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# SOME WEAKER FORMS OF FUZZY α-CONTINUOUS MAPPINGS

**Hakeem A. Othman and S. Latha
**

Abstract In this paper, the notions of fuzzy almost α-continuity and fuzzy weakly α-continuity are introduced. Certain fundamental properties and some new results related to these notions are obtained.

Keywords: fuzzy topology; fuzzy α-open set; fuzzy α-continuous mapping; fuzzy almost continuous mapping; fuzzy weakly continuous mapping; fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping; fuzzy weakly α-continuous mapping. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. 54A40.

1

INTRODUCTION

In [[6], [2]], Singal, Rajvanshi and Bin Shahna have introduced the

concept of fuzzy α-open sets. In [1], Azad introduced the concept of fuzzy almost continuity and weakly continuity. Noiri deﬁned almost α-continuity and weakly α-continuity in a topological space. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notions of fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping and fuzzy weakly α-continuous mapping and to investigate some properties of these notions.

2

PRELIMINARIES

Throughout this paper by (X, τ ) or simply by X we mean a fuzzy

topological space ( f ts, shortly) and f : X → Y means a mapping from a fuzzy 1

2 topological space X to a fuzzy topological space Y . If A is a fuzzy set and p is a fuzzy singleton in X, then N (p), IntA, clA, Ac , Intα A, clα A and τ α , will denote respectively, the neighbourhood system of p, the interior of A, the closure of A, complement of A, the fuzzy α-interior of a fuzzy set A, the fuzzy α-closure of a fuzzy set A and the family of all fuzzy α-open sets of (X, τ ). Now, we mention the following deﬁnitions and results which are used in this paper concerning fuzzy topology. Deﬁnition 2.1 [4] A fuzzy singleton p in X is a fuzzy set deﬁned by: p(x) = t, for x = x0 and p(x) = 0 otherwise, where 0 < t ≤ 1. The point p is said to have support x0 and value t. Deﬁnition 2.2 A fuzzy set A in a f ts X is called: • Fuzzy feebly open set [5] if there is a fuzzy open set U such that U ≤ A ≤ sclU where scl A is fuzzy semi closure A, is deﬁned by the intersection of all fuzzy semiclosed sets containing A. • Fuzzy α-open set [[2], [6]] if A ≤ Int cl Int A. The family of all fuzzy α-open sets of X is denoted by F αO(X). • Fuzzy regular open set [1] if A = Int cl A. Deﬁnition 2.3 For a mapping f : X → Y from a f ts X into a fts Y is said to be: • Fuzzy continuous [3] if f −1 (B) is fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set in X for each fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set B in Y. • Fuzzy α-continuous [6] if f −1 (B) is fuzzy α-open ( fuzzy α-closed ) set in X for each fuzzy open ( fuzzy closed ) set B in Y. • Fuzzy almost continuous [1] if f −1 (B) is fuzzy open set in X for each fuzzy regular open set B in Y. • Fuzzy weakly continuous [1] if for each fuzzy open set B of Y, f −1 (B) ≤ Intf −1 (cl B).

3

3

MAIN RESULTS

In this section, we introduce the deﬁnitions and equivalent forms of

fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping and fuzzy weakly α-continuous mapping, the fundamental properties and some characterizations of these notions. Deﬁnition 3.1 For a mapping f : X → Y from a f ts X into a f ts Y is said to be: • Fuzzy almost α-continuous if f −1 (B) is fuzzy α-open set in X for each fuzzy regular open set B in Y. • Fuzzy weakly α-continuous if for each x ∈ X and each V ∈ σ containing f (x), there exists U ∈ τ α such that f (U ) ≤ cl(U ). • Fuzzy feebly continuous if f −1 (B) is fuzzy feebly open (fuzzy feebly closed) set in X for each fuzzy open (fuzzy closed) set B in Y. • Fuzzy almost feebly continuous if f −1 (B) is fuzzy feebly open set in X for each fuzzy regular open set B in Y. Theorem 3.2 [5] Let A fuzzy subset of a f ts(X), then A is feebly open set iﬀ A ∈ F τ α (X). By using the above Theorem, we can easily prove the following Theorems. Theorem 3.3 A mapping f : X → Y from a f ts X into a f ts Y is said to be fuzzy almost α-continuous ( resp. fuzzy weakly α-continuous, fuzzy αcontinuous) iﬀ fuzzy almost feebly continuous ( resp. fuzzy weakly α-continuous, fuzzy feebly continuous). Theorem 3.4 For a mapping f : X → Y where X and Y are f ts s, the following statements are equivalent: (i) f is a fuzzy almost α-continuous; (ii) For every p ∈ X and every V ∈ N ((p)), there exists a fuzzy α-open set U such that p ∈ U and f (U ) ≤ Intcl(V ); (iii) The inverse image of every fuzzy regular closed sets in Y is a fuzzy αopen in X.

