International Phenomenological Society

The Young Marx--A Reappraisal Author(s): Donald Clark Hodges Source: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Dec., 1966), pp. 216-229 Published by: International Phenomenological Society Stable URL: . Accessed: 05/06/2013 21:50
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Chamberlain." Journal of Religion. 216 This content downloaded from 202. Pappenheim. pp. The Alienation of Modern Man (New York. Michael Harrington. 1964). No. Ash.92. Myopic commentatorshave made far too much of the content of Marx's early work at the expense of his method. Marxism and Moral Concepts (New York.THE YOUNG MARX - A REAPPRAISAL A new lease on life has recently been given to Marx studies in this country. "Symposium on the Young Marx. XXV. April 24-28. E. 283-320." Science and Society. Braybrooke. Vol.'It is well known how Marx'swritingshave come under fire as a result of public distortionand academic misconceptions." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. H. ed. C. W. 1963). pp. 1958). "Value and Mental Health in the Thought of Marx. XXII. Parsons.the second renascenceof Marx scholarshiphas taken on the characterof a salvage operationdesignedto preservenot only his enduringcontribution to the methods of the social sciences. (Summer. Vol. Fromm." Social Research. D. D. R. L. XXV. 3 (Autumn. Vol. "The Concept of Estrangement in the Early and Later Writings of Karl Marx. No. 355-365. 1964). 132-176. Parsons." presented at the University of Notre Dame. Struik and Gary L. 355-392. 1961). 3 (March. XXIV.. 64-84. Furthermore. J. Vol. 112-123. "Diagnosis and Remedy in Marx's Doctrine of Alienation. for example. 1659). 1 (January. but also materials from Marx's own wastebasket. 1960). pp. 2 (December. As a matter of fact. Unfortunately. 1964). E. 1965). O'Neill. 1961). F. L. some of his immehis materialist-critical 1 See. pp. 43-58. Fromm.128. 1 (September. Dirk J. Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx (Cambridge University." The End of Ideology (Glencoe.they more to the revival of obsolete formulationsthat Marx have contributed himself had abandonedand less to the developmentand applicationof outlook. 1966. "The Prophetic Mission of Karl Marx. pp. H. not to mention their internal weaknesses and the fact that several of his predictionshave gone awry. "Two Roads from Marx: The Themes of Alienation and Exploitation and Workers' Control in Socialist Thought. Easton. 1964. 52-71.Scholarsare reinterpreting the later works of Marx in terms of his earlierwritingsand presentinga humanisticimage of them congenial to the academiccommunity. pp. L." New Politics (Fall. Vol. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1961)." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. pp. pp. No. and the international symposium papers on "Marx and the Western World. "Alienation and History in the Early Marx. 193-205. D. "Marx versus Marx. No.28 on Wed. Socialist Humanism (New York. No. pp." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. XLIV. pp. No. Bell. Vol. 325-345. 3. Marx's Concept of Man (New York. XXVII. 1961). pp. Tucker. 133-167.

1956).A REAPPRAISAL 217 diate followers made a similar mistake. Especiallynoteworthyamong recent would-be scholarsof Marxismis the absence of an awarenessboth of the historicalsignificanceof what they are doing and of any distinctionbetween the historicalMarx and their humanisticimage of him.In any case. to consider the historical significanceof of Marxism in this country and. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I am distressedby the efforts of commentators to reconstructthe historicalMarx without considering the social conditionsand biases of their own attemptsat reconstruction. I should like. for all he knew. Marx and Engels: Basic Writings on Politics and Philosophy. respectable in the light of ethical culture and the mental health movement.128. The first was during the middle 30's and early 40's during which Marx. we are confrontedwith the irony of his currentapologists adoptinga position alien to Marx himself. the political economist and sociologist. p. Milligan (Moscow. he was not a Marxist. Each of these revivals has encouraged and developed a different 2 See Engels' letter to Conrad Schmidt. Feuer (Garden City. 1959). first.28 on Wed. seemed to many to offer the only warrantedexplanationof the Great Depression and the only practicalsolution to its problems of cyclical crisis and unemployment.3 I There have been two brief periods since the Great Depression in which Americanshave witnessed a renascenceof Marx studies on their own soil. August 5. This content downloaded from 202. 396.3 All subsequent page references to this work are to the first complete English edition translated by M. Paradoxically. L. S. the economist and political scientist. Consequently. ed. second. to current reinterpretations reconsiderthe alleged humanismof the young Marx as presentedin his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844.THE YOUNG MARX . promptinghim to declare that. London. And. the rash of recent literature on Marx's views concerning alienation is a challenge to the critic to set matters straight.2Since he outgrewthe humanistic content of his earlier works. 1890.92. I am increasingly irritated by recent philosophical attemptsto make his early humanism. .if we are to call it that. First of all. their professed sympathyfor his early writingshas not prevented them from being anti-Marxiston matters of fundamentalimport to Marx. secondly. The second occurred only recently during the close of the 50's when the publication of the first English translationof Marx's early Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts coincided with increasing afflu- ence and the prospectof a returnof Asiatic Marxismto the humanism of the Europeantradition.

