CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Diarrhea or gastroenteritis disease is an important disease around the community is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in anak.Hal someone's reflected a lot of people are suffering from diarrhea or gastroenteritis coming out of hospital. As a result of many factors, including diarrheal diseases environmental health, higene individual, nutritional status, socioeconomic factors, decisive diarrheal disease, although many cases of diarrheal dehydration but many have died if not performed appropriate actions. Society in general has always considered a case of diarrhea is trivial, whereas if you know what happened was a lot of people are dying of diarrhea. Gastrointeritis disease is a disease that should be treated as ra glass of experiencing severe dehydration which can lead to hypovolemic shock and death. Problems with gastrointeritis disease or diarrhea that can lead to other complications such as death and other problems related to diarrhea has not been fully addressed adequately, but a variety of roles in order to prevent complications such as death and other issues such as health care and well met, in preventing diarrheal disease by providing health education to all citizens about gastroenteriritis disease and the role of families and surrounding residents are very encouraging decline in the occurrence of gastroenteritis because of the families that formed a pattern of life. With a healthy lifestyle and clean to prevent the occurrence of disease gastrointeritis.

Thus came the idea of appearing to reduce gastroenteritis patients by providing health education to the general public and the authors of the background make this paper with the title "gastroenteritis".

What is the meaning of gastroenteritis? 2. Knowing complication of gastroenteritis. Knowing and understanding the etiology of gastroenteristis. 1. 3. Knowing and understanding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of gastroenteritis. How diagnostic tests gastroenteritis? 1. 2. How prognosis of gastroenteritis? 7. 5.4 Benefits For Authors Be a valuable experience for the author and the author adds insights about disease gastroenteritis. What are the complications of gastroenteritis? 6. How the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of gastroenteritis? 4. 4.1. For Readers Expected to be a source of information for readers and to be a reference for the subsequent paper writing gastroenteritis disease. . Knowing gastroenteritis diagnostic examination. 6. 7.2 Problem Formulation 1.3 Objectives 1. Knowing and understanding the prognosis of gastroenteritis. Knowing the meaning of gastroenteritis. Knowing the clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis. How clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis? 5. How etiology of gastroenteristis? 3.

covering things sebgai following: . cholerae Ogawa (18. V.29%) and Aeromonas sp. but the situation gastroenteritis. and abdominal discomfort. Very much the definition of diarrhea. and feces may be accompanied by blood or mucus.1 Definition of Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach. small intestine and large intestine with a variety of pathologic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract with the manifestation of diarrhea. Mechanisms that cause diarrhea (Diskin. or a variety of other conditions. coli (38. diarrhea is a condition with increased frequency. (14. gastrointestinal inflammatory condition caused by infection with the invasion of the mucosa. In studies in RSPersahabatan. 2. eastern Jakarta (1993-1994) to 123 adult patients who were treated in the wards of acute diarrhea isolation results obtained with E. producing or producing enterotoxins and cytotoxins.29%). 2. Other causes that can cause acute diarrhea are toxins and drugs. 2008). enteral nutrition followed by prolonged fasting. with or without vomiting.CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 2. either by bacteria. fecal impaction (overflow diarrhea).2 Ethology of Gastroenteritis Infection is a major cause of acute diarrhea. This mechanism results in an increase or decrease fluid secretion and absorption of fluid and causes dehydration and loss of nutrients and electrolytes. faeces which contain lots of water. stool consistency were more fluid. chemotherapy. parasites or viruses.29%) as the third most common cause.3 Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of gastroenteritis In general.

Some bacteria can produce cytotoxins agents (such as Shigella dysenteriae. Microorganisms memperoduksi toxin. 3. or that it would lead to decreased intestinal peristalsis arise excessive bacteria that can cause diarrhea later anyway. 2. Enterotoxin produced by bacterial agents (such as E. 2003). Vibrio parahaemolyticus. the condition is associated with the intake of food or substance that is difficult to be absorbed by the intestinal mucosa and will cause an osmotic pressure in the intestinal cavity rises resulting in a shift of water and electrolytes into the intestinal cavity. coli and Vibrio cholera) will give immediate effect to increase spending gastrointestinal secretion of water into the lumen. E. and due to the toxin hypersecrete which will further lead to diarrhea. Be part of the small intestine and colon major absorption did bansorpsi water that will make the solid component of the stool. Fill cavity excessive bowel will stimulate the intestines to remove it causing diarrhea. and enterovasif E. Osmotic disruption. Campylobacter organisms. and absorption of water being disturbed. Mucosal inflammatory response. Invasion of enterocytes done some microbes such as Shigella. Coli that cause destruction and inflammation (Jones. . particularly on the entire surface of the intestinal tract caused by enterotoxin production of infectious agents responding activity increased secretion of water and electrolytes by the intestinal wall and then there is an increase in diarrhea caused by intestinal cavity contents. in the presence of interference from gastroenteritis will cause nutrient and electrolyte absorption by the small intestine. the occurrence will result in reduced opportunities hiperperistaltik intestine to absorb food causing diarrhea. diarrhea can also occur due to the inclusion of live microorganisms into the intestine after successfully passing through the stomach acid barrier. In addition. coli enterihemorrhagic) resulting damage to the mucosal cells and cause blood and mucus fesesbercampur former rest the inflamed cells. then release toxins.1. Clostridium difficile. Intestinal motility disorders. Microorganisms proliferate.