4 Theorem 3.5 For a mapping f : (X, τ ) → (Y, σ), the following statements are equivalent: (i) f : (X, τ ) → (Y, σ) is a fuzzy almost α-continuous; (ii) f : (X, τ ) → (Y, σs ) is a fuzzy α-continuous; (iii) f : (X, τ α ) → (Y, σ) is a fuzzy almost continuous; (iv) f : (X, τ α ) → (Y, σs ) is a fuzzy continuous. Where τ α and σs denote the family of all fuzzy α-open sets of (X, τ ) and family of all regular open sets of (Y, σ) respectively. Theorem 3.6 For a mapping f : (X, τ ) → (Y, σ), the following statements are equivalent: (i) f is a fuzzy weakly α-continuous; (ii) f : (X, τ α ) → (Y, σ) is a fuzzy weakly continuous; (ii) f −1 (V ) ≤ Intα (f −1 (clσ (V ))), for every v ⊆ σ. Proof. It follows from Deﬁnition (3.1), that (i) and (ii) are equivalent. (i) ⇒ (iii). Let x ∈ f −1 (V ). Then, V is fuzzy open neighbourhood of f (x), then there exists a fuzzy α-neighbourhood U of X such that f (U ) ≤ clσ (U ). Thus, x ∈ U ≤ f −1 (clσ (V )). This means that f −1 (V ) ≤ Intα (f −1 (clσ (V ))). (iii) ⇒ (i). Let x ∈ X and V be a fuzzy open set containing f (x), we have x ∈ f −1 (V ) ≤ Intα (f −1 (clσ (V ))) ∈ τ α . Put U = Intα (f −1 (clσ (V )). Then, we obtain x ∈ U ≤ τ α and f (u) ≤ cl(V ). Theorem 3.7 A mapping f : X → Y is a fuzzy almost α-continuous iﬀ f −1 (λ) ≤ Intα (f −1 (Int cl(λ))), for every fuzzy open set λ of Y . Proof. Since λ is a fuzzy open set of Y , λ ≤ Int cl(λ) ⇒ cl(λ) ≤ cl Int cl(λ). We now that cl Int cl(λ) ≤ cl(λ). Then cl(λ) is a fuzzy regular closed set, hence Intcl(λ) is a fuzzy regular open set. But f −1 (λ) ≤ f −1 (Int cl(λ)) and f −1 (Int cl(λ)) is a fuzzy α-open set of X. Thus f −1 (λ) ≤ Intα (f −1 (Int cl(λ))). Conversely, let λ be a fuzzy regular open set of Y , then we have f −1 (λ) ≤ Intα (f −1 (Int cl(λ))) = Intα (f −1 (λ). Thus f −1 (λ) = Intα (f −1 (λ). Shows that f −1 (λ) is a fuzzy α-open set of X.

5 Corollary 3.8 A mapping f : X → Y is a fuzzy almost α-continuous iﬀ f −1 (Int cl(λ)) is a fuzzy α-open set for each fuzzy open set λ of Y . Proof. This is obvious. Proposition 3.9 For any fuzzy set λ in a f tsX the following properties hold : (i) Intα (λ) ≤ λ ∧ Int cl Int (λ). (ii) clα (λ) ≥ λ ∨ cl Int cl (λ). Proof. (i) Since Intα (λ) is a fuzzy α - open set, we have Intα (λ) ⇒ Intα (λ) ≤ ≤ Int cl Int (Intα (λ)) λ ∧ Int cl Int (λ). (ii) By using the same technique, we can easy prove it. Corollary 3.10 A mapping f : (X, τ ) → (Y, σ) is a fuzzy weakly α -continuous (resp. fuzzy almost α -continuous), then f −1 (V ) ≤ Int cl Int (f −1 (cl(V ))) (resp. f −1 (V ) ≤ Int cl Int (f −1 (Intcl(V ))), for every v ⊆ σ. Theorem 3.11 Let X1 , X2 , Y1 and Y2 be fuzzy spaces such that Y1 is product related to Y2 . Then, the product f1 × f2 : X1 × X2 → Y1 × Y2 of fuzzy almost α -continuous (resp. fuzzy weakly α -continuous) mapping f1 : X1 → Y1 and f2 : X2 → Y2 is fuzzy almost α -continuous (resp. fuzzy weakly α -continuous) mapping. Proof. We prove only if it is fuzzy almost α -continuous mapping. For the other case, it is same. Let v ≡ ∪(vα × uβ ), where vα s and uβ s are fuzzy α-open sets of Y1 and Y2 nt cl Int (λ) and hence Intα (λ) ≤