Both the recent and earlier renascences of Marx scholarshiphave been the work of independentscholars. 1963).Johannes Alasco. and William Ash. This content downloaded from 202.The first generationof open Marxists included such names as Vernon Venable.. George Orwell. Lewis Feuer. Communist.In response economicdislocationand growthin underdeveloped to the intensifieddrive toward consumption. Common to both is an openness to hypotheses within the frameworkof Marx's materialist supplementary historiographyand the political economy predicated upon his labor theory of value. 1962).Any other sense of open Marxismis simplymisleading. James Burnham. eds.WitnessC. Man Alone: Alienation in Modern Society (New York. the alienist and exorciserof neuroses.4 the socialist. who is currently enjoying a popular revival. but have used it for their own purposesas the name suggests. BarrowsDunham. Howard Selsam. The Marxists (New York. the early Hook.they used Marx rather than a crutch. M. rather than the humanist. Open Marxistsstop short of criticizingthe premisesof Marx's model on the basis of which Marx made his severaldiagnoses.Paul Sweezy. The second generationincludes some of these newcomerslike Daniel Bell. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Although several of them 4 For current non-Marxist discussions of the problem of alienation. and Michael Young. ed. see the popular anthologies by Eric and Mary Josephson. in this country Marx scholarshipshows the effects of a quite different preoccupationwith studies of anxiety.humanistshave interpreted with an eye to self-alienationand other obstaMarx's early manuscripts While in the newly emergingnations it is Marx. and related problems of mental health. cles to self-fulfillment. 98. The most recent wave of scholarship has focused upon rather than Marx's investigationof personal crises and dehumanization countries. 1962). While they read him with some as a springboard what they could into their own independent benefit it was to incorporate programsof social research.. along with comparative Robert Tucker. WrightMills' category of plain Marxists in which he apparentlyincludes himself along with Joan Robinson.218 RESEARCH AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHY image of Marx. Varieties of Modern Social Theory (New York. Ruitenbeek. SpringboardMarxists do not belong to the Marxian tradition.128. We would be hard pressed to call any of them socialists in the Marxian sense. p. and the early Fromm.92.28 on Wed. Wright Mills. although neither is ordinarily classified as an open reason that they rejected the premises Marxist for the understandable of Marx's model along with his forecasts. and Trotskyistspokesmen.HerbertMarcuse. MichaelHarrington. And for these problems a diagnosis and a remedyare sought in Marx.5If anything.whose Marxism is of the open variety in contrastto the closed Marxismof the official Socialist.In this group may be included LawrenceDennis. and H. anomie. 5 C.

