INDOOR SOLAR POWERED ROBOT

Submitted by Loo Keng Hou Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering National University of Singapore

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ABSTRACT

This final year project aims to design and build an indoor surveillance robot that will be powered and charged by an on-board solar panel. A potential application of such a robot would be to enable surveillance of an indoor venue without the need for security guards or security cameras. While there are currently already indoor robots that can perform surveillance of buildings, they are not self-charging and tend to be costly due to the requirement of intelligence systems that enable the robots to navigate back towards a charging dock. By powering itself with its on-board solar panel and eliminating the need for a charging dock, the indoor solar-powered robot will not need such intelligence systems and may therefore come at a more affordable price while performing the same function.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Aaron Danner, who has been guiding us throughout the entire course of the Final Year Project. I am also grateful to my teammates, Jing Wen Tao and Lim Xin Yi, for their contribution and encouragement to make this project a success. I would also like to thank the following for their guidance and support: 1. Mr Uh Choon Leng, Madam Rose Seah Pau Fah, Mr Johari bin Khamis from Linear Electronics Laboratory 2. Mr Anuwar Bin Shukor and Mr Chan Leong Hin from ECE workshop 3. Mr Abdul Jalil Bin Din from PCB Fabrication Facility

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............................................................................................................................................. 3 1....................................................................................................................5.............. 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................... 3 1.......7.................... 8 2............................................................. Project Schedule .................. Project Outline ...........................................................................6....... 5 1...............................................iv LIST OF TABLE ............................................................. Thesis Overview..................................................1 Mechanical Design ............................................. Robot Specifications ................................................................................................3................................ 7 CHAPTER 2 ................................. 10 iv    .................. 2 1................................................................................................... 1 1............................1..............................................CONTENTS   ABSTRACT............................................................................ 1 1......4. Task Division ............................................................................................ 8 PROJECT RESEARCH .................... Background .................... viii LIST OF FIGURES .....................2 Motor drive system ........................................... Objective ............................... iii CONTENTS................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8 2.......................................2........................... ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................ix CHAPTER 1 ...... 6 1.........................................................................................

........................................................................................5 Solar panel holder (horizontal) ..............2 Final Product Design Constraint ..........................................................................................1 Mechanical Design ..............................3................................. 17 CHAPTER 3 ........................2 Final Product ....4 Motor driver design .................................................................. 30 3.................1 H-bridge ......................... 28 3......................1 Stepper motor ....1 Base frame ..............2..2 Stepping Sequences ..........................................1...... 23 3......2............ 19 3..........2.....................................................................1....................................3........ 27 3........3.................................................................... 11 2....................................3 Motor Drive System .........2 Motor selection ................................. 16 2....2...........................................2.2 Motor holder ................................... 23 3............................................................................. 34 CHAPTER 4 ..................................................2.......................... 16 2............... 12 2..............................1 First Prototype & Improved Prototype ................... 37 v    ..............................................3 Motor driver design ........................................................................................................................3.....4 Solar panel holder (vertical) ........................................................... 22 3............... 29 3.... 14 2.........................2..... 27 3...........................................................1 Steering method ............................ 19 3...........................2........................................................... 16 2................3 Transistors motor driver................ 19 PROJECT DESIGN AND HARDWARE CHOICE ....................3 Stepper motor ................................................................. 19 3......................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 37 4...................................................3...................... 56 APPENDIX 3g – MOSFET dual H-bridge motor driver on-board .............. 39 4.............................................................................................................. 50 Appendix 2 – Base frame (after modify) simulation report.... 43 CHAPTER 6 ........................ 57 APPENDIX 3h – base frame (before final modification) ... 41 CHAPTER 5 ............................... 54 APPENDIX 3b – Motor holder ................................................. 47 REFERENCES ............................................................................ 47 CONCLUSION & Future Improvement................................ 56 APPENDIX 3f – Solar panel holder ........................................PROJECT DEVELOPMENT .............. 54 APPENDIX 3c – Stepper motor connected ........................... 38 4........................................1 MOSFET H-bridge .............................................................................................................................3.......................................................3 Motor Driver Design ................................. 57 vi    ............................ 49 Appendix 1 – Base frame (before modify) simulation report ...... 37 4............................................................ 39 4........................................................................................................2 Motor Drive System Integration .........................................................................2 PCB design .......1 Mechanical Design .................... 52 APPENDIX 3a – Wheel assembly........................................................ 55 APPENDIX 3d – Solar panel with aluminum frame ........................................................... 55 APPENDIX 3e – Solar panel without aluminum frame ............................................................... 43 ROBOT SPECIFICATION ....................

APPENDIX 3i – Solar charging system .... 58 APPENDIX 3j – Microcontroller unit (on-board) ................Final Product 3D Model ................................................................................. 59 APPENDIX 3l – Example of human error during fabrication (marked) ....................... 59 APPENDIX 4 ......................................................... 58 APPENDIX 3k – Assembled Robot ...........................................................Improved Prototype 3D Model ......................................................... 61 vii    . 60 APPENDIX 5 .................