**6 respectively, be a fuzzy α-open set of Y1 × Y2 . We have
**

−1 −1 (f1 × f2 )−1 (v) = ∪ [f1 (vα ) × f2 (uβ )]. −1 −1 ≤ ∪ [Intα f1 (Int cl (vα )) × Intα f2 (Int cl (uβ ))]. −1 −1 ≤ ∪ [Intα (f1 (Int cl (vα )) × f2 (Int cl (uβ )))].

≤ Intα [ ∪ (f1 × f2 )−1 (Int cl (vα ) × Int cl (uβ ))]. = Intα [ ∪ (f1 × f2 )−1 (Int cl (vα × uβ )]. ≤ Intα [ (f1 × f2 )−1 (Int cl ( ∪ (vα × uβ ))]. = Intα (f1 × f2 )−1 (Int cl v). Thus by Theorem (3.7) (f1 × f2 ) is a fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping. Theorem 3.12 If f : X → Y is a fuzzy almost α-continuous injective mapping and Y is a fuzzy almost -T2 then, X is a fuzzy Housdorﬀ space. Proof. Since f is injective, we have f (xp ) = f (xq ) for distinct fuzzy points xp and xq in X. Since Y is a fuzzy almost -T2 , there exist fuzzy regular open sets U and V in Y containing f (xp ) and f (xq ) respectively such that U ∩ V = 0. Since f is a fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping. We have xp ∈ f −1 (U ) ≤ Int cl Int f −1 (U ), xq ∈ f −1 (V ) ≤ Int cl Int f −1 (V ) and Int cl Int f −1 (U ) ∧ Int cl Int f −1 (V ) = 0. It is clear that X is a fuzzy Housdorﬀ space. Deﬁnition 3.13 [4] Let (X, τ ) be a fuzzy topological space. If for any distinct fuzzy point p, r in X such that p(xp ) < 1, r(xr ) < 1, there exist fuzzy open sets U and V such that p(xp ) < U (xp ), r(xr ) < V (xr ) and clU ∩ clV = Φ. Then, we say that X is a fuzzy Urysohn space. By using the Deﬁnition of fuzzy Urysohn space and Corollary (3. 10), we can easily prove the following Theorem. Theorem 3.14 If f : (X, τ ) → (Y, σ) is a fuzzy weakly α-continuous and oneto-one and (Y, σ) is a fuzzy Urysohn space, then (X, τ ) is a fuzzy Housdorﬀ space.

7 Deﬁnition 3.15 A fuzzy topological space (X, τ ) is said to be fuzzy α- compact (resp. fuzzy nearly compact) if every fuzzy α-open (resp. regular open) covering of X has ﬁnite subcover. Theorem 3.16 If f : X → Y is a fuzzy almost α -continuous surjective mapping and X is a fuzzy α- compact, then Y is a fuzzy nearly compact space. Proof. Let {Uj : j ∈ V } be the fuzzy regular open cover of Y . Since f is fuzzy almost α -continuous surjective mapping {f −1 (Uj ) : j ∈ V } is fuzzy α-open sets in X. Since X is fuzzy α- compact then there exists a ﬁnite subset V0 of V such that X ⊂ {∪j f −1 (Uj ) : j ∈ V0 }. Then Y = f (X) ⊂ {Uj : j ∈ V0 }. That means Y is fuzzy nearly compact. Deﬁnition 3.17 A fuzzy set A in an f ts X is said to be fuzzy connected if A cannot be expressed as the union of two fuzzy separated sets. Theorem 3.18 If f : X → Y is a fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping and X is a fuzzy connected, then Y is fuzzy connected. Proof. Suppose that Y is not connected then there are non-empty fuzzy open sets v1 and v2 such that v1 ∧ v2 = 0 and v1 ∨ v2 = Y . Then v1 and v2 are fuzzy clopen sets and hence fuzzy regular open sets in Y . Since f is a fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping, f −1 (v1 ) and f −1 (v2 ) are fuzzy α-open sets in X. Now we put ui = Int cl Intf −1 (vi ), i = 1, 2. Then we have, 0 = f −1 (v1 ) ⊂ u1 , 0 = f −1 (v2 ) ⊂ u2 , u1 ∧ u2 = 0 and u1 ∪ u2 = X. That means X is not connected, which is a contradiction!! Hence Y is connected. Now, we can generalize the deﬁnition of fuzzy connected to deﬁne fuzzy almost connected and fuzzy α-connected as follows: Deﬁnition 3.19 A fuzzy set v in a f ts (X, τ ) is said to be fuzzy almost connected (resp. fuzzy α-connected) iﬀ v cannot be expressed as the Union of two fuzzy regular separated (resp. fuzzy α-separated) sets.