efforts to breathenew life into the Marxianmodel have been less effective than efforts to revise and alter it in the light of contemporary developments.92.128. In comparingthe earlier and later renascencesof Marx's thought. Since open Marxism continues to be the victim of cultural lag. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .A new Russian edition was published during the same year. and the emergence of Russia as an ally of the United States and a majorpartnerin the United Nations. The second corresponds to the Khrushchev era of partial liberalizationand postrevolutionarycoexistence with capitalism. It has been a matter of principlefor each of the major revivals of Marx studies in this country to claim intellectualindependenceof the U.THE YOUNG MARX - A REAPPRAISAL 219 are or have been professed humanists. presumablyfor foreign consumption. If they have not been equally successfulit is because open Marxistshave looked to the past while springboard Marxists were riding the wave of the future. the Soviet Union seems to have led the way in awakeninginterest in the young Marx. In fact. it This content downloaded from 202. The first English translationof the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts was published in Moscow in 1956.R. testifying to the increasing domestic interest in the work. Now that the Soviet Union has arrived at a stage of comparativeaffluence.each has been closely allied to corresponding economic and political developmentswithin the Soviet Union. there emerged a new rationalefor socialism formulatedin the language of Marx's early writings. the Stalin Constitutionof 1936. a new Marx and a novel interpretation of Marxism appeared unrelated to the interests of manual workers. As a matter of fact. Currentefforts toward a reassessmentof Marx have come from at least two different quarters. attentionshifted to the alienationof man in general and to the moralityof socialist humanism.notably from Marxists with an open mind and from those non-Marxistswho have used Marxism as a springboard.As the futility of Marx'sfocus upon the labor movementbecame increasinglyevident.S.The internalshift of interest from productionto consumptionwas paralleled by the intellectuals' shift from Marx's mature writings on political economy to his youthful works on philosophical anthropologyand corresponding critiqueof humanculture. The first renascencecorresponded to the period of the popularfront thaw of the middle 30's. In place of the former emphasis upon exploitation and the problems of organizedlabor.28 on Wed.S. In conjunctionwith the de-Stalinization campaign in the Soviet Union and the thaw in Eastern Europe. is noteworthythat humanism was not an integral part of the premises of Marx's model of society. appreciationfor the humanismof the young Marx is not confined to the West alone.

in an historicalepoch in which the labor movementsof the affluent societies have barteredthemselves for a mess of potage. This content downloaded from 202. No. 933-952. LVI. However. Bell. C. Marx set himself the general critical and philosophicaltask of 7 For the current academic counter-thesis that Marx subsequently abandoned his humanist orientation. pp. Vol. much less sided and illiberal.. 1964). In Marx's early writings we find at least two distinct intellectual enterprisesand corresponding critiquesof human alienation. even narrow-minded.Furthermore.The universalistic and largely academicimage of his youthful contributions tends to minimizetheir partisancharacter." Science and Society. at least that aspect of his early work that is of lasting importance to the labor movement. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . this humanist image of Marx is a grossly distorted one. 6 "Mailifesto of the Communist Party." New Politics (Spring. No. D. 24 (November. Hodges. This counter-interpretation is about as offensive to the academic community in this country as it is to intellectuals in Western Europe and the U." Science and Society. Vol. This is largely because the mature Marx was deliberatelyone6 Consequently. pp. 3 (Summer.220 PHILOSOPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH is noteworthythat the first was considerablyless open-mindedthan the second. 1959).92. Hodges. II I should now like to recover. XXIX. Feuer. L." in Feuer. see D. 33-35. 1965).128. Vol.28 on Wed. Distortion of the early Marx is apparentlyan argumentfor reviving as well as burying him. there is at least one notable differencebetween those who used Marxism as a springboard in the 30's and 40's and those who currently call themselves open Marxists.R. No. C.On the one hand.S. S. "The Unity of Marx's Thought. but conclude by acceptingit. However this may be. 1 (Winter. "The Rediscovery of Alienation. "Marx's Contribution to Humanism.7 There is even a suggestionthat contemporary Marx scholarsare so wide open that they have begun to departfrom the spirit as well as the letter of Marx's own writing. and D. 116-134. but ended by rejectingit. reworking of his early thesis concerning alienation has been required to make his humanism palatable to English readers. whereas his mature works concentrate upon the complexities of the economic process. Intellectuals have found the humanist content in the works of the early Marx to be far more congenial to their tastes than the scientific and partisancontent of his later works. "What is Alienation? The Career of a Concept." Journal of Philosophy. XXVIII. if not the essential Marx. The latter present an ideologicalpicture albeit of Marx's early works. op.The former gave an ideologicalpicture of the Marxistmodel. there is a special need to reassess these contributionsto a philosophy of the proletariat. 1962).S. cit. pp. In part this is because Marx's early writings have something to say about self-development.

