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task. Imagine we cranking an alternator continously to get electricity!!! Instead we the humans made what is a diesel engine which will do this work for us. I would say that an engine is something which transforms one form of energy to another and as a result make our life simpler and easier. An Engine can be: HEAT ENGINE - Engines which converts heat energy into mechanical or electrical energy. Heat engines are usually Prime movers. EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (EC ENGINE) - Engines in which the combustion of fuel which is directly or in-directly responsible for driving the engine, takes place outside the engine. Perfect example of this type engine would be steam turbines, where fuel is burnt in a boiler and the steam produced from the boiler is used for driving the Turbine. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (IC ENGINE) -Engines in which the combustion of fuel takes place within the engine, are called Internal Combustion Engines. Simplicity in engine design, operational costs and fuel economy is what makes these engines more popular and efficient than EC Engines. We are more interested in Internal combustion engines as on board motor ships we have this type of engine installed. Internal Combustion Engines are Classified on the basis of: IGNITION SYSTEM - Ignition system can be of two types i.e. COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES and SPRAK IGNITION ENGINES. COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES (CI ENGINES)- In these types of engines, the heat which is produced due to the compression within a cylinder is so high that it is sufficient enough to cause combustion and as a result there is no other means as such provided to cause the ignition of fuel within the cylinder. A perfect example of CI Engines is a Diesel Engine. Figure below illustrates the working cycle of a Diesel engine. You can also click on this link to get the animated view of the diesel engine. DESEL ENGINE ANIMATION. These types of engines are based on DIESEL CYLCLE. SPARK IGNITION ENGINES (SI ENGINES) - In these type of engines, it is the Spark Plug, which produces a spark, causes the ignition of fuel within the cylinder. This type of engine is found in our Cars and Bikes which we ride in our day to day routine. Figure below illustrates the working of a Spark Ignition Engine. Both SI engines and CI engines are internal combustion engines and both make use of liquid fuels. There are a number of differences between the two. Table below shows major differences between SI and CI engines.
it is a standard cycle which is employed in slow speed Diesel engines.It is the standard cycle which is employed in Petrol engines i.It is a combination of both otto cycle and diesel cycle where heat is partly added at constant volume and partly at constant pressure. DUAL COMBUSTION CYCLE which is also known as CONSTANT PRESSURE AND CONSTANT VOLUME COMBUSTION CYCLE . Internal combustion engines can further be classified on the basis of OPERATING CYCLES OTTO CYCLE which is also known as CONSTANT VOLUME COMBUSTION CYCLE.e. 3. Internal combustion engines can also be classified on the basis of STROKES or CYCLES Cycles in a engine means the following events: Filling the Engine Cylinder with Fresh Air Compressing the air so much that the fuel vapors which are coming in contact with this compressed air which is now at an elevated temperature due to compression ignites Combustion of fuel Expansion of hot gases . our car engines.2. This type of cycle is employed in Medium and High speed diesel engines. DIESEL CYCLE which is also known as CONSTANT PRESSURE COMBUSTION CYCLE .
This type of engines are mainly used in large 2 stroke engines and in double acting engines. 4.This type of engine comprises of 2 pistons which are traveling in opposite directions. which slides up and down in guides. Single acting Engines are widely used in Internal combustion engines as well as in many external combustion engines.An engine which requires 2 strokes of piston i. Cross head is connected to the connected rod.In this type of engine piston is attached to a piston rod whose lower end is connected to a Cross head.S. Internal combustion engines are also classified on the basis of PISTON ACTION SINGLE ACTING ENGINE .Exhaust of these gases after moving the piston In single word. the engines are further divided into 2 classes FOUR STROKE ENGINES -An engine which requires 4 strokes of piston i. is a Four Stroke Engine. 5. A gudgeon pin or a horizontal pin or wrist pin is what connects the two. where the one piston drives one crankshaft and other piston drives the other. with the pressure of the combustion gases acting only on the surface of the piston. .Engines of Single Acting type have one One Piston per cylinder.e.POWER .e.In this type of engine piston is connected directly to the upper end of the connecting rod.e. each piston is single acting. These engines have 2 crankshafts as well. 1 time up and 1 time down to complete one cycle.In this type of engine both the ends of the cylinder and both faces of the piston are used to develop power i. P. CROSS HEAD TYPE ENGINE . 2 times up and 2 times down to complete one cycle. Internal Combustion engines can be classified according to PISTON CONNECTION TRUNK PISTON TYPE . TWO STROKE ENGINE . Animation shows a typical Cross head Engine At this point of our learning it would be nice to Compare the two engines i.COMPRESSION . DOUBLE ACTING ENGINE . OPPOSED PISTON ENGINES . Depending on many strokes of a piston are required in completing this cycle. TRUNK PISTON V/S CROSS HEAD ENGINES On board our ships most of the Diesel generator make make use of trunk pistons where as the main propulsion engine is crosshead engine. This is the type of engine that we have on board our ships for Medium Speed Engines.INTAKE .e. cylinder develops power in both upward and as well downward stroke.EXPANSION EXHAUST. a cycle comprises of . is a Two Stroke Engine. The combustion space is in the middle of the cylinder and lies between the two pistons. This is what we have on Board our ships.
