2
c b
c b
− a
2
3 3
1 1
c b
c b
+ a
3

2 2
1 1
c b
c b
OR
D = a
1
3 3
2 2
c b
c b
− b
1
3 3
2 2
c a
c a
+ c
1
3 3
2 2
b a
b a
... & so on.
In this manner we can expand a determinant in 6 ways using elements of ; R
1
, R
2
, R
3
or C
1
, C
2
, C
3
.
3. 3. 3. 3. Mi no r s : Mi no r s : Mi no r s : Mi no r s :
The minor of a given element of a determinant is the determinant of the elements which remain after
deleting the row & the column in which the given element stands. For example, the minor of a
1
in
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
is
3 3
2 2
c b
c b
& the minor of b
2
is
3 3
1 1
c a
c a
.
Hence a determinant of order two will have “4 minors” & a determinant of order three wi ll have “9
minors”.
4. 4. 4. 4. Cof act or : Cof act or : Cof act or : Cof act or :
Cofactor of the element a
ij
is C
ij
= (−1)
i+j.
M
ij
; Where i & j denotes the row & column in which the
particular element lies.
Note that the value of a determinant of order three in terms of ‘Minor’ & ‘Cofactor’ can be written as:
D = a
11
M
11
− a
12
M
12
+ a
13
M
13
OR D = a
11
C
11
+ a
12
C
12
+ a
13
C
13
& so on.
5. 5. 5. 5. Transpose of a Det ermi nant : Transpose of a Det ermi nant : Transpose of a Det ermi nant : Transpose of a Det ermi nant :
The transpose of a determinant is a determinant obtained after interchanging the rows & columns.
D =
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
T
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c c c
b b b
a a a
D
c b a
c b a
c b a
= ⇒
6. 6. 6. 6. Symmet ri c, Skew- Symmet r i c, Asy mmet ri c Det er mi nant s: Symmet ri c, Skew- Symmet r i c, Asy mmet ri c Det er mi nant s: Symmet ri c, Skew- Symmet r i c, Asy mmet ri c Det er mi nant s: Symmet ri c, Skew- Symmet r i c, Asy mmet ri c Det er mi nant s:
(i) A determinant is symmetric if it is identical to its transpose. Its i
th
row is identi cal to its i
th
column i.e. a
ij
= a
ji
for all values of '

i

' and '

j

'
(ii) A determinant is skew-symmetric if it is identical to its transpose having sign of each element
inverted i.e. a
ij
= – a
ji
for all values of '

i

' and '

j

'. A skew-symmetric determinant has all elements
zero in its principal diagonal.
(iii) A determinant is asymmetric if it is neither symmetric nor skew-symmetric.
7. 7. 7. 7. Propert i es of Det ermi nant s: Propert i es of Det ermi nant s: Propert i es of Det ermi nant s: Propert i es of Det ermi nant s:
(i) The value of a determinant remains unaltered, if the rows & columns are inter changed,
i.e. D =
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c c c
b b b
a a a
c b a
c b a
c b a
= = D′
(ii) If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant be interchanged, the value of determinant
is changed in sign only. e.g.
Let D =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
& D′ =
3 3 3
1 1 1
2 2 2
c b a
c b a
c b a
Then D′ = −

D.
NOTE : A skew-symmetric deteminant of odd order has value zero.
Determinant
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(iii) If a determinant has all the elements zero in any row or column then its val ue is zero,
i.e. D =
3 3 3
2 2 2
c b a
c b a
0 0 0
= 0.
(iv) If a determinant has any two rows (or columns) identical, then its value is zero,
i.e. D =
3 3 3
1 1 1
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
= 0.
(v) If all the elements of any row (or column) be multiplied by the same number, then the determinant
is multiplied by that number, i.e.
D =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
and D′ =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
Kc Kb Ka
Then D′= KD
(vi) If each element of any row (or column) can be expressed as a sum of two terms then the
determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants, i.e.
3 3 3
2 2 2
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
z y x
c b a
c b a
c b a
c b a
c b a
z c y b x a
+ =
+ + +
(vii) The value of a determinant i s not altered by adding to the elements of any row (or column) a
constant multiple of the corresponding elements of any other row (or column),
i.e. D =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
and D′ =
1 3 1 3 1 3
2 2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
c n c b n b a n a
c b a
c m c b m b a m a
+ + +
+ + +
. Then D′ = D
.
Example : Simplify
b a c
a c b
c b a
Solution. Let R
1
→ R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3