and the social elements of wealth are ossified and isolated also typifies a form of "alienation".. op. pp. 39.8 On the other hand. 263. and subsists only in the realm of philosophicalfantasy. are a weak substitutefor the economic criticism of bourgeoissociety. has no reality. The Marx who was interested in reification made a major contributionto the sociology of knowledgeof which he is now acknowledged as the father. pp. concernedspecificallywith problems of vital concern to the trade unions. 1961). but also mental disorders and illusions of various kinds. The young Marx was clearly a humanist. p. ethics." in Feuer. of man in general. However." loc. went a differentroute by laying the foundationsof a social science for the workingman. the transferof a right or claim. Philosophy. 34. pp. and it is to him that the new revisionists of Marxism have turned. This content downloaded from 202. Science and the Sociology of Knowledge (Springfield. in attemptingto make a similar case for the humanismof the later Marx they do more than stretch a point. See also Marx's Preface to the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts." "d The focus of the young Marx's concern is now widely believed to have been a critique of human alienation. cit. Horowitz. even loss of self-control. 14-20.28 on Wed.. and Irving L. cit. 24-25. 9 Irving L. in a broader sense.9 The other Marx. economics." Diogenes. 87.LHE YOUNGMARX - A REAPPRAISAL 221 unmaskingself-alienationin its secular forms through a critique of the ideologicalcontentof law. "Social Science Objectivity and Value Neutrality: Historical Problems and Projections. etc.'0 In the Communist Manifestohumanismwas considerednot as a proletarianbut as a bourgeois doctrine stemming from the French Revolution and Enlightenment. to focus upon any one of these usages in characterizing the concern of the young Marx is to miss preciselythose forms of alienationthat most 8"Toward the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. No.Marx wrote. Horowitz.not to mention ideological thinkingand the reificationof ideas. However. 10-11. Under the rubricof "alienation" is currently included not only the conveyance of property to another and. politics.The failure of the humanistslay in representingthe "interestsof human nature.128. t1 Ibid. who belongs to no class. the conditions of productionare convertedinto entities. Philosophicalplatitudes concerningthe alienation of humanity. p. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The universe of economic theory in which things are personified. tO "Manifesto of the Communist Party.loss of contact with things and an inability to relate to other people. This term "alienation"has become broad enough to include hostility toward a customaryenvironment or associations. he also became increasinglypreoccupiedwith the revolutionary and practicaltask of exposing the alienationof the laborer.92. 65. 32-33.

367.13 Turningaway from a generalpreoccupation alienation of self-consciousnessand of the abstract. the species being.The dehumanization energiesuncompensated could be rectified only by abolishingthe division of labor. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . nonhistoricalinof the laborer from the capidividual. Marx's criticismsof bourgeoispropertyare interpreted 12 See D. Bell.. p. This content downloaded from 202.While using the Feuerbachianvocabularyof "man. the laborer in particularbecomes the focus of the 1844 manuscripts. the uncomof his energies only by the abolition of exploipensated appropriation tation.In the first as "ethical place. but human oppression became the core of his continuinginterest in alienation. Marx stressed the estrangement talist mode of production. Instead of man in general. shift of interest can be seen in his early and later A corresponding approachesto the estrangementof the laborer from his conditions of he seems to have been primarilyconwork. cit. Subsequently. Marx's slogan.'2 In the early manuscripts cerned with the dehumanizationof the laborer. to an attack upon the increasingly turned he stitutions and ideologies.and from other men..Throughoutthe 1840's the goal of humanistenlightenment by Marx to the goal of changing the world and emancisubordinated pating the workersin particular. from themselves or some aspect of themselvesin their capacity as laborers. of the young Marx have been led astray by his Recent interpreters obscure adaptationof Feuerbach'slanguage. In the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 we see that Marx was as much concernedto criticize alienationin the form of the exploitationof the producersas to criticizedifferentforms of ideological was thinking. he gives to these terms a partisancontent. 386-7." "naturalism. 13 Bell also makes this point.128. the estrangementof the producersfrom their own labor. ibid." and so forth. in the laborer'sloss of a part of his product.the young Marx was by no means with the indifferentto it.""humaneness.and in that portion of his of labor by his employers.28 on Wed. notably. from the productsof their labor. with the absence of of life-activityunder the meaning in work.""humanism. pp. proprietaryclasses."was loose enough to cover both goals." op. Althoughwe find the matureMarx more concerned with the abolition of exploitation. Thus the mistakes typical of current humanistic interpretationscome from attributingboth an ethical and a psychologicalcontent to the earlier writings.92.Dissatisfiedwith a purely philosophical the fetishism of social instruggle against darknessand superstitution. and with the fragmentation he appearsto have been more interested division of labor. 362. Not ignorance.222 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY ANDPHENOMENOLOGICAL interestedhim. 361. "Two Roads from Marx. "the emancipationof the workers.

