Social Setting John: Hey, Hiroko. How are you? Hiroko: Not so good. I burned the pancakes.

I was making Korean pancakes and I burned them. John: That’s a pity. Can you make some more? Hiroko: Yeah. I’m making some more now. First I have to make the batter then I’ll fry them. I’ll watch them more carefully this time. What did you do today? John: I went to university. I had two classes this morning. Hiroko: Did you see your friend, Miyako? John: Yeah, I saw her in the cafeteria. She was reading. Hiroko: Oh really. What was she reading? John: She was reading a book about education. Hiroko: Did you talk to her? John: A bit. You’re not still worried about me seeing her, are you? Hiroko: Of course not. I was just feeling insecure and jealous before. I was wrong. I was unfair. You are from Australia and all your old friends are back there. Of course you want to make new friends in Japan and some of those friends are female friends. It’s natural. I am really sorry about what happened before. John: I’m glad you see it that way. What did you do today? Hiroko: Oh, I just stayed home. I went shopping after lunch. I studied a bit. John: Didn’t you have any classes today? Hiroko: No, I had a free day, so what did you talk about with Miyako? John: Actually we talked about education. The book she was reading was about education and we talked about education. Hiroko: What did she say? John: She said education is fun. Learning things is fun. Hiroko: Do you agree? John: Yeah, but not all the time. When I was at school, I did chemistry. That wasn’t fun. The teacher was boring and there was too much maths. It was pointless. I didn’t like it. I didn’t enjoy it at all. It was terrible. It was really boring. Hiroko: Really? I had a good chemistry teacher. I liked chemistry. I thought it was interesting. John: Everybody is different. Everybody has different likes and dislikes. Everyone

Hiroko: Are you ready to eat? John: This is really good. Where did you learn to cook Korean food? Hiroko: My grandmother was Korean. it’s delicious. we talked a bit about the future. Where did you learn to cook? Hiroko: My mother taught me. I said I wanted to be a writer and she said she liked education and I said she should be a teacher but she said she was not sure.has different taste. John: But this is Korean food. Hiroko: It’s not too salty? John: No. Hiroko: What else did you talk about with Miyako? John: Well. . You are a great cook.

I'm afraid our national sales director. The meeting was declared closed at 11. I'm looking forward to today's meeting. Right. So. I'd like you to please join me in welcoming Jack Peterson. Meeting Chairman: Welcome Bob.Professional Setting Meeting Chairman: If we are all here.30. After briefly revising the changes that will take place. can't be with us today. Jack Peterson: Thank you for having me. Meeting Chairman: I'd also like to introduce Margaret Simmons who recently joined our team. Let me just summarize the main points of the last meeting. Bob Hamp. . Meeting Chairman: Thank you Tom. Margaret Simmons: May I also introduce my assistant. Jack has kindly agreed to give us a report on this matter. developing our Far East sales force. First of all. Anne Trusting. I'd like to skip item 1 and move on to item 2: Sales improvement in rural market areas. let's go over the report from the last meeting which was held on June 24th. Have you all received a copy of today's agenda? If you don't mind. Jack? Jack Peterson: Before I begin the report. We're here today to discuss ways of improving sales in rural market areas. How do you feel about rural sales in your sales districts? I suggest we go round the table first to get all of your input. We began the meeting by approving the changes in our sales reporting system discussed on May 30th. She is in Kobe at the moment. You'll find a copy of the main ideas developed and discussed in these sessions in the photocopies in front of you. if there is nothing else we need to discuss. we moved on to a brainstorming session concerning after sales customer support improvements. let's get started. over to you. our Southwest Area Sales Vice President. Tom Robbins: Thank you Mark. I'd like to get some ideas from you all. Meeting Chairman: Let's get started. let's move on to today's agenda. First. Tom.