b a c
a c b
c b a c b a c b a + + + + + +
= (a + b + c)

b a c
a c b
1 1 1
Apply C
1
→ C
1
– C
2
, C
2
→ C
2
– C
3
= (a + b + c)
b b a a c
a a c c b
1 0 0
− −
− −
= (a + b + c) ((b – c) (a – b) – (c – a)
2
)
= (a + b + c) (ab + bc – ca – b
2
– c
2
+ 2ca – a
2
)
= (a + b + c) (ab + bc + ca – a
2
– b
2
– c
2
)
= 3abc – a
3
– b
3
– c
3
Example : Simplify
ab ca bc
c b a
c b a
2 2 2
Solution. Given detereminant is equal to =
abc
1

abc abc abc
c b a
c b a
3 3 3
2 2 2
=
abc
abc

1 1 1
c b a
c b a
3 3 3
2 2 2
Apply C
1
→ C
1
– C
2
, C
2
→ C
2
– C
3
=
1 0 0
c c b b a
c c b b a
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
− −
− −
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= (a – b) (b – c)
1 0 0
c c bc b b ab a
c c b b a
3 2 2 2 2
2
+ + + +
+ +
= (a – b) (b – c) [ab
2
+ abc + ac
2
+ b
3
+ b
2
C + bc
2
– a
2
b – a
2
c – ab
2
– abc – b
3
– b
2
c]
= (a – b) (b – c) [c(ab + bc + ca) – a(ab + bc + ca)]
= (a – b) (b – c) (c – a) (ab + bc + ca) Use of factor theorem.
USE OF FACTOR THEOREM TO FIND THE VALUE OF DETERMINANT
If by putting x = a the value of a determinant vanishes then (x



a) is a factor of the determinant.
Example : Prove that
ab ca bc
c b a
c b a
2 2 2
= (a – b) (b – c) (c – a) (ab + bc + ca) by using factor theorem.
Solution. Let a = b
⇒ D =
ab ac bc
c b a
c b a
2 2 2
= 0 Hence (a – b) is a factor of determinant
Similarl y, let b = c, D = 0
c = a, D = 0
Hence, (a – b) (b – c) (c – a) is factor of determinant. But the given determinant is of fifth
order so
ab ca bc
c b a
c b a
2 2 2
= (a – b) (b – c) (c – a) (λ (a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
) + µ (ab + bc + ca))
Since this is an identity so in order to find the values of λ and µ. Let
a = 0, b = 1, c = – 1
– 2 = (2) (2λ – µ)
(2λ – µ) = – 1. ........(i)
Let a = 1, b = 2, c = 0
2 0 0
0 4 1
0 2 1
= (–1) 2 (– 1) (5λ + 2µ)
⇒ 5λ + 2µ = 2 .......(ii)
from (i) and (ii) λ = 0 and µ = 1
Hence
ab ca bc
c b a
c b a
2 2 2
= (a – b) (b – c) (c – a) (ab + bc + ca).
Self Practice Problems
1. Find the value of ∆ =
0 c b c a
b c 0 b a
a c a b 0
− −
− −
− −
. Ans. 0
2. Simplify
2
2 2
2
a ab a c ac bc
ab b b a a ab
ac bc c b ab b
− − −
− − −
− − −
. Ans. 0
3. Prove that
b a c c 2 c 2
b 2 a c b b 2
a 2 a 2 c b a
− −
− −
− −
= (a + b + c)
3
.
4. Show that
ab c 1
ca b 1
bc a 1
= (a – b) (b – c) (c – a) by using factor theorem .
8. 8. 8. 8. Mul t i pl i cat i on Of Two Det er mi nant s: Mul t i pl i cat i on Of Two Det er mi nant s: Mul t i pl i cat i on Of Two Det er mi nant s: Mul t i pl i cat i on Of Two Det er mi nant s:
2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2
2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
m b m a b a
m b m a b a
m
m
b a
b a
+ +
+ +
= ×