71. there is no such right acknowledgedby Marx. 1963). phenomenonof estrangement Marx's discussion of estrangementin the Economic and Philosophic Manuscriptsis interpretedas a contributionto the social psychologyof industrialsociety. O'Neill. Although the worker is alienated. Miliband and J. 69.Thus the individual. This is precisely Marx's point.. he lacks the right to be free. 14 '5 This content downloaded from 202. pp. for whom there was such a right.15 Secondly."14 In this light the original purpose of Marx's social theory was to analyze the conditionsof moral as well as social development.128.. 16 Ibid.THE YOUNGMARX - A REAPPRAISAL 223 evaluationsof the degree to which social structuresrealize an ideal of authenticbeing.but no inalienableright to the equivalentof his labor. i. and "Marxist Ethics and Ethical Theory. If anything. Vol. No.the state of 16 alienationor estrangement. "Socialists in Search of an Ethic. p. No..28 on Wed. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ibid. pp.Marx was not an alienist. Ethics is hardly an effective substitutefor action." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Marx goes beyond the realist As much as the Hobbes in denying even a right to self-preservation. 79-80. The successful businessmanwho wishes to treat his workers in a Christianmanner is cited as a prime example of selfalienation. R. For a similar thesis see the essays by H. and it could be anyone. "I For further discussion of Marx's ethics and ethical theory see my "Historical Materialism in Ethics. he has literally nothing to say concerningthe rights and duties of man. and to attributeto him an interestin dissolvingneuroses or in promotingmental health in general is to travel the altogetherdifferent road that Freud took. XXIII. nonestrangedor unalienatedexistence. 83." The Socialist is noteworthy that Marx's discussion of alienationconspicuouslylacks a normative vocabulary. Despite occasional references to man's real or authenticlife. For the only effective rights are legal ones.we have here "a paradigm case of a socially-inducedneurosis . Parsons. becomes the center of an institutional conflict represented by conflicting valuepatterns. 1 (September. Vol. but also of dependenceupon a quasi-magicalauthoritythat has no power. op. eds. Here Marx parts companywith his predecessorLocke. As a matter of fact." Studies on the Left. 2 (Winter. Any other talk about rights is evidence not only of impotence..his interest in the was primarilyan ethical one. Efforts to psychologize Marx's early manuscriptsare objectionable on other grounds. III.e. 1964).. 1962)." In criticismof the moralisticimage of these manuscripts. and lacking these the worker's only hope is to organize in the struggle to secure protection. 80.'7 For the young Marx there is an alienation of the laborer'sproduct.92. Consideringthe resulting efforts at rationalization. term self-alienationsuggests a correspondinginalienable right of personality. cit. Saville (London.