7-PISTON. V-ARRANGEMENT . less manufacturing and installing cost.If an engine has more than 8 cylinders.CROSSHEAD ENGINE V/S TRUNK ENGINE KEY . 11-COLUMN. 3-EXHAUST VALVE . Also engine becomes quite long and takes up considerable space. At the top stroke. 8-SCAVENGING AIR PORTS. In medium and small size engines. when the gas pressure is greatest.LINE ARRANGEMENT . As a result. side thrust is negligible (this happens in trunk type engines as there is a small connecting rod angle). 13-CRANKCASE. Angle between 2 cylinders or banks is kept from 30 degree to 120 degrees (most commonly 40 deg.12. resulting side thrust which is produced which causes the piston to press against the cylinder wall. 15-CRANKSHAFT. which will be high in large engines. due to lower gas pressure. As the piston is being pushed upwards by the crankshaft and the connecting rod during compression.1-EXHAUST. 16-INLET VALVE Most of the medium and small size engines use trunk pistons.16) giving about half-length of engine. (generally 8. Thus side thrust alternates from side to side as piston moves up and down. most of the wear take place at the middle of the stroke: making piston skirt increases thrust bearing area. 12-CONNECTING ROD. 10-CROSSHEAD. crosshead takes the side thrust. 6-CYLINDER LINER.IN . Crosshead Need careful adjustments 6.This is the simplest and the most common arrangement. V-Arrangement is used for engines with more cylinders. 5 -A FRAME. In this type of arrangement all cylinders are vertically in line. first on one side. 14BEDPLATE. 9PISTON ROD. then on the other as it moves down. Cross head engines have the following advantages: Easier Lubrication Reduced liner wear Uniformly distributed clearance around piston Simpler piston construction as gudgeon pin and its bearing are note there On the other hand Cross head engines can have the following disadvantages Greater complication in engine construction Added weight of crosshead Added height due to the addition of another component i. 2-SCAVENGE AIR RECEIVER. it becomes difficult to make a sufficiently rigid frame and crankshaft with an inline arrangement. In crosshead engines. 4-CYLINDER HEAD.e. 75 deg) . unit's side pressure is so small that neither piston nor liner wears much. and hence reduces wear. more rigid and stiff crankshaft. Internal combustion engines can also be classified according to CYLINDER ARRANGEMENT CYLINDER . So.
Our ship's make use of Supercharged engines 9.FLAT ARRANGEMENT .In this type of engine charge is admitted into the cylinder at a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure. but this type of V engine has an angle between banks increase to 180 degrees. gas and air are admitted in the cylinder at the same time and it is the gas/air mixture which is compressed. a vacuum is created as the piston moves away from the combustion and as a result draws in fresh charge.In these types of engines. SPARK IGNITED GAS ENGINES . AIRLESS (or SOLID or MECHANICAL) INJECTION ENGINE . Internal Combustion engines can be classified on the basis of CHARGING NATURAL ASPIRATED ENGINE . Animation illustrates a typical Flat Engine RADIAL ARRANGEMENT .The fuel is injected into the cylinder by a blast of compressed air. This type of engine was heavy and complicated and now is obsolete.In these types of engines.These are the engines which can burn Diesel oil GASOLINE ENGINE . These engines can also use kerosene. This type of engine was used in aircraft engines but now turbines are more widely used. This high pressure can be produced by a pump or blower or Exhaust Gas Turbocharger. rail cars etc. There are three ways which are adopted to burn these gaseous fuels and as a result these engines are accordingly named. At the end of compression. gas and air are admitted in the cylinder at the same time and it is the gas/air mixture which is compressed. This type of engine is mainly used in trucks. Internal Combustion engines can also be classified on the basis of FUEL INJECTION AIR INJECTION ENGINE .Fuel is injected into the cylinder.These are the engines which can burn gasoline as fuel. a small amount of fuel termed "pilot fuel" is also admitted into the cylinder to assist in ignition and to cause a smooth and prompt ignition. The connecting rods of all pistons work on a single crankpin. buses.It is a V-Engine.These are the engines which use gaseous fuels at higher compression. DUAL FUEL ENGINE . 7. At present this is the type of engines which are used. These engines are: GAS DIESEL ENGINES . With gas.These are the engines which can burn high viscosity fuel DIESEL OIL ENGINE .In these type of engines. HIGH COMPRESSION. 8. through the fuel valve.Only air is compressed in these engines. fuel is injected to assist in ignition and cause a smooth and prompt ignition. GAS BURNING ENGINE . At . gas at high pressure in injected into the cylinder. (petrol engines) SUPERCHARGED ENGINE .In a radial arrangement engine or Radial Engine all the cylinders are set in a circle and all point towards the centre of the circle. Internal combustion engines are classified according to FUEL USED HEAVY FUEL OIL ENGINE . Our car engine is a perfect example of such type of engine. At the end of compression. which rotates around the centre of the circle. by high pressure fuel pump.