3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
×
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
n m
n m
n m

=
3 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 1 3
3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 2
3 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1
n c n b n a m c m b m a c b a
n c n b n a m c m b m a c b a
n c n b n a m c m b m a c b a
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +



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We have multiplied here rows by rows but we can also multiply rows by columns, columns by rows and
columns by columns.
If ∆ = |a
ij
| is a detereminant of order n, then the value of the determinant |A
ij
| = ∆
n – 1
. This is also known
as power cofactor formula.
Example : Find the value of
3 1
2 1

×
4 1
0 3

and prove that it is equal to
12 6
8 1

.
Solution.
3 1
2 1

×
4 1
0 3

=
4 3 0 1 ) 1 ( 3 3 1
4 2 0 1 1 2 3 1
× + × − − × + × −
× + × × − ×
=
12 6
8 1

= 60
Example : Prove that
3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 3
3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2
3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
y b x a y b x a y b x a
y b x a y b x a y b x a
y b x a y b x a y b x a
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
= 0
Solution. Given determinant can be splitted into product of two determinants
i.e.
3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 3
3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2
3 1 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
y b x a y b x a y b x a
y b x a y b x a y b x a
y b x a y b x a y b x a
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
×
0 0 0
y y y
x x x
3 2 1
3 2 1
= 0
Example : Prove that
2
3 3
2
2 3
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 2
2
1 2
2
3 1
2
2 1
2
1 1
) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a (
) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a (
) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a (
− − −
− − −
− − −
= 2(a
1
– a
2
) (a
2
– a
3
) (a
3
– a
1
) (b
1
– b
2
) (b
2
– b
3
) (b
3
– b
1
).
Solution.
2
3 3
2
2 3
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 2
2
1 2
2
3 1
2
2 1
2
1 1
) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a (
) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a (
) b a ( ) b a ( ) b a (
− − −
− − −
− − −
=
3 3
2
3
2
3 2 3
2
2
2
3 1 3
2
1
2
3
3 2
2
3
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
2 1 2
2
1
2
2
3 1
2
3
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
b a 2 b a b a 2 b a b a 2 b a
b a 2 b a b a 2 b a b a 2 b a
b a 2 b a b a 2 b a b a 2 b a
− + − + − +
− + − + − +
− + − + − +
=
3
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
a 2 1 a
a 2 1 a
a 2 1 a



×
3 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
b b b
b b b
1 1 1
= 2
3
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
a a 1
a a 1
a a 1
×
3
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
b b 1
b b 1
b b 1
= 2(a
1
– a
2
) (a
2
– a
3
) (a
3
– a
1
) (b
1
– b
2
) (b
2
– b
3
) (b
3
– b
1
)
Example : Prove that
) R C cos( ) Q C cos( ) P C cos(
) R B cos( ) Q B cos( ) P B cos(
) R A cos( ) Q A cos( ) P A cos(
− − −
− − −
− − −
= 0
Solution.
) R C cos( ) Q C cos( ) P C cos(
) R B cos( ) Q B cos( ) P B cos(
) R A cos( ) Q A cos( ) P A cos(
− − −
− − −
− − −
=
R sin C sin R cos C cos Q sin C sin Q cos C cos P sin C sin P cos C cos
R sin B sin R cos B cos Q sin B sin Q cos B cos P sin B sin P cos B cos
R sin A sin R cos A cos Q sin A sin Q cos A cos P sin A sin P cos A cos
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
=
0 C sin C cos
0 B sin B cos
0 A sin A cos
×
0 0 0
R sin Q sin P sin
R cos Q cos P cos
= 0 × 0 = 0.
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Self Practice Problems
1. Find the value of ∆
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
c ab 2 a b
a b ca 2 c
b c a bc 2