19 Let us not forget that the counterpartof the alienated worker was not for the young Marx an alienated bourgeois.viz.28 on Wed.128. p. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Although he used in his manuscriptsthe languageof humanismhe was not in any ethical usage of Feuerbachian the term a humanist..the writer antithesis the slavery of the proletariat.On the contrary. 19 Loc. current discussions'of his Economic are misleadingin imputingto him a theory and PhilosophicManuscripts of alienation which.but also a discussionof alienationthat was subsequently to be developed into a full-fledged theory of economic exploitation. he noted that its effectiveness depends upon the prior annulmentof bourgeois property. is applicableto the human situation as such rather than to the special conditions of the laborer under capitalism. reveals that Marx was concernednot with the sources of social pathologyin general.92.Marx's variety of humanistwas a revolutionarycommunist bent on annulling the forms of bourgeois property underlyingthe alienation of the laborer. 78. Marx's discussion of alienation is set within the frameworkof an economic theory ratherthan a social psychology. This content downloaded from 202. As a result. the abandonmentof the language of alienation and 18 20 Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. O'Neill.224 RESEARCH AND PHENOMENOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHY the neuroses and mental ailments of the workers' employers were regardedas a divisive and demoralizingfactor."such freedom as exists in capitalistsociety is enjoyed by the owners of the means of production and entails as its logical 20 Paradoxically. Contraryto the currentconsensus concerningthe work. Besides these misguided efforts to moralize and psychologize upon the early contributionsof Marx.Not only does this work contain the elements of a theory of class struggle. cit. On the contrary. but with the alienationof the worker in particular. A careful reading of the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. Humanistssympatheticto the young Marx have comparedthe early manuscriptswith the later ones and noted the radical differences in terminology.a political economy of labor ratherthan a psychologyof personalityand human growth. 164. critics almost invariably ignore Marx's distinction between the alienated activities that degrade some men and the alienatedconditionsthat upgradeothers. cit.The last thing Marx had in mind was to benefit the alienators and exploiters of mankind. as I hope to show.18 Although he also had kind words for what he called the positive humanismof the future. op.." just quoted laments the fact that Marx's discussionof alienationwas so narrowlylimited at the same time that he belabors the thesis of the young Marx's alleged humanism. as an asset rather than a liability. p. as I have already intimated.

but only to a particularclass of men. 67-8. These differences in terminologyare sometimes taken as symptomaticof a fundaon this quesmental differencein content. that become and from his unique capacitiesof speech and ratiocination his means for obtainingemployment. which have since been lumpedunderthe generalheadingof "alienation. cit.Instead of workingfor the delight of creating something original and pleasing to himself. although some forms are more typical of one group than another. p. p. op. boredom. Josephson. op.28 on Wed. However. Marx's usage was first and foremost economic. Anomie. A major source of confusionis linguistic. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. Marx's interpretersare almost unanimous in agreeing that the third and fourth kinds of alienation pertain to all human beings.from his laboringactivity.loneliness. 71f.23The first two forms are clearly evident that they are not relevant economic. homelessness.uprootedness. 82.92.. He distinguishedfour different kinds of alienation for the laborer:from his product.THE YOUNGMARX - A REAPPRAISAL 225 humanismfor the language of exploitationand socialism. This content downloaded from 202. 21 22 23. isolation.from his uniquely human capacities.and from his fellow men.selfalienation and alienation of mankind. 24 Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts.the tendencyof critics is to exaggeratethe significanceof of the workerscontainsuniversal Marx'sremarkthat "the emancipation 21 For most of them the alienationof the worker human emancipation. despair. the labor process also alienateshim from his own body that must serve another." was less at stake for Marx than the whole of human alienation. ConsiderMarx'sdiscussionof self-alienation. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Whether or not there are other kinds of alienation.that the human condition and not simply the life of the average worker is alienated as a whole. In additionto estranging the laborer from his product and from his laboring activity. however..For the termsthemselves. and Ruitenbeek. and it is also comparatively to mankind or individualmen.and the quest for identity are currentlyregardedas forms of alienationto be found at all levels of society.24He suffers personalimpoverishment. The employers.Hence the impressionthat it is not solely the laborer but individualman who is estranged.22 The questionis whether Marx was concernedwith such a wide range of behavioral disorders. Ibid. 76. Regardlessof disagreements tion. do not exclusively refer to the class of modern laborers. although their alienation takes a different form. the Manuscriptswere concerned with elucidating chiefly those forms of estrangementconcealed by the abstractions of classical political economy. are no less alienated than the workers. cit." Unlike currentuses of the term. pp. it has been said. deviant behavior.128. he must subordinatehis own interestsas a human being to the requirements of the from he must live labor process. anxiety.