This causes the water out of the cells resulting in intracellular dehydration. Dehydration can occur due to lack of water (water defletion). Acidic metabolic products increased because it can not be released by the kidneys (occurring oligulia / anuria) and the removal of Na ions from the liquid eksraseluler into the intracellular fluid (Levine. Dehydration secondary (sodium depletion). In the early stages dehydrate. It occurs due to loss of Na-bicarbonate together phase. lack of sodium (sodium defletion). oliguria until anuri. electrolytes provide ppada manifestations of acid-base imbalance and circulatory disorders are disturbances of acid-base balance (metabolic acidosis). Lack of water or dehydration primary (water defletion): gastroenteristis inflammation. thirst is the cause. Dehydration is a disruption in water balance caused by intake exceeds output so that the amount of water in the body decreases. Metabolism of fat is not perfect so dirty stuff piled up in the body and the accumulation of lactic acid due to anorexia network. so little saliva dry mouth. but it finally happened ion reabsorption by the kidney tubules that excessive extracellular fluid contains excessive sodium and chlorine. bowel function in doing so disturbed opsorpsi fluid ingress of water is very limited. sodium and chloride ions with the killing the body fluids. very weak. as well as the lack of water and sodium together (prescilla. and the incidence of mental disorders such as hallucinations and delirium. as well as going hipertoni. At gastioenteritis.In further manifestation of diarrhea and loss of fluids. but also accompanied by dehydration electrolyte disturbances. As a . In addition. Important pathological responses of gastroenteristis with severe diarrhea is dehydration. Sodium deficiency commonly caused by a discharge through the digestive tract to the state vomiting vomiting and diarrhea are superb. dehydration secondary is dehydration due to loss of body fluids containing elektrolik. Although that was missing was the body fluids. it is important nurses understanding of how the pathophysiology of dehydration can assist in designing intervansi suit individual circumstances. 2009). Typical symptoms in primary dehisdrasi was thirsty. 2009). there hipopisis stimulation which then releases antidiuretic hormone resulting in oliguria.

wet skin. In the primary shock circulatory deficiency caused by dilated vascular spaces vasodilation. and hemoconcentration teganggu and kidney function. water will enter the cell. Conditions gastroentrintis members manifestation nursing problems given to patients to reduce complaints by nursing care. Due to the decline in blood volume. As a result. the volume of plasma and interstitial fluid decreases. Factor that causes this imbalance is increasing the capacity of the composition of the vascular space and reduced blood volume. 2007). At the secondary shock fluid balance disturbances that cause peripheral serkulasi deficiency accompanied decreased blood volume. oliguria. Factors that cause gastroenteritis are due to disparities in blood volume is reduced due to the increased permeability of the whole. Diarrhea with severe dehydration can lead to shock (shock) hypovolemic. headache. collapsed veins. hence the secondary shock or delayed shock. In addition. and sometimes accompanied by vomiting. Geja-symptoms are feeling lethargic and limp. This makes the fluid out of the vessels and then enter the network resulting in coagulation (hemoconcentration) blood (vardy. shallow breathing.result of deficiency of sodium occurs hipotoni that extracellular osmotic pressure decreases. then leads to the accumulation of nitrogen will increase the risk of acid-base balance disorders and hemoconcentration. Shock shock divided into primary and secondary shock. . especially the superficial veins. and feeling lethargic and tired. low blood pressure. Secondary Symptoms of dehydration are nausea. rapid and weak pulse. blood flow is less. Circulation less indirect occurred after the taxable attack / damage. This memghambat release of antidiuretic hormone. vomiting. but only some time afterwards. the cardiac output was decreased so that the blood pressure also decreased and filtration glomerulos. because there are hipotoni extracellular. Shock is a condition caused by a deficiency serkulasi due to disparity (imbalance) between blood volume and vascular space. Dilated vascular spaces which cause the blood as they are drawn from the general circulation and immediately get into the capillaries and venules tools in (viscera). so the kidneys secrete water to achieve a normal concentration of extracellular fluid.

Dehydration 2. First.6 Prognosis Usually after treatment for 5 days no further action is required. stomach pain to stomach cramps.4 Clinical Manifestations Patients with acute diarrhea due to infection often experience nausea. and sometimes cyanosis. so if lack of fluids can not be solved soon complications arise in the form of acute tubular necrosis. prominent cheekbones. with diarrhea that primarily consist of liquids only. The occurrence of hypovolemic shock should be avoided. to get thick mucus diarrhea and sometimes blood. 2. Mal nutrition 6. Renal perfusion can be decreased so that the resulting anuria. Intolerance secondary to intestinal mucosal damage. In the event of severe hypovolemic shock the rapid pulse (more than 120x/menit). malnourished children. Hypovolemic shock 3. Clinically as acute infectious diarrhea divided into two groups. fever and diarrhea. Secondly. dry tongue. Hypoglycemia 7. patient anxiety. Biochemical disorders such as metabolic acidosis will lead to more rapid respiratory rate and the (breathing kusmaul). blood pressure decreased to immeasurable. children who are not breastfed. pallor. koleriform.2. and who are dehydrated . Bacteremia 5. disentriform. decreased skin turgor. 2. cold extremities ends. and the voice becomes hoarse. vomiting. Convulsions 4. However beberapaanak have a higher risk and should be monitored are: infants.5 Complications 1. Dehydration causes the patient will feel thirst. Lack of potassium can cause cardiac arrhythmia.

Special Examination a. Avitaminosis D d. Serum albumin high e. Barium Follow Through f. Weight loss b. Physical examination a. Laboratory a. Colonoscopy d. Period protombin 4. Barium Meal 3. Rektosigmoideskopi c. Anemia c. Plug rectal b. LED b. Fever 2. Hypocalcaemia c. Alkaline phosphatase f. Barium enema e. Colonoscopy . Radiological 5.2.7 Diagnostic Examination 1. Photos chest g.

CHAPTER III CLOSING 3. with or without vomiting. and abdominal discomfort. small intestine and large intestine with a variety of pathologic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract with the manifestation of diarrhea.1 Conclusion Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach. .

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