Ans. (3abc – a
3
– b
3
– c
3
)
2
2. If A, B, C are real numbers then find the value of ∆ =
1 ) C B cos( ) C A cos(
) B C cos( 1 ) B A cos(
) A C cos( ) A B cos( 1
− −
− −
− −
. Ans.0
9. 9. 9. 9. Summat i on of Det ermi nants Summat i on of Det ermi nants Summat i on of Det ermi nants Summat i on of Det ermi nants
Let ∆(r) =
3 2 1
3 2 1
b b b
a a a
) r ( h ) r ( g f(r)
where a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, b
1
, b
2
, b
3
are constants indepedent of r, then

=

n
1 r
) r ( =
3 2 1
3 2 1
n
1 r
n
1 r
n
1 r
b b b
a a a
) r ( h ) r ( g ) r ( f
∑ ∑ ∑
= = =
Here function of r can be the elements of only one row or column. None of the elements other then that
row or column should be dependent on r. If more than one column or row have elements dependent on
r then first expand the determinant and then find the summation.
Example : Evaluate ∑
=
n
1 r

2 2 1 2 n
y cos x
2 n 1 r 2
1 n n 2
2
r
C
r
− −
θ

+
Solution : ∑
=
n
1 r
r
D
=
2 2 1 2 n
y cos x
2 n ) 1 r 2 (
1 n n 2
2
n
1 r
r
n
1 r
C
n
1 r
r
− −
θ

+
= = =
∑ ∑ ∑
=
2 2 1 2 n
y cos x
2 2 1 2 n
1 n n 2
2
1 n n 2
− −
θ
− −
+
+
= 0
Example : D
r
=
0 1 2
1 1 3
C C C
r
2 n
1 r
2 n
2 r
2 n −




evaluate ∑
=
n
2 r
r
D
Solution :

=
n
2 r
r
D =

=
n
2 r

0 1 2
1 1 3
C C C
r
2 n
1 r
2 n
2 r
2 n −




=
0 1 2
1 1 3
C .... C C C .... C C C .... C C
2 n
2 n
3
2 n
2
2 n
2 n
2 n
2
2 n
1
2 n
2 n
2 n
1
2 n
0
2 n

− − −

− − −

− − −
+ + + + + + + + +
=
0 1 2
1 1 3
n 1 2 1 2 2
2 n 2 n 2 n
− − −
− − −
C
1
→ C
1
– 2 × C
2
=
0 1 0
1 1 1
n 1 2 1 2 2 2 2
2 n 2 n 1 n 2 n
− − − + −
− − − −
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= (–1)
1 1
n 1 2 2 2 2
2 n 1 n 2 n
− − + −
− − −
= 2
n – 1
– n – 3
Example : If ∆
r
=
2 1 1 r
r 3 r 2
0 1 1 r
− − +
+

, find

=

n
1 r
r
Solution. On expansion of determinent, we get
D
r
= (r –1) (3 – r) + 7 + r
2
+ 4r = 8r + 4 ⇒

=

n
1 r
r
= 4n (n + 2)
Self Practice Problem
1. Evaluate

=
n
1 r
r
D
n 3 n 3 z ) 1 r (
2 n 4 y ) 1 r (
6 x 1 r
2 3
2
− −
− −

Ans. 0
10. 10. 10. 10. I ntegrat i on of a det ermi nant I ntegrat i on of a det ermi nant I ntegrat i on of a det ermi nant I ntegrat i on of a det ermi nant
Let ∆(x) =
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
) x ( h ) x ( g ) x ( f
where a
1
, b
1
, c
1
, a
2
, b
2
, c
2
are constants independent of x. Hence


b
a
dx ) x ( =
2 2 2
1 1 1
b
a
b
a
b
a
c b a
c b a
dx ) x ( h dx ) x ( g dx ) x ( f
∫ ∫ ∫
Note : If more than one row or one column are function of x then first expand the determinant and then
integrate it.
Example : If f(x) =
x cos 2 1 0
1 x cos 2 1
0 1 x cos
, then find

π 2 /
0
dx ) x ( f
Solution. Here f(x) = cos x (4 cos
2
x – 1) –2 cos x
= 4 cos
3
x – 3 cos x = cos 3x
so

π 2 /
0
dx x 3 cos =
2 /
0
3
x 3 sin
π



= –
3
1
Example : If ∆ =
3 2
2 2 2
x x x
3 4 6
3 2 1 − γ − β − α
, then find


1
0
dx ) x (
Solution.