for whom alienationis the necessarycondition of appropriation. The annulmentof the conditionof alienatedlabor means first and foremost the economic and social emancipationof workers and their dependents from the conditions of human servitude. Since he is estrangedfrom his own person as a laboring being.The alienor of his own energiesis self-alienated. also holds of a man's relation to the other man. 82. p. Corresponding to Marx's fundamentaldivision of capi25 26 27 Ibid.Yet more than their own emancipationand that of their families is at stake in this act of annulment.there is someone else it is also them. In the manuscriptsof 1844.. who appropriates The worker alienates his energies.they might appear to lack universalhuman significance. from his species being is the estrangement of man from man. in other words. As a result of this transaction. every relation of servitudeis but a modificationand consequenceof the alienatedrole of the worker in production. and he is estrangedfrom his fellow laborerswith whom he must competefor jobs. Far from being self-alienated...the bourgeois is self-possessed. the laborer more than anyone else tends to become self-alienated. This content downloaded from 202.Appropriation and alienationare opposite sides of the same coin: for every one who alienates his property. Ibid. throughalienatinghis labor-power. and to the other man's labor and object of labor. not the alienee. accordingto Marx.. alienation involves a specific economic transactionbetween an alienor and an alienee.his labor. to the product of his labor and to himself..128..226 PHILOSOPHY ANDPHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH in order to labor instead of laboring for the sake of individualfulfillment.28 on Wed."25 The laborer is estrangedfrom his employers for reasons obvious enough. Ibid.who likewise exist in order to serve others.. from his life activity.26 "Till now we have only considered this relationship[of alienation] from the standpointof the worker. The worker'sproductis self-alienated.1" 27 The question is how Marx also considered it from the standpoint of nonworkers. What applies to a man's relation to his works. p. his life-activity. p.he is more likely to become estrangedfrom other men: "An immediateconsequenceof the fact that man is estrangedfrom the product of his labor..the worker also finds himself alienatedfrom his vital energies and productiveactivities (selfalienation) and from the lives and activities of other persons (social alienation). 80.For. 77. Furthermore. For Marx. the bourgeois other-appropriated. These two forms of alienation are preeminentlyeconomic. The latter is the beneficiary of the transaction. he is also alienated from the dwarfed and brutalizedpersonalitiesof other laborers. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .92. acquiresthem for his own use. Consequently..

. p. but only people in a servile relation to others. This content downloaded from 202.. Ibid. to another it must be delight and his life's joy.28 In consideringthe relation of alien persons to the alienatedworkers.. p. the context in which he makes this statementit is clear that it is not the owners and buyers of labor-powerwho are liberated by this act. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .e. Marx notes the following: first." 28 29 30 31 32 33 Ibid. Thus the young Marx: "If the worker'sactivity is a torment to him. not the gods but other men possess this alien power over him. Although Marx goes on to note that the emancipationof workersfrom their activity of alienationimplies universalhuman emancipation. "by possessing the property of appro33 priatingall objects.128." of the abilities not the Surely is: abilities"? "Whose The question classes..but cannot be directlyexperienced by him. 79. they are obviously not victimized by the laws of political economy expressing the estrangementof the worker in his object. says Marx.A REAPPRAISAL THEYOUNG 227 and propertylessworkersis a division talist society into property-owners into alien persons and alienatedmen.second.althoughthe nonworker does not injure himself in injuringthe worker.92.Let us grant that proprietary you cannot buy the same kind of love with money that you can elicit by becoming yourself an affectionateperson."30 Although the worker may be the last to admit it. i. p. and third. Ibid. what the workerdoes againsthimself in his alienated activity is also done to him by the nonworker. 82. but ratherthose of the producers. we can say that one what man's alienation implies another's act of appropriation.and that the laborer'sbondage is a condition of freedom for the that it is difficultto know precisely manuscript Marx intendedby this brief outline. is "the alienated ability of mankind. Nonetheless. Since these other men stand outside and above the labor process. p. p.28 on Wed.. money is thus the object of eminent possession. Loc. 137. Ibid. what the workersuffers directlyin his own person as a consequenceof alienation may be witnessedby the nonworker. The abilities I purchase from others seldom issue in the same degree of satisfactionas those I cultivate myself. 139.MARX. At most. what appears to the worker as a personal activity of alienationappearsto the nonworkeras an impersonal conditionof existence and as a naturalstate of affairs.29At this point the first breaksoff unfinished. Ibid.. 83. "the whole of human 31 servitude." But are the proprietaryclasses not also in a kind of servitude to bourgeoisproperty?Are they not in some sense slaves to the power of 32 money? Money.