8 Theorem 3.20 Let f : X → Y be a fuzzy almost α-continuous surjective mapping. If v is a fuzzy α-connected subset in X then, f (v) is fuzzy regular connected in Y . Proof. suppose that f (v) is not regular connected in Y . Then there exists fuzzy regular separated subsets λ and µ in Y such that f (v) = λ ∪ µ. Since f is fuzzy almost α-continuous surjective mapping, f −1 (λ) and f −1 (µ) are fuzzy α-open set in X and v = f −1 (f (v)) = f −1 (λ ∪ µ) = f −1 (λ) ∪ f −1 (µ). It is clear that f −1 (λ) and f −1 (µ) are fuzzy α- separated in X. Therefore v is not fuzzy α-connected in X, which is a contradiction!! Hence Y is regular connected. Lemma 3.21 [1] Let g : X → X × Y be the graph of a mapping f : X → Y . Then, if λ is a fuzzy set of X and µ is a fuzzy set of Y , g −1 (λ × µ) = λ ∧ f −1 (µ). By using Lemma (3. 21), we have the following theorem. Theorem 3.22 Let f : X → Y be a fuzzy mapping, where X is product related to Y , and let g : X → X × Y given by g(x) = (x, f (x)) be its graph mapping. Then f is a fuzzy almost α -continuous if g is a fuzzy almost α -continuous. Proof. Suppose that g is a fuzzy almost α-continuous mapping and v is a fuzzy regular open set in Y . Then f −1 (v) = 1 ∧ f −1 (v) = g −1 (1 × v) ≤ Int cl Int g −1 (1 × v) = Int cl Int f −1 (v). Hence f is a fuzzy almost α -continuous. Remark 3.23 The converse of Theorem (3. 22) is not true in general: The following Example shows this. Example 3.24 Let X = {a, b, c} and v1 , v2 andv3 be fuzzy sets of X deﬁned as: v1 (a) = 0.3 v2 (a) = 0.8 v3 (a) = 0.8 v1 (b) = 0.2 v2 (b) = 0.9 v3 (b) = 0.9 v1 (c) = 0.7 v2 (c) = 0.4 v3 (c) = 0.5

Let τ = {ox , v1 , v2 , v1 ∨ v2 , v1 ∧ v2 , 1x } and we deﬁned τ1 = {ox , v3 , 1x }. The identity mapping f : (X, τ ) → (Y, τ1 ) is a fuzzy almost α-continuous. From g −1 (v1 × v3 ) = v1 ∧ f −1 (v3 ) = v1 ∧ v3 follows that the graph g is not fuzzy almost α-continuous.

9

References

[1] K. K. Azad, ”On fuzzy semi continuity, fuzzy almost continuity and weakly continuity”, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 82 (1981), pp.14-32. [2] A. S. Bin Shahna, ”On fuzzy strongly semi continuity and fuzzy precontinuity”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 44 (1991), pp.330-308. [3] C. L. Chang, ”Fuzzy topological space”, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 24 (1968), pp.182 -190. [4] M. H. Ghanim, E. E. Kerre, and A. S. Mashhour, ” Separation axioms, Subspace and Sums in Fuzzy Topology ”, J. Math. Anal Appl, 102(1984), pp. 189-202. [5] Hakeem A. Othman and S. Latha, ”On fuzzy semi α-open sets and fuzzy semi α-continuous mappings ”, Journal of Studies and Scientiﬁc Researches, 9(2008), pp. 169-186 [6] M. K. Signal, and Niti Rajvansi, ”Fuzzy alpha-sets and alpha-continuous maps”, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 48(1992), pp. 383-390.

ADDRESSES Department of Studies in Mathematics,University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-5700 06, Karnataka , INDIA. E-mail : hakim albdoie@yahoo.com . Professor and Head Department of Mathematics, Yuvaraja’s College, University of Mysore, Mysore - 5700 06,Karnataka INDIA. E-mail : drlatha@gmail.com