# Waves and Oscillations

Syllabus:
Simple harmonic motion, Damped simple harmonic
motion, types of damping, Forced oscillation, resonance,
group velocity and dispersion, Types of waves, Energy
Transport in Wave motion, Wave motion in one Transport in Wave motion, Wave motion in one
dimension, the one dimensional Wave equation.
Objective: Illustrate the physics involved in the description and
analysis of waves through a wide range of examples, from purely
mechanical and purely electromagnetic to coupled electro-
mechanical waves, such as plasma oscillations and hydromagnetic
waves.
Lecture Plan
• Introduction
• Types of wave
• Oscillating Properties of waves
• Wave equation
• Simple Harmonic Motion
• Damped oscillation
• Forced oscillation
Introduction:
• Water waves have two
features common to all
waves:
1. A wave is a traveling
disturbance.
2. A wave carries energy from
place to place.
Two basic types of waves,
transverse and
longitudinal.
A transverse wave is one
in which the disturbance
occurs perpendicular to
Types of waves
4
occurs perpendicular to
the direction of travel of
the wave.
Radio waves, light waves, and microwaves are transverse waves.
Transverse waves also travel on the strings of instruments such as
guitars and banjos.
Types of waves
5
A longitudinal wave is one in which the disturbance occurs
parallel to the line of travel of the wave.
A sound wave is a longitudinal wave.
Sound Waves result from periodic oscillations of air
molecules, which collide with their neighbours and
create a disturbance which moves at the speed of sound.
7
Some waves are neither transverse nor longitudinal.
A water wave is neither transverse nor longitudinal, since water
particles at the surface move clockwise on nearly circular paths as
the wave moves fromleft to right.
Periodic Waves
8
The transverse and longitudinal waves that we have been discussing are
called periodic waves because they consist of cycles or patterns that are
produced over and over again by the source.
Oscillating Properties
• Each day we encounter many kinds of oscillatory motion, such as
swinging pendulumof a clock, a person bouncing on a trampoline,
a vibrating guitar string, and a mass on a spring.
• They have common properties:
Amplitude A is the
maximumexcursion of a maximumexcursion of a
particle of the medium
from the particle’s
undisturbed position.
Wavelength is the horizontal length of one cycle of the wave.
Period T is the time required for the wave to travel a distance of
one wavelength. The period T is related to the frequency f
λ
λ
f
T
v = =
T
f
1
=
Oscillating Properties
10
These fundamental relations apply to longitudinal as well as to
transverse waves.
λ f
T
v = =
No matter what the direction of the displacement, the force
always acts in a direction to restore the system to its
equilibriumposition. Such a force is called a “restoring force”.
Example 1. The Wavelengths of Radio Waves
AM and FM radio waves are transverse waves that consist of
electric and magnetic disturbances. These waves travel at a speed
of 3.00 × 10
8
m/s. A station broadcasts an AM radio wave whose
frequency is 1230 × 10
3
Hz (1230 kHz on the dial) and an FM radio
wave whose frequency is 91.9 × 10
6
Hz (91.9 MHz on the dial). Find
the distance between adjacent crests in each wave.
11
The simple harmonic oscillator and its motion
1. Simple harmonic motion; is a form of periodic motion of a
particle, etc., in which the acceleration is always directed
towards some equilibrium point and is proportional to the
displacement from this point,
This motion can be described in terms of sine sine and and cosine cosine
functions functions
The simple harmonic oscillator and its motion
The point P is rotating in the anticlockwise direction on the
circumference of a circle of radius a, with uniform angular velocity ω.
The foot of the perpendicular on any one of the diameters executes
simple harmonic motion. P0 is the position of the point at t = 0.
The simple harmonic oscillator and its motion
At t = 0, the point P is at P′ and therefore, the initial phase is θ.
How to understand ?
φ
) cos( ϕ ω + = t a x
π
0 = ϕ x
x
t x −