1
0
dx ) x ( =
∫ ∫ ∫
− γ − β − α
1
0
3
1
0
2
1
0
2 2 2
dx x dx x dx x
3 4 6
3 2 1
=
4
1
3
1
2
1
3 4 6
3 2 1
2 2 2
− γ − β − α
=
12
1

3 4 6
3 4 6
3 2 1
2 2 2
− γ − β − α
= 0
11. 11. 11. 11. Di ff er ent i at i on of Det er mi nant : Di ff er ent i at i on of Det er mi nant : Di ff er ent i at i on of Det er mi nant : Di ff er ent i at i on of Det er mi nant :
Let ∆(x) =
) x ( h ) x ( h ) x ( h
) x ( g ) x ( g ) x ( g
) x ( f ) x ( f ) x ( f
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
D
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then ∆′(x) =
) x ( h ) x ( h ) x ( h
) x ( g ) x ( g ) x ( g
) x ( f ) x ( f ) x ( f
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
′ ′ ′
+
) x ( h ) x ( h ) x ( h
) x ( g ) x ( g ) x ( g
) x ( f ) x ( f ) x ( f
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
′ ′ ′
+
) x ( h ) x ( h ) x ( h
) x ( g ) x ( g ) x ( g
) x ( f ) x ( f ) x ( f
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
′ ′ ′
Example : If f(x) =
2
4 3 2
a a 1
x x 2 x 6
1 2 3
, then find the value of f′′(a).
Solution. f′(x) =
2
3 2
a a 1
x 4 x 6 x 12
1 2 3
f′′(x) =
2
2
a a 1
x 12 x 12 12
1 2 3
⇒ f′′(a) = 12
2
2
a a 1
a a 1
1 2 3
= 0.
Example : Let α be a repeated root of quadratic equation f(x) = 0 and A(x), B(x) and C(x) be polynomial of
degree 3, 4 and 5 respectively, then show that
) ( C ) ( B ) ( A
) ( C ) ( B ) ( A
) x ( C ) x ( B ) x ( A
α ′ α ′ α ′
α α α
divisible by f(x).
Solution. Let g(x) =
) ( C ) ( B ) ( A
) ( C ) ( B ) ( A
) x ( C ) x ( B ) x ( A
α ′ α ′ α ′
α α α
⇒ g′(x) =
) ( C ) ( B ) ( A
) ( C ) ( B ) ( A
) x ( C ) x ( B ) x ( A
α ′ α ′ α ′
α α α
′ ′ ′
Since g(α) = g′(α) = 0
⇒ g(x) = (x – α)
2
h(x) i.e. α is the repeated root of g(x) and h(x) is any polynomial
expression of degree 3. Also f(x) = 0 have repeated root α. So g(x) is divisible by f(x).
Example : Prove that F depends only on x
1
, x
2
and x
3
F =
2 3 1
2
3 2 2 1
2
2 2 1 1
2
1
1 3 1 2 1 1
b x b x b x b x b x b x
a x a x a x
1 1 1
+ + + + + +
+ + +
and simplify F.
Solution :
1
da
dF
=
2 3 1
2
3 2 2 1
2
2 2 1 1
2
1
1 3 1 2 1 1
b x b x b x b x b x b x
a x a x a x
0 0 0
+ + + + + +
+ + +
+
2 3 1
2
3 2 2 1
2
2 2 1 1
2
1
b x b x b x b x b x b x
1 1 1
1 1 1
+ + + + + +
+
0 0 0
a x a x a x
1 1 1
1 3 1 2 1 1
+ + +
= 0
Hence F is independent of a
1
.
Similarly
1
db
dF
=
2
db
dF
= 0.
Hence F is independent of b
1
and b
2
also.
So F is dependent only on x
1
, x
2
, x
3
Put a
1
= 0, b
1
= 0, b
2
= 0 ⇒ F =
2
3
2
2
2
1
3 2 1
x x x
x x x
1 1 1
= (x
1
– x
2
) (x
2
– x
3
) (x
3
– x
1
).
Example : If
) x 1 ( n x cos
x sin e
x
+
= A + Bx + Cx
2
+ ....., then find the value of A and B.
Solution : Put x = 0 in
) x 1 ( n x cos
x sin e
x
+
= A + Bx + Cx
2
+ .......
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0 1
0 1
= A A = 0.
Differentiating the given determinant w.r.t x, we get
) x 1 ( n x cos
x cos e
x
+
+
x 1
1
x sin
x sin e
x
+