What exactly do you mean? Alice Linnes: Well. Jack Peterson: Before we close. let me just summarize the main points: . I have to agree with Alice. Alice Linnes: I'm afraid I can't agree with you. Donald Peters: Excuse me. We'll have to leave that to another time. we provide our city sales staff with database information on all of our larger clients. we're running short of time. please? Alice Linnes: I just stated that we need to give our rural sales teams better customer information reporting.John Ruting: In my opinion. Jennifer? Jennifer Miles: I must admit I never thought about rural sales that way before. John Ruting: I don't quite follow you. John Ruting: I suggest we break up into groups and discuss the ideas we've seen presented. Meeting Chairman: Unfortunately. I think rural customers want to feel as important as our customers living in cities. We should be providing the same sort of knowledge on our rural customers to our sales staff there. let me begin with this Power Point presentation (Jack presents his report). we need to return to our rural base by developing an advertising campaign to focus on their particular needs. I didn't catch that. Jack Peterson: Well. Jack Peterson: Would you like to add anything. Jack Peterson: As you can see. The way I see things. we are developing new methods to reach out to our rural customers. Could you repeat that. we have been focusing too much on urban customers and their needs. I suggest we give our rural sales teams more help with advanced customer information reporting.

Is that OK for everyone? Excellent. I'd like to thank Jack for coming to our meeting today.l be delivered to our sales teams understanding. 9 o'clock. Meeting Chairman: Thank you very much Jack. . Right. The meeting is closed. it looks as though we've covered the main items Is there any other business? Donald Peters: Can we fix the next meeting. please? Meeting Chairman: Good idea Donald. How does Friday in two weeks time sound to everyone? Let's meet at the same time.

Discourse Markers . As far as I am concerned. regarding. while in Australia they prefer cricket. These kinds of words and phrases are often called discourse markers.. Jack thinks we're ready to begin whereas Tom things we still need to wait. we should continue to develop our resources. as for These expressions focus attention on what follows in the sentence. As regards and as far as………is concerned usually indicate a change of subject Examples: His grades in science subjects are excellent. As regards humanities … With regard to the latest market figures we can see that . whereas These expressions give expression to two ideas which contrast but do not contradict each other. as regards. while. This is done by announcing the subject in advance. let's take a look at this report he sent me. . On the other hand our shipping department needs to be redesigned. Regarding our efforts to improve the local economy. we have made .com Guide Some words and phrases help to develop ideas and relate them to one another. As for John's thoughts.. on the other hand. nonetheless. We've been steadily improving our customer service center. Note that most of these discourse markers are formal and used when speaking in a formal context or when presenting complicated information in writing. nevertheless All these words are used to present two contrasting ideas... with regard to. as far as ……… is concerned. Examples: Football is popular in England. About.Linking Your Ideas in English By Kenneth Beare. however.

as a result. our telephone costs have doubled over the past six months. In addition to these costs. Examples: His problems with his parents are extremely frustrating. I assured him that I would come to his presentation. moreover. The usage of these words is much more elegant than just making a list or using the conjunction 'and'. furthermore. The government has drastically reduced its spending.000 customers over the past six months. . Examples: He reduced the amount of time studying for his final exams. Furthermore. 40% of the population smokes. Moreover. Our energy bills have been increasing steadily. Nonetheless.Examples: Smoking is proved to be dangerous to the health. a number of programs have been canceled. Consequently. therefore. Our teacher promised to take us on a field trip. there seems to be no easy solution to them. in addition We use these expressions to add information to what has been said. As a result. he changed his mind last week. he invested and lost everything. I also invited a number of important representatives from the local chamber of commerce. we have been forced to cut back our advertising budget. Peter was warned not to invest all of his savings in the stock market. Nevertheless. Therefore. his marks were rather low. consequently These expressions show that the second statement follows logically from the first statement. However. We've lost over 3.