2
π
ϕ =
π ϕ =
T
t
m
x
o
m
x −
How to compare the phases of two SHOs with
same ?
) cos(
1 1 1
ϕ ω + = t x x
m
) cos(
2 2 2
ϕ ω + = t x x
m
) ( ) (
1 2
ϕ ω ϕ ω ϕ + − + = ∆ t t
1 2
ϕ ϕ ϕ − = ∆
ω
{
0 = ∆ϕ
x
t
o
x
t
o
ϕ ∆
t
x
o
π ± = ∆ϕ
1 2 3 4 5 6
t
0.5
1
xHtL
2 4 6 8
t
0.5
1
xHtL
a
Fig 17-6 shows several simple harmonic motions.
(a) (b)
(c) same: ,
different:
-1
-0.5
-1
-0.5
1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
xHtL
(c) (a) same: ,
different:
m
x
φ
ω
(b) same: ,
different:
m
x
φ
ω
m
x
φ
ω
Displacement
Velocity
) cos( φ ω + = t x x
m
) sin( φ ω ω + − = = t x
dt
dx
v
m x
)
2
cos( φ
π
ω ω + + = t x
m
Displacement, velocity, and acceleration
Acceleration
• When the displacement is a maximum in either
direction, the speed is zero, because the velocity
must now change its direction.
) cos(
2
2
2
φ ω ω + − = = t x
dt
x d
a
m x
2
) cos(
2
φ π ω ω + + = t x
m
t x −
t − v
T
ω
m
x
x
v
t
t
m
x
m
x −
o
o
T
) cos( ϕ ω + = t x x
m
0 = ϕ
ω
π 2
= T
π
) sin( ϕ ω ω + − = t x
m
v
t a −
ω
m
x −
2
ω
m
x
2
ω
m
x −
a
t
o
o
T
T
)
2
π
cos( + + = ϕ ω ω t x
m
) π cos(
2
+ + = ϕ ω ω t x
m
) cos(
2
ϕ ω ω + − = t x a
m
a body of mass m that slides on a frictionless horizontal surface. The
body moves in x direction.
origin is chosen at here
kx F
x
− =

2
2
dt
x d
a
x
=
2
2
dt
x d
m kx = −
0
2
2
= + x
m
k
dt
x d
This equation is called the “equation of motion of the simple
harmonic oscillator”. It is the basis of many complex oscillator
problems.
Rewrite Equation of SHM as;
(1)
x
m
k
dt
x d
) (
2
2
− =
3. Find the solution of Eq
We write a tentative solution to Eq(1) as
(2)
x
m dt
) (
2
− =
) cos( φ ω + = t x x
m
We differentiate Eq(2) twice with respect to the Time.
Putting this into Eq(1) we obtain
) cos(
2
2
2
φ ω ω + − = t x
dt
x d
m
) cos( ) cos(
2
φ ω φ ω ω + − = + − t x
m
k
t x
m m
Therefore, if we choose the constant such that
(3)
It is in fact a solution of the equation of motion of a simple
harmonic oscillator.
m
m
k
=
2
ω
ω
Energy in simple harmonic motion
1.The potential energy
2.The kinetic energy
0.8
1
) ( cos
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
φ ω + = = t kx kx U
m
U(t)
0 = φ
2.The kinetic energy
1 2 3 4 5 6
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
K(t)
T/2 T
) ( sin
2
1
) ( sin
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
φ ω
φ ω ω
+ =
+ = =
t kx
t x m mv K
m
m
) sin( ϕ ω ω + − = t x
m
v
• both potential and kinetic energies oscillate with
time t and vary between zero and maximum value
of .
• Both U and K vary with twice the frequency of the
displacement and velocity.
3. The total mechanical energy E is
2
2
1
m
kx
2
1
m
kx U K E = + =
(17-14)
2
m
kx U K E = + =
(17-14)
m
x
m
x −
K(x)
U(x)
x
Fig 17-8 (b)
2
2
1
) ( kx x U =
) ( ) ( x U E x K − =
E
At the maximum displacement .
At the equilibrium position, .
can be written quite generally as
2
2
1
m
kx K =
2
2
1
m
kx U =
0 = K
0 = U
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
m x
kx kx mv U K = + = +
k
) (
2
2 2
x x
m
k
v
m x
− =
) (
2
2
x x
m
k
v
m x
− ± =
then
or
Website link for further information:
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/shm.html
In Fig 1, m=2.43kg, k=221N/m, the block is stretched in
the positive x direction a distance of 11.6 cm from
equilibrium and released. Take time t=0 when the
block is released, the horizontal surface is frictionless.
(a) What is the total energy?
x
m
o

