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Roger Ruber 20 April 2007

Course Layout

1. Magnetic Fields

• • • • • • • • dipole and quadrupole field field measurement & multipole coefficients coil field design: current dominated field shape magnetic materials & permanent magnets normal conducting: iron dominated field shape superconductors & persistent currents practical magnets quench propagation and protection

2. Permanent and Normal Conducting Magnets

3. Superconducting Magnets

Magnets for Accelerator Applications - Roger Ruber - 20 April 2007 - Part 1

2

Part 1 3 .Roger Ruber .20 April 2007 .Why Magnets ? For accelerators: • beam guidance by bending (dipole) • beam optics by focusing (quadrupole) For detectors: • charge identification • momentum spectrometry Magnets for Accelerator Applications .

Part 1 4 .20 April 2007 .Roger Ruber .Bending Power of a Dipole Magnet Bending power can be calculated from the Lorenz force • constant circular motion trajectory radius r with momentum p • circular accelerator • define magnetic rigidity = (“stiffness” in bending field) Magnets for Accelerator Applications .

Part 1 5 .Roger Ruber .Aperture of a Dipole Magnet The aperture of the bending (dipole) magnet must be large enough to contain the beam: • bending angle • at small angle Magnets for Accelerator Applications .20 April 2007 .

How to Make a Magnetic Field Dipole field • parallel field lines • bending in one plane Type of Magnet • air core. excitation by – permanent magnet – current distribution Magnets for Accelerator Applications . excitation by – permanent magnet – current distribution • iron dominated.Part 1 6 .20 April 2007 .Roger Ruber .

Dipole Field and Force Distribution Left: magnetic induction of the normal dipole (Bx=0.20 April 2007 .Part 1 7 . By=const) Right: x-comp.Roger Ruber . of E-M force field (vz x B)x acting on p-beam parallel to z-axis into positive z-direction Magnets for Accelerator Applications .

Part 1 8 .Roger Ruber .20 April 2007 .Undulators and Wigglers Principle: • synchroton radiation released when bending an (electron) beam • undulator/wiggler is collection of dipole magnets at small spacing Usage: • synchrotron light source • free-electron laser Magnets for Accelerator Applications .

Roger Ruber .20 April 2007 LHC .Field Shape Optimization stretch the field along the particle trajectory / beam line • stretched circular coils • iron yoke Magnets for Accelerator Applications .Part 1 CERN PS CERN 0304013_07 © CERN © CERN 9 9402027 .

Quadrupole Field for Focusing • 4 poles.Roger Ruber .Part 1 © CERN 10 . 4 coils • zero field in center • strong gradient g (T/m) CERN LEP CERN AA Magnets for Accelerator Applications .20 April 2007 .

defocusing in horizontal plane Magnets for Accelerator Applications .Roger Ruber .Part 1 11 . of the E-M force field (vz x B)x on p-beam parallel to z-axis in z-direction Right: y-comp. Bx=gy.20 April 2007 . g<0) Centre: x-comp.Quadrupole Field and Force Distribution Left: magnetic induction of the normal quadrupole (By=gx. of the E-M force field (vz x B)y NOTE: focusing in vertical plane.

Roger Ruber .Quadrupole Focal Length and Gradient The focal length of a thin quadrupole magnet is given for a displaced particle at ex ey ez Positive gradient k focuses proton beam in the horizontal plane (disregarding dipole term) Magnets for Accelerator Applications .20 April 2007 .Part 1 12 .

Roger Ruber .Part 1 13 .Solenoid Focusing Gun (Pierce) Magnets for Accelerator Applications .20 April 2007 .

Roger Ruber .Field Measurement Hall Probe • semiconductor. uses Hall effect • potential voltage difference by magnetic field perpendicular to current flow calibration coefficient depends on • field direction • material Magnets for Accelerator Applications .Part 1 14 .20 April 2007 .

Roger Ruber .20 April 2007 .Part 1 15 .Field Measurement • rotate so-called harmonic coil • flux variation induces voltage • Fourier transformation gives field components • • measures radial field component at reference radius rc tangential coil Magnets for Accelerator Applications .