Phoenician mariners brought cargoes of these beads to Africa along with other wares." constituted a significant nation. In the African tradition. with at least 11 million people in the kingdom. Glass beads had already been manufactured by the Egyptians centuries earlier around the same time when glass was discovered. they were a main source through which the Zulu people could access the merchandise they needed. used the beads to establish certain codes and rituals in their society. It is possible to learn much about the culture of the Zulu clan through their beadwork. which they wear not only in their traditional costumes but as part of their everyday apparel. Among the Zulu women. the Europeans facilitated and monopolized the glass bead market. Zulu beadwork is involved in every realm of society. The Zulu people are known around the world for their elaborate glass beadwork. rather. meaning "People of Heaven. The glass bead trade in the province of KwaZulu-Natal is believed to be a fairly recent industry. At that time. . The Zulu people were not fooled into believing that glass beads were precious stones but. the AmaZulu clan. During colonization'. the craft of beadwork is used as an educational tool as well as a source of recreation and fashion. Before the Europeans arrived. only a few Zulu clans occupied the area.Zulu Beadwork The South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. more commonly referred to as the Zulu Kingdom. KwaZulu translates to mean "Place of Heaven. Personal adornment items include jewelry. Some research points to the idea that Egyptians tried to fool South Africans with glass by passing it off as jewels similar in value to gold or ivory. an Englishman named Henry Francis Fynn brought glass beads to the region to sell to the African people. from religion and politics to family and marriage." "Natal" was the name the Portuguese explorers gave this region when they arrived in 1497. many Arab traders brought glass beads down to the southern countries via camelback. Though the British are not considered the first to introduce glass beads. Today the Zulu clan represents the largest ethnic group in South Africa. By the late 1700s. is named after the Zulu people who have inhabited the area since the late 1400s. and the Zulu nation became even more closely tied to this art form. In 1824. kings were known to wear beaded regalia so heavy that they required the help of attendants to get out of their thrones.

beads are a part of the language with certain words and symbols that can be easily read. the decorative art form is often modified for tourists. Similarly. Besides clothing and accessories. with popular items such as the beaded fertility doll. there are many other beaded objects in the Zulu culture. A triangle with the apex pointing downward signifies an unmarried man. while one with the tip pointing upward is worn by an unmarried woman. young Zulu girls quickly learn how to send the appropriate messages to a courting male. In the Zulu tradition. Socioeconomic data shows that the more a culture resists change the more risk there is in a value system falling apart. Zulu beadwork is a source of communication. and married men signify their marital status with two triangles that form an hourglass shape.skirts. Though traditional beadwork still holds a serious place in Zulu culture. and aprons. A simple triangle is the geometric shape used in almost all beaded items. The codes of the beads are so strong that cultural analysts fear that the beadwork tradition could prevent the Zulu people from progressing technologically and economically. Educated by their older sisters. Colors are also significant. . neckbands. which are carried around by women who are having fertility problems. males learn how to interpret the messages and how to wear certain beads that express their interest in marriage. A finished product is considered by many artists and collectors to be extremely poetic. however. Most importantly. though slightly more complicated since each color can have a negative and a positive meaning. such as bead-covered gourds. The code behind Zulu beadwork is relatively basic and extremely resistant to change. Married women wear items with two triangles that form a diamond shape.

or orange and yellow. The fact is that in most cases of colorblindness.Colorblindness Myths related to the causes and symptoms of "colorblindness" abound throughout the world. Each cone contains a specific pigment whose function is to absorb the light of these colors and the combinations of them. This is why the incidence of color deficiency is sometimes more prevalent in extremely small societies that have a limited gene pool. A baby's cones do not begin to differentiate between many different colors until he is approximately four months old. It is true that all babies are born colorblind. the only way for a female to inherit colorblindness is for both of her X chromosomes to carry the defective gene. and usually have a serious problem with their overall vision as well as an inability to see colors. 8% of males exhibit some form of colorblindness. When one of the three cones does not function properly. The term itself is misleading. A person with normal color vision has what is called trichromatic vision. though it is not completely untrue. Those who have a complete lack of color perception are referred to as monochromatics. They may not be able to tell the difference between red and green. It is a myth that colorblind people see the world as if it were a black and white movie. Therefore. This is also a myth. dichromatic vision occurs. Females have two X chromosomes.5% of women do. . the other one naturally compensates. there are only certain shades that a person cannot distinguish between. People with trichromatic vision have all three cones in working order. the reason that color vision deficiency is predominant in males has nothing to do with fashion. By looking into the myths related to color blindness. while only 0. since it is extremely rare for anyone to have a complete lack of color perception. Some people believe that only men can be colorblind. These people are said to be dichromatic. There are very few cases of complete colorblindness. A normal human eye has three cones located inside the retina: the red cone. which men only have one of. The difference between the three levels of color perception have to do with the cones in the human eye. and if one carries the defective gene. and the yellow cone. In an average population. one can learn many facts about the structure and genetics o the human eye. the green cone. The fact is that the gene for color blindness is located on the X chromosome. While there may be some truth to the idea that more men have trouble matching their clothing than women.