Fig 1
Example-1
(a) What is the total energy?
(b) What is the maximumspeed of the block?
(c) What is the maximumacceleration?
(d) What is the position, velocity, and acceleration
at t=0.215s?
Solution:
(a)
(b)
(c) The maximum acceleration occurs just at the instant
J m m N kx E
m
49 . 1 ) 116 . 0 )( / 221 (
2
1
2
1
2
2
= = =
s m
kg
J
m
E
m
K
v / 11 . 1
43 . 2
) 49 . 1 ( 2 2 2
max
max
= = = =
(c) The maximum acceleration occurs just at the instant
of release, when the force is greatest
(d)
2 max
max
/ 6 . 10
43 . 2
) 116 . 0 )( / 221 (
s m
kg
m m N
m
kx
m
F
a
m
= = = =
m
k
/ 9536 . 0 = = ω
Since at t=0, then
So at t=0.215s
) cos( ) ( φ ω + = t x t x
m
m x x
m
116 . 0 = =
0 = φ
) 536 . 9 cos( 116 . 0 cos ) ( t t x t x
m
= = ω
m s x 0535 . 0 ) 215 . 0 )( 536 . 9 cos( 116 . 0 − = =
{
m s x 0535 . 0 ) 215 . 0 )( 536 . 9 cos( 116 . 0 − = =
s m t x v
m x
/ 981 . 0 sin − = − = ω ω
2 2 2
/ 87 . 4 ) 0535 . 0 ( ) / 536 . 9 ( s m m s rad x a
x
= − − = − = ω
{
Lecture Plan
• Home work;
• Example of Simple Harmonic motion
• Simple Pendulum
• Vibration of mass by two stretched
springs springs
• Vibrations of stretched string.
• Damped oscillation.
Damped harmonic motion
• Up to this point we have assumed that no
frictional force act on the system.
• This loss in amplitude is called “damping” and
the motion is called “damped harmonic
motion”.
Liquid exerts a damping force opposed to the
motion
bv F
d
− =
b = damping constant (kg/s)
Assumption:
• Gravitational force on block is negligible compared to the damping
force and the force on the block fromthe spring.
• Damping force is to be proportional to the velocity of the particle.
• No damping force acts when particle is at rest.
1 2 3 4 5 6
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
1
1.5
x
t
(a)
1 2 3 4 5 6
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
x
t
(b)
τ
t
e

Fig. compare the motion of undamped and damped oscillators.
Assume the damping force is , where b is a positive
constant called the “damping constant”.
x x
ma bv kx = − −
0
2
= + + kx
dx
b
x d
m
x x
bv kx F − − =

x
bv −
0
2
= + + kx
dt
dx
b
dt
x d
m
The solution is
where
(a) If b is negligible, . It is ideal simple harmonic
oscillation.
) ' cos( ) (
2
φ ω + =

t e x t x
m
bt
m
2 '
)
2
(
m
b
m
k
− = ω
ω ω →
'
oscillation.
If , that is , damping slows down
the motion. This case is called under damping.
km b 2 <
ω ω <
'
(a) When we add a small damping force, the amplitude
gradually decreases to zero but the frequency changes
by a negligible amount. In this case Eq(2) becomes
(3)
where is called the “damping time constant” or
) cos( ) (
/
φ ω
τ
+ =

t e x t x
t
m
τ
where is called the “damping time constant” or
the “mean lifetime” of the oscillator.
is the time necessary for the amplitude to drop to 1/e of
its initial value.
τ
τ
(b) When the damping force is not large, the mechanism
energy is
shows that the mechanical energy of the oscillator decreases
exponentially with time.
τ / 2
2
2
1
) (
t
m
e kx t E

=
The energy decreases twice as rapidly as the amplitude.
(b) When , , the motion decays exponentially
to zero with no oscillation at all.
This condition is called “critical damping”.
km b 2 =
τ
0 ' = ω
x
(c) When , the motion also decays exponentially
to zero with no oscillation, called overdamping.
km b 2 >
o
t
x
) ( b
(a)
(c)
Examples:
1) Person swinging in a swing without anyone pushing Free oscillation
2) Someone pushes the swing periodically Forced or driven oscillations
Driven oscillations
Two frequencies:
(1) Natural angular frequency ω
0
of the system
when system oscillates freely after a sudden
disturbance.
(2) External frequency ω of the system angular
Forced oscillations and resonance
(2) External frequency ω of the system angular
frequency of the external driving force
causing the driven oscillations.
If “rigid support” moves up and down forced
simple harmonic oscillator
) cos( ) ( ϕ ω + = t x t x
d m
X
m
depends on ω
d
and ω
Velocity of oscillations greatest when: ω
0
= ω
Resonance Displacement amplitude greatest
Let us consider mass-spring system with resistive
force and applied force F
m
cosω
’’
t
-kx
-bv ma
F
m
cosω

t
Here a mechanical oscillator of mass m, force
constant k and resistance b is being driven by an
alternating force F
m
cos ωt
Equation of motion is
t F bv kx ma ω cos + − − =
t F kx
dt
dx
b
dt
x
t F bv kx ma
m
m
ω
ω
cos
d
m or
cos
2
2
= + +
+ − − =
Forced oscillations and resonance
2
2
2 2
0
2
) ( ω ω ω
|
¹
|