Rotating Harmonic Coil periodic flux variation induces voltage • measures radial field component Br • at reference radius rc • angular rotation + position Φ = ωt+θ Induced voltage: • cosinus / sinus shape for normal (θ=0) / skew (θ=π/2) field direction Magnets for Accelerator Applications .Roger Ruber .20 April 2007 .Part 1 16 .

Part 1 17 .Radial Harmonic Coil tangential coil is blind for multipole n if 2π/n equals the opening angle δ of the measurement coil → use radial coil radial coil tangential coil Magnets for Accelerator Applications .20 April 2007 .Roger Ruber .

quadrupole. given in units of 10-4.20 April 2007 .Part 1 18 . … • Dimensionless. at reference radius r0.Roger Ruber . Magnets for Accelerator Applications .2.… = dipole. Relative normal and skew multipoles Relate to the main field component • N=1.Normal and Skew Multipoles Fourier expansion of field at reference radius r0 and angle Φ normal skew Normal multipole and skew multipole Given in units of tesla.

This removes the powers n-1 from the equations.Part 1 19 . 1.Other Definitions of Multipole Coefficients In some documents. … with 0 = dipole.Roger Ruber . Magnets for Accelerator Applications . the harmonics are defined independently of the reference radius: Common (USA) to have n = 0.20 April 2007 .

I. B +J -J B= μ 0 Jd 2 ey ey ez ex 20 Magnets for Accelerator Applications . 5 (1934) 78: Field inside two parallel cylinders is the sum of the fields • B1 = + μ0/2 J× r1 • B2 = − μ0/2 J× r2 +J B r1.The E-M Design.20 April 2007 . Instr.Roger Ruber .r2 position vector of point relative to -J origin (on the axis) of each cylinder vector (r1 – r2) = dex constant normal to J → B1 + B2 field is uniform in current free region (overlap). Rabi. Rev. Uniform Magnetic Fields I.Part 1 . Sci.

20 April 2007 . 2 ellipses • n = 2: quadrupole.Intersecting Ellipses: Cos nθ Current Distribution also uniform field cos nθ current density distribution rotate ellipses by π/n: • n = 1: dipole field.Part 1 21 . 3 ellipses Note • higher current density → higher field • very high field quality required for beam handling: dB/B < 10-4 Magnets for Accelerator Applications . 2 ellipses • n = 3: sextupole.Roger Ruber .

Part 1 22 .20 April 2007 .Roger Ruber .How to Build a cos(θ) Distribution? uniform shell current density will cut the first higher order harmonic approximation of cos(θ) distribution with coil blocks (left) and multiple shells (right: b3=b5=b7=0) Magnets for Accelerator Applications .

20 April 2007 .Part 1 .Field Quality Inside the Aperture • need high quality field for beam handling (dB/B < 10-4)! • multipole coefficients enable calculation of the field • higher order multipoles give field “errors” – effect shown below as contribution per cable – scaling with 1/rn (r = mid radius of the coil) B3 contribution B5 contribution 23 Magnets for Accelerator Applications .Roger Ruber .

Part 1 24 .Coil Fields: Current Dominated Field Shape • air core coil (w/o iron) possible direct analytical solution μ0 r B= J × 3 dv ∫ r 4π V • iron yoke used to contain stray fields. current imaging method (magnetic mirror) may be used (if iron shape respects symmetry of the problem) Magnets for Accelerator Applications .Roger Ruber .20 April 2007 .

Roger Ruber . today’s standard for HEP accelerator magnets includes optimization methods for coil configuration and multipole minimization Magnets for Accelerator Applications . Also calculates forces. now almost everything… • ROXIE: developed at CERN especially for complicated LHC magnets. field analysis.… • ANSYS: origins in mechanical analysis.20 April 2007 . … • POISSON 2D: electro & magnetostatics • OPERA 2-3D: electro & magnetostatics.Part 1 25 .Finite Element Methods FE code useful when iron present and/or complicated geometries. energy.

Magnets for Accelerator Applications .20 April 2007 .Part 1 26 .Roger Ruber .

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