Nevertheless. Japanese researcher Yoichi Sugita of the Neuroscience Research Institute performed an experiment that would suggest that color vision deficiency isn't entirely genetic. there is a long-standing belief that colorblindness can aid military soldiers because it gives them the ability to see through camouflage.This is why many of the modern toys for very young babies consist of black and white patterns or primary colors. most cases of colorblindness are attributed to genetic factors that are present at birth. identifying color is not considered an essential task in a life or death situation. The Ishihara Test is the most common. there are still a few remaining beliefs that require more research in order to be labeled as folklore. Those with normal vision can distinguish the number from the background. It was found that the test monkeys were unable to perform the color-matching tasks that the normal monkeys could. regardless of a color vision deficiency. In 2004. is that it is difficult to know exactly which colors each human can see. Someone who never takes a color test can go through life thinking that what they see as red is called green. The basis of this idea is that a catastrophic event can overwhelm the brain. He later compared their vision to normal monkey who had experienced the colorful world outdoors. Children are taught from a very young age that an apple is red. while those with color vision deficiency will only see the dots. In general. . In his experiment. causing it to utilize only those receptors needed to perform vital tasks. though it is highly criticized' because it requires that children have the ability to recognize numerals. Part of the reason there are so many inconsistencies related to colorblindness. some current research points to the importance of developing an infant's color visual system. In the Ishihara Test. rather than traditional soft pastels. Children are generally tested for colorblindness at about four years of age. Another belief is that everyone becomes colorblind in an emergency situation. However. While many of the myths related to colorblindness have been busted by modern science. or "color vision deficiency" as it is called in the medical world. Naming colors allows children to associate a certain shade with a certain name. he subjected a group of baby monkeys to monochromatic lighting for one year. For example. a number made up of colored dots is hidden inside a series of dots of a different shade.

penguins have to keep moving. To retain heat. When the sun is out. Gentoo. and Emperor penguins equip them to withstand the harshest living conditions in the world. In the dark days of winter. penguins often put their weight on their heels and tails. the male penguins rotate regularly so that none of the penguins have to stay on the outside of the circle exposed to the wind and cold for long periods of time. penguins huddle in communities of up to 6. The male balances the egg on top of his feet. In order to stay warm in these temperatures.Antarctic Penguins Though penguins are assumed to be native to the South Pole. Though penguins don't fly in the air. covering it with a small fold of skin called a brood patch. A number of survival adaptations allow them to swim through water as cold as -2 degrees Celsius. When it's time to create a nest. there are a number of others. when the Antarctic sees virtually no sunlight. In order to reduce the cold of the ice. Besides these four species." in which they leap up for a quick breath while swiftly moving forward: . Instead of stopping each time they come up for air. most penguins build up a pile of rocks on top of the ice to place their eggs. they use a technique called "porpoising. When it's time to take a turn on the outer edge of the pack. Antarctic penguins also have complex nasal passages that prevent 80 percent of their heat from leaving the body. the penguins that remain on the ice sheet sleep most of the day. In the huddle. they are often said to fly through water. the penguins tuck their feathers in and shiver. only four of the seventeen species have evolved the survival adaptations necessary to live and breed in the Antarctic year round. Chinstrap. Penguins that live in Antarctica year round have a thermoregulation system and a survival sense that allows them to live comfortably both on the ice and in the water. The Emperor penguin. The female Emperor lays just one egg and gives it to the male to protect while she goes off for weeks to feed. The movement provides enough warmth until they can head back into the inner core and rest in the warmth.000 of their own species. doesn't bother with a nest at all. however. including the yellow feathered Macaroni penguin and the King penguin that visit the Antarctic regularly but migrate to warmer waters to breed. The physical features of the Adelie. the black dorsal plumage attracts its rays and penguins can stay warm enough to waddle or slide about alone. Antarctic penguins spend about 75 percent of their lives in the water.