\
|
+ −
=
m
b
G
A
( )
( )
2
2
0
tan
ω ω
ω
φ

=
m
b
Driving Force applet
• In the next slide, it will show how a driving frequency will
affect the natural frequency of the oscilliating object
• Try this:
• 1. Adjust the damping constant to 0.
Forced oscillations and resonance
• 2. Then adjust the natural frequency to maximum, which is
about 0.40Hz. Observe how the motion of the mass will look
like
• 3. Then, press the rewind button, and change the natural
frequency to 0.20Hz, which is the same as the driving
frequency. Observe how the motion of the mass has changed
For example
http://www.upscale.utoronto.ca/PVB/Harrison/Flash/ClassMechanics/DrivenSHM/DrivenSHM.html
Resonance
• Takes place when the driving frequency of the
external oscillatory force is equal to the natural
frequency of the oscillating system
• Thus the energy received by the mass is at
maximum, and so the system will oscillate at maximum, and so the system will oscillate at
maximumamplitude
( )
( )
2
1
2
0
2
0
2
1
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− =
ω
ω ω
m
b
Examples of Resonance
• This can be seen when sitting in
a bus or van
• When the vehicle is stationary,
the people will often feel that
the bus is shaking very violently the bus is shaking very violently
and vibrating vigorously
• However, when the vehicle is
moving, the shaking gets less
violent
• This is because when the vehicle is stationary,
frequency of the engine vibration is slow. It equals to
the natural frequency of the cab of the vehicle, thus
resonance occurs
• There is maximum amplitude of vibrations – violent • There is maximum amplitude of vibrations – violent
vibrations
• However, when the lorry is moving faster, frequency
of engine vibrations increase, and is much faster than
the natural frequency of the engine, thus no
resonance occurs
Useful applications of Resonance
• Microwave ovens
– Heat up food through
waves waves
– Food mainly gets heated up due to the absorption
of heat energy in the water molecules in the food
Useful applications of Resonance
– The frequency of microwaves corresponds to the
natural frequency of water molecules.
– The water molecules in the food placed in the
microwave oven resonate when subjected to
microwaves. microwaves.
– Thus, they absorb energy and consequently heat
up the food, enabling the food to be cooked
Useful applications of Resonance
• Magnetic Resonance
– Strong, varying radio frequency electromagnetic
fields are used to cause the nuclei of atoms to
oscillate. oscillate.
– In any given molecule, there will be many
resonant frequencies. Energy is absorbed
whenever resonance appears.
– The pattern of energy
absorption can be used to
detect the presence of
particular molecules within any
specimen specimen
– False colour magnetic
resonance image on the right
shows woman’s abdomen at 8
months of pregnancy
Harmful effects of Resonance
• Vibrations of bridge structures
– Bridges especially suspension bridges are exposed
to variable amounts and frequencies of wind
everyday everyday
– Bridges have multiple natural frequencies,
therefore as long as there is 1 driving frequency
equal to the natural frequency of the bridge, it
may possible rupture it
Forced resonant torsional oscillations due to wind - Tacoma
Narrows Bridge
Roadway collapse - Tacoma Narrows Bridge
What happened?
• Wind, in this case, was the driving oscillating
force that matched the natural frequency of
the bridge
• This caused huge vibrations and amplitudes • This caused huge vibrations and amplitudes
built up, which eventually put stress on the
concrete, thus rupturing it
Another case
• Besides wind, there was also another peculiar
incident that happened on a bridge
• In 1831, a French battalion was marching over a
suspension bridge in Angers
• The bridge collapsed due to large amplitude of
oscillations built up in the system when the rhythm
of the marching steps matches the natural frequency
of vibration of the bridge
• Since then, it has been common practice to order
soldiers to break steps when crossing a bridge.
The Phase Velocity
How fast is the wave
traveling?
Velocity is a reference
distance divided by a
reference time.
v = λ f
The phase velocity is the wavelength / period: v = λ / τ
Since f = 1/τ :
In terms of k, k = 2π / λ, and
the angular frequency, ω = 2π / τ, this is:
v = λ f
v = ω / k
The Group Velocity
This is the velocity at which the overall shape of the wave’s amplitudes,
or the wave ‘envelope’, propagates. (= signal velocity)
Here, phase velocity = group velocity (the medium is non-dispersive)
Like vacuum
Dispersion: phase/group velocity depends on
frequency
Black dot moves at phase velocity. Red dot moves at group velocity.
This is normal dispersion (refractive index decreases with increasing λ)
Dispersion: phase/group velocity depends on
frequency
Black dot moves at group velocity. Red dot moves at phase velocity.
This is anomalous dispersion (refractive index increases with increasing λ)