p.e if the bore is same as stroke the engine is said to be Square Engine. lower r. The reduced stroke length allows for a shorter cylinder and sometimes a shorter connectingrod. Internal Combustion engines are also classified according Speed SLOW SPEED ENGINES .Engines which have rpm ranging from 300-1000 r.If the bore to stroke ratio becomes 1 i. This allows more valves to be placed in the cylinder head.m MEDIUM SPEED ENGINES . HIGH SPEED ENGINES .m. OVER SQUARE ENGINE (SHORT STROKE ENGINES) .and head surface area.Engines which have rpm less than 300 r.p. SUPER LONG STROKE ENGINES . Because these factors favor lower engine speeds.p. At the end of this blog we can now say that there are 11 Different categories of an Internal Combustion Engine.m.If the bore/stroke ratio is greater than 1.generally making over square engines less tall but wider than undersquare engines of similar power. 11. Because these characteristics favor higher engine speeds. a longer stroke increases engine friction (since the piston travels a greater distance per stroke) and increases stress on the crankshaft (due to the higher peak piston speed).To have better propeller efficiency and better combustion even with lower grade of fuels. 10.p. These engines have stroke/bore ration in the range of 3. This means that the length of stroke is greater than the bore. Due to the increased piston. Source wikipedia UNDER SQUARE ENGINE (LONG STROKE ENGINE) . These engines have lower friction losses (due to the reduced distance travelled during each engine rotation) and lower crank stress (due to the lower peak piston speed relative to engine speed).An under square engine will typically be more compact in the directions perpendicular to piston travel but larger in the direction parallel to piston travel.m. requiring them to be smaller or fewer in number. Internal combustion engines can also be classified according BORE/STROKE RATIO SQUARE ENGINE .e bore diameter is larger than length of stroke. These type of engines allow for higher r.the end of compression. the heat loss increases as the bore/strokeratio is increased excessively. engines with even longer strokes are gaining popularity. In this type of engine Crankshaft web dimensions become less compared to journal and crankpin. At a given engine speed.m and thus more power without excessive piston speed.If the bore/stroke ratio is less than 1 or if the stroke/bore ratio is greater than 1 then the engine is said to be Under square engine. over square engines are often tuned to develop peak torque at a relatively high speed. . The smaller bore also reduces the area available for valves in the cylinder head.p.Engines which have rpm more than 1000 r. under square engines are most often tuned to develop peak torque at relatively low speeds. i. a spark plug produces a spark which ignites the mixture and causes combustion.
Notice that the motion that comes out of an internal combustion engine is rotational. and if you can harness that energy in a useful way. .Internal Combustion The principle behind any reciprocating internal combustion engine: If you put a tiny amount of highenergy fuel (like gasoline) in a small. The piston starts at the top. This is the intake stroke. Compression makes the explosion more powerful. and the piston moves down to let the engine take in a cylinder-full of air and gasoline. (Part 2 of the figure) 3. In an engine the linear motion of the pistons is converted into rotational motion by the crankshaft. who invented it in 1867. it has the effect of "resetting the cannon. while the motion produced by a potato cannon is linear (straight line). if you can create a cycle that allows you to set off explosions like this hundreds of times per minute." Here's what happens as the engine goes through its cycle: 1. Once the piston hits the bottom of its stroke. They are: Intake stroke Compression stroke Combustion stroke Exhaust stroke Figure 1 You can see in the figure that a device called a piston replaces the potato in the potato cannon. You can also use it for more interesting purposes. In this case. the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust leaves the cylinder to go out the tailpipe. in honor of Nikolaus Otto. Now let's look at all the parts that work together to make this happen. The four-stroke approach is also known as the Otto cycle. (Part 3 of the figure) 4. the intake valve opens. starting with the cylinders. The piston is connected to the crankshaft by a connecting rod. the spark plug emits a spark to ignite the gasoline. When the piston reaches the top of its stroke. Only the tiniest drop of gasoline needs to be mixed into the air for this to work. You can use that energy to propel a potato 500 feet. (Part 4 of the figure) Now the engine is ready for the next cycle. Then the piston moves back up to compress this fuel/air mixture. enclosed space and ignite it. For example. an incredible amount of energy is released in the form of expanding gas. As the crankshaft revolves. the energy is translated into potato motion. what you have is the core of a car engine! Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle to convert gasoline into motion. The gasoline charge in the cylinder explodes. driving the piston down. The four strokes are illustrated in Figure 1. The rotational motion is nice because we plan to turn (rotate) the car's wheels with it anyway. (Part 1 of the figure) 2. so it intakes another charge of air and gas.
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