penguins have evolved hard solid bones that keep them low in the water. The blood vessels in the penguin's skin dilate when the body begins to overheat. which in extremely cold waters diverts blood from the flippers and legs to the heart. African penguins have bald patches on their legs and face where excess heat can be released. Penguins who are built for cold winters of the Antarctic have other survival techniques for a warm day. and a penguin has to rearrange the feathers through a process called "preening. While the harsh climate of the Antarctic doesn't threaten the survival of Antarctic penguins. global warming is a threat to them. Temperate species have certain physical features such as fewer feathers and less blubber to keep them cool on a hot day." Penguins also have an amazing circulatory system. Tufts of down trap a layer of air within the feathers. The pres¬sure of a deep dive releases this air.Unlike most birds that have hollow bones for flight. or holding their fins out away from their bodies. and the heat rises to the surface of the body. such as moving to shaded areas. Antarctic penguins also have unique feathers that work similarly to a waterproof diving suit. preventing the water from penetrating the penguin's skin. and therefore. . overheating can be a concern.

She also caried enough food to feed a small town. And with nine decks. But to the people of the time it was one of the safest forms of transport.000 fresh eggs. Her builders. The Titanic carried 329 first class. In the ten hours prior to the Titanic’s fatal collision with an iceberg at 11. we consider ocean travel to have been a risky business. 285 second class and 710 third class passengers with 899 crew members. Even if two of these compartments flooded. It was largely as a result of this confidence in the ship and in the safety of ocean travel that the disaster could claim such a great loss of life. She represented the pinnacle of technological advance at the time.000 apples. taking 1. Imagine her placed on her end: she was larger at 269 metres than many of the tallest buildings of the day. On board were some of the richest and most famous people of the time who had paid large sums of money to sail on the first voyage of the most luxurious ship in the world. 36. and shipping technology stil in its infancy in the early nineteen hundreds. under the care of the very experienced Captain Edward J.40 pm. At the time of the Titanic’s maiden voyage in 1912. she was as high as an eleven storey building.517 of her passengers and crew with her. With limited communication facilities. the others were in . in the case of an accident. 111. including 40. The RMS Titanic left Southampton for New York on April 10.200 lbs of coffee for the five day journey.Smith. there had only been four lives lost in the previous forty years on passenger ships on the North Atlantic crossing. Only one of these messages was formally posted on the bridge. And the Titanic was confidently proclaimed to be unsinkable. But stil she did sink on April 14.000 lbs of fresh meat and 2. the ship could stil float. crew and passengers had no doubt that she was the finest ship ever built. 1912. the Titanic would not be able to float until she was rescued. six warnings of icebergs in her path were received by the Titanic's wireless operators. 1912. The ship’s owners could not imagine that. RMS Titanic was believed to be unsinkable because the hull was divided into sixteen watertight compartments.Lessons from the Titanic From the comfort of our modern lives we tend to look back at the turn of the twentieth century as a dangerous time for sea travelers.

He believed.500 people drowned. the ice field which lay across the Titanic’s path would have been apparent. but rather contracted workers from a wireless company. So why was the Titanic traveling at high speed when he knew. Procedures for dealing with warnings received through the wireless had not been formalised across the shipping industry at the time. There were around two and a half hours between the time the Titanic rammed into the iceberg and its final submersion. There were 473 empty seats available on lifeboats while over 1. wrongly as we now know. since the spring weather in Greenland was known to cause huge chunks of ice to break of from the glaciers. it was simply standard operating procedure at the time.various locations across the ship. But this only partly accounts for his actions. the lack of formal procedures for dealing with information from a relatively new piece of technology. And secondly. This was not the fault of the Titanic crew. that the ship could turn or stop in time if an iceberg was sighted by the lookouts. In this time 705 people were loaded into the twenty lifeboats. practices which had coincided with forty years of safe travel. Captain Smith’s seemingly casual atitude in increasing the speed on this day to a dangerous 22 knots or 41 kilometres per hour. . at least of the general risk of icebergs in her path? As with the lack of coordination of the wireless messages. Captain Smith was folowing the practices accepted on the North Atlantic. The fact that the wireless operators were not even Titanic crew. why the lifeboats were not full. Captain Smith knew that these icebergs would float southward and had already acknowledged this danger by taking a more southerly route than at other times of the year. If the combined information in these messages of iceberg positions had been ploted. meant that the danger was not known until too late. why there were not enough lifeboats to seat every passenger and crew member on board. Instead. These figures raise two important issues. if not of the specific risk. can then be partly explained by his ignorance of what lay ahead. the wireless. Firstly. made their role in the ship’s operation quite unclear.