= B + 2 C x + ......
Put x = 0, we get
0 1
1 1
+
1 0
0 1
= 0
⇒ B = –1 + 1 = 0
∴ A = 0, B = 0
Self Practice Problem
1. If
x 1 1 x
1 1 x x 2
x 1 x x
+
+ −

= ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d. Find
(i) d Ans. [– 1]
(ii) a + b + c + d Ans. [– 5]
(iii) b Ans. [– 4]
12. 12. 12. 12. Cramer' s Rul e: Syst em of Li near Equat i ons Cramer' s Rul e: Syst em of Li near Equat i ons Cramer' s Rul e: Syst em of Li near Equat i ons Cramer' s Rul e: Syst em of Li near Equat i ons
(i) Two Variables
(a) Consistent Equations: Definite & unique solution. [ intersecting lines ]
(b) Inconsistent Equation: No solution. [ Parallel line ]
(c) Dependent equation: Infinite solutions. [ Identical lines ]
Let a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
= 0 & a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
= 0 then:
2
1
2
1
2
1
c
c
b
b
a
a
≠ =
⇒ Given equations are inconsistent &
2
1
2
1
2
1
c
c
b
b
a
a
= = ⇒ Given equations are dependent
(ii) Three Variables
Let, a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
z = d
1
............ (I)
a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
z = d
2
............ (II)
a
3
x + b
3
y + c
3
z = d
3
............ (III)
Then, x =
D
D
1
, Y =
D
D
2
, Z =
D
D
3
.
Where D =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
; D
1
=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b d
c b d
c b d
; D
2
=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c d a
c d a
c d a
& D
3
=
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
d b a
d b a
d b a
(iii) Consistency of a system of Equations
(a) If D ≠ 0 and alteast one of D
1,
D
2,
D
3
≠ 0, then the given system of equations are consistent and
have unique non trivial solution.
(b) If D ≠ 0 & D
1
= D
2
= D
3
= 0
,
then the gi ven system of equations are consistent and have trivial
solution only.
(c) If D = D
1
= D
2
= D
3
= 0, then the given system of equations have ei ther infinite solutions or no
solution.
(Refer Example & Self Practice Problem with*)
(d) If D = 0

but atleast one of D
1,
D
2,
D
3
is not zero then the equations are inconsistent and have no solution.
(e) If a given system of linear equations have Only Zero Solution for all its variables then the given equations
are said to have TRIVIAL SOLUTION.
(iv) Three equation in two variables :
If x and y are

not

zero, then condition for a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
= 0 ; a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
= 0 &
a
3
x + b
3
y + c
3
= 0 to be consistent in x and y is
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
= 0.
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Example: Find the nature of solution for the given system of equations.
x + 2y + 3z = 1
2x + 3y + 4z = 3
3x + 4y + 5z = 0
Solution. Let D =
5 4 3
4 3 2
3 2 1
apply C
1
→ C
1
– C
2
, C
2
→ C
2
– C
3
D =
5 1 1
4 1 1
3 1 1
− −
− −
− −
= 0 D = 0
Now, D
1
=
5 4 0
4 3 3
3 2 1
C
3
→ C
3
– C
2
D
1
=
1 4 0
1 3 3
1 2 1
R
1
→ R
1
– R
2
, R
2
→ R
2
– R
3
D
1
=
1 4 0
0 1 3
0 1 2