for the sake of survivalor for the dreamsthat only money can buy. the ownershipof money is for others a conditionof freedom. In any case.and he has the means and leisure to acquire both.92. 35 p.35Althoughmoney expressesthe worker'sconditionof alienation. the alienationpeculiarto the propertiedperson does not result from the act of alienating his productive capacities to is a means and not an end. Over and above the forms of alienationthat are common to members of all classes. however. Although the slavery of the passions has traditionallycome . my life-activity. Ibid. This content downloaded from 202. were the frustrationsarising from the mode of production. latter. 139-141. they raise preeminently Perhaps this is why in his mature works Marx focused upon the exploitationinstead of upon the alienationof the laborer. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the laborer must daily perform alienated labor for his employer. pp. Even the most privileged individual may fall under the slaveryof accumulation. are estranged both from their immediate competitors and from their hired hands. and self-disposing speciesnature. 139. Although money is the alienated ability of mankind. the abilities of other men that can become one's own throughpossessing a legal title." 34 For the proprietorit representsa surrogatehumanity. inhumansway of money and the corresponding However.self-cultivationand enlightenmentare safeguardsagainstalienation.alienating.To the enlightenedbourgeois. At least this is the principal reason why Marxists have neglected and continue to neglect problemspertinentto the individualas an individualratherthan 34ibid.Money is the pimp between my need and the object of my need.28 on Wed.. In a sense.More importantto the young Marx. the condition of the bourgeois is a metaphoricalservitudelike the kind we impute to persons lacking selfcontrol. The proprietor does not have to choose between human bondage or death by starvation. when it becomes desired for its own sake and not solely for the power it is a far cry from the kind of alienationthat interestedthe youthfulMarx.Furthermore. money becomes an alien power to Marx's alien person only in the sense of a fetish. it has an altogether different function in the hands of the proprietorthan in the hands of wage-earners. It is temptingto infer from Marx's language that businessmen.under the heading of self-alienation. any person may become self-alienatedin consequence of frustrationsposed by his individual characterand personality.too.For the wage-earner it represents man's "estranged. unless I prostitute myself. but I am not oppressedby its power unless I lack money. At worst. Although deformationsof characterare frequentlyconditioned by the personalproblemsratherthan social ones.128..

as he once commentedconcerning anothermanuscript. the destiny of man and his responsibilityto society.. How important. in any case. at least not the authorof the Economicand Philosophic was ever seriouslypreoccupiedwith these issues. pp.what he rejected in the Manuscripts was not humanismin general.128. This content downloaded from 202.A REAPPRAISAL THEYOUNG MARX 229 as a memberof a social class. but rather the universalistic humanismof the left Hegelians and Feuerbachin particular.36However.they seem to have forgottenthat not even the young Marx.The originalcontributionof his work seems to have been selfclarificationfor which a publisherwas hardly necessary. Publishing them could and. they still showed traces of his Hegelian and the influenceof Feuerbach. We know that very early in his career Marx came to reject his youthful humanism. 36 See Adam Schaff.they conapprenticeship tained only a very rough draft of his first investigationsinto political economy. which he never bothered to revise. In effect did Marx not abandon his early work.In the first the gnawingcriticismof the mice? DONALD CLARK HODGES.then. A Philosophy of Man (New York. Manuscripts. 1963). 24-87. 5 Jun 2013 21:50:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .too. Consequently. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY.But there is another sense in which he remaineda humanistto the end of his life. in responseto the pressuresof in Poland and France there has arisen a dialogue atheisticexistentialism in which Marxists. were the Manuscriptsto the historical Marx? Looking back. secondly. Recently. would have served no useful have been embarrassing purpose.28 on Wed.And. have offered counsel on such problemsof personal interestas the meaningof life.92. he regardedthem as theoreticallyobsolete and downright misleading.