− −
= 5
D = 0 But D
1
≠ 0 Hence no solution
*Example : Solve the following system of equations
x + y + z = 1
2x + 2y + 2z = 3
3x + 3y + 3z = 4
Solution. ∴ D =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
= 0
D
1
= 0, D
2
= 0, D
3
= 0
∵ Let z = t
x + y = 1 – t
2x + 2y = 3 – 2t
Since both the lines are parallel hence no value of x and y Hence there is no sol ution of the
given equation.
*Example : Solve the following system of equations
x + y + z = 2
2x + 2y + 2z = 4
3x + 3y + 3z = 6
Solution. ∴ D =
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
= 0
D
1
= 0, D
2
= 0, D
3
= 0
All the cofactors of D, D
1
, D
2
and D
3
are all zeros, hence the system will have infinite solutions.
Let z = t
1
, y = t
2
⇒ x = 2 – t
1
– t
2
where t
1
, t
2
∈ R.
Example : Consider the following system of equations
x + y + z = 6
x + 2y + 3z = 10
x + 2y + λz = µ
Find values of λ and µ if such that sets of equation have
(i) unique solution (ii) infinite solution
(iii) no solution
Solution. x + y + z = 6
x + 2y + 3z = 10
x + 2y + λz = µ
D =
λ 2 1
3 2 1
1 1 1
Here for λ = 3 second and third rows are identical hence D = 0 for λ = 3.
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D
1
=
λ µ 2
3 2 10
1 1 6
D
2
=
λ µ 1
3 10 1
1 6 1
D
3
=
µ 2 1
10 2 1
6 1 1
If λ = 3 then D
1
= D
2
= D
3
= 0 for µ = 10
(i) For unique solution D ≠ 0 i.e. λ ≠ 3
(ii) For infinite solutions
D = 0 ⇒ λ = 3
D
1
= D
2
= D
3
= 0 ⇒ µ = 10.
(iii) For no solution
D = 0 ⇒ λ = 3
Atleast one of D
1
, D
2
or D
3
is non zero ⇒ µ ≠ 10.
Self Practice Problems
*1. Solve the following system of equations
x + 2y + 3z = 1
2x + 3y + 4z = 2
3x + 4y + 5z = 3
Ans. x = 1 + t y = –2t z = t where t ∈ R
2. Solve the following system of equations
x + 2y + 3z = 0
2x + 3y + 4z = 0
x – y – z = 0 Ans. x = 0, y = 0, z = 0
3. Solve: (b

+

c)

(y

+

z)

− ax = b − c, (c

+

a)

(z

+

x)

− by = c − a, (a

+

b)

(x

+

y)

− cz = a − b
where a

+

b

+

c



0.
Ans. x =
c b
a b c

+ +
, y =
a c
a b c

+ +
, z =
b a
a b c

+ +
4. Let 2x + 3y + 4 = 0 ; 3x + 5y + 6 = 0, 2x
2
+ 6xy + 5y
2
+ 8x + 12y + 1 + t = 0, i f the system of equations
in x and y are consistent then find the value of t. Ans. t = 7
13. 13. 13. 13. Appl i cat i on of Det ermi nant s: Appl i cat i on of Det ermi nant s: Appl i cat i on of Det ermi nant s: Appl i cat i on of Det ermi nant s:
Following examples of short hand writing large expressions are:
(i) Area of a triangle whose vertices are (x
r
, y
r
); r = 1, 2, 3 is:
D =
1
2

1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
3 3
2 2
1 1
If D = 0 then the three points are collinear.
(ii) Equation of a straight line passing through (x
1
, y
1
) & (x
2,
y
2
) is
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2 2
1 1
= 0
(iii) The lines: a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
= 0........ (1)
a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
= 0........ (2)
a
3
x + b
3
y + c
3
= 0........ (3)
are concurrent if,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
= 0.
Condition for the consistency of three simultaneous linear equations in 2 variables.
(iv) ax² + 2

hxy + by² + 2

gx + 2

fy + c = 0 represents a pair of straight lines if:
abc + 2

fgh − af² − bg² − ch² = 0 =
c f g
f b h
g h a