.... 7 Table 4: Mabuchi RF-330TK specification .............................................. 13 Table 5: Stepping sequence ................................................................ 38 Table 8: Weight distribution ........................................ 6 Table 3: Robot specification ........................... 31 Table 7: Mechanical parts attachment list ..... 46 viii    ............. 44 Table 9: Total Power Consumption ...........................................................................................LIST OF TABLE Table 1: Task performed in semester 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Table 6: Stepper motors specification ................ 5 Table 2: Task performed in semester 2 .................... 45 Table 10: Cost distribution of the robot ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

. 26 Figure 13: Motor holder ..........................................................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Project Architecture.............. bent base frame (blue box & figure below) ................................................ 16 Figure 7: Narrow bearing width (red box)...................................... after modified (right) .................................................................................................. back (left).................................... 12 Figure 5: Conceptual model of bipolar stepper motor ..................................... 25 Figure 12: Base frame before modified (left)............ wheel assembly (red box)...... motor mount (green box) ....................................... base frame side was bent (right)..................................................................... 20 Figure 8: Two bearing to hold the wheel (left)................................... 33 ix    ........................................................... 24 Figure 11: Bottom view (left)....................................................................................... 11 Figure 4: Tricycle steering method ......................... 27 Figure 14: Solar panel holder A ......................... 28 Figure 17: Solar panel holder D.................................................... 21 Figure 9: Comparison between base frame (left) and wheel holding shaft (right) ................ 3 Figure 2: First prototype................................................................................................ . isometric view (right) ........... 28 Figure 16: Solar panel holder C .... 21 Figure 10: Sliding the center of balance toward the drive wheel in a single-caster robot.................................................................... front (right) ................................................................... 32 Figure 20: Hi-Torque waveform ............. 29 Figure 18: Solar panel with all holders attached.. 15 Figure 6: The current path for forward direction ............ 29 Figure 19: Balanced lever mounted on the stepper motor ................................................................................................................................................................. 9 Figure 3: Centerline drive motor mount .......... 28 Figure 15: Solar panel holder B ...............

................................................. 35 Figure 24: H-bridge circuit using L293............................................................................................... Expected output voltage (right) ................... 36 Figure 26: Modified MOSFET H-bridge motor driver ........................................... 40 Figure 27: The PCB design for motor driver ...................................................... 33 Figure 22: The H-bridge circuit suggested by Antonio Raposo (ajr@cybill............................................. lack of 0V in LO (left).............................pt) ............................................................... VCE(sat) for the L293 .............. 34 Figure 23: Voltage loss in HI.inesc.......................................................................... 42 x    ......................... 36 Figure 25: MOSFET H-bridge ....Figure 21: Wave-Drive waveform ....................................................

This is an interesting subject to tackle because an indoor-powered robot involves a certain level of engineering challenge. robots being one of them. the most imminent one being the small amount of “solar” power available in an indoor environment. Background Ever since the invention of photovoltaic solar panels. as compared to the ample power supply available for an outdoor solar application on a typical sunny day. An indoor solar-powered robot could be useful in a lot of scenarios. For instance. the idea of powering a system within a relatively bright indoor environment remains largely unexplored. Another similar application could be in the form of an indoor solar-powered robot that can be remotely controlled by the user through programs installed on his/her smartphone such that the user can take a look at his/her house every now and then from his/her workplace.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. an indoor solar-powered vehicle with a camera could enable a security guard to survey every corner of the warehouse from the comfort of his office without having to physically patrol the warehouse. 1    .1. While outdoor solar applications have become very common. people have been trying to utilize them for all kinds of applications.

1.In this Final Year Project we aim to design and construct an indoor solar robot that is self-sustaining. relatively cheap compared to indoor robots already available in the market and able to perform a few tasks including moving as commanded. Equipped with a video camera and motor drive system. the robot will be controllable remotely over a Wi-Fi connection and a video will be streamed to a webpage. Objective The goal of this project is to design and build a small robot that uses solar energy as it sole power source. 2    . The status of the battery will also be reflected in the webpage. photo-taking and wireless communication.2. The robot will function as a surveillance robot. which serves as the interface between the robot and the operator. mainly used to check inventories and detect intruders.

Task Division In order to work more efficiently on the project.  Mechanical design and movement subsystem Select motors. Project Outline Figure 1: Project Architecture In order to modularize our task. we segregated our responsibilities on the project. steering mechanism. 3    .1. we have divided our robot into three sub systems:  Power subsystem Design a power charging system which includes selection of solar panel. I involve in the mechanical design and movement. 1. charging components and charging mechanism. Lastly. and design the robot. Lim Xin Yi is responsible for the solar power charging subsystem. Jing Wen Tao is in charge of the wireless and controller subsystem.  Communications and control subsystem Selection of low power microcontroller.4. low power camera and design a wireless communication between microcontroller and computer for image and command transmission.3.

brushless motor. Although each of us was assigned with specific tasks. I designed a motor driver myself instead of using commercial motor driver. Due to the power limitation. we were involved in all the sub-systems while focus more on our assigned task in order to facilitate learning. included brushed motor. the stepper motor was controlled by the PWM signal generated by microcontroller.   4    . After the integration of power subsystem and motor drive subsystem. Before the selection of the motor had been finalized. servo motor and stepper motor. I fabricated a simple prototype robot to study the robot dynamic.I explored various types of low motors. we did not solely work on our own task. By using this motor driver. Since we had chosen stepper motor. We shared ideas for the design of all the subsystems and troubleshooting together when one of us were not able to solve the problem. because those motor drivers would still consume certain amount of energy which could be prevented. following with an improved prototype with stepper motor implemented. Instead. stepper motor was chosen as the drive motor for this project for the implementation of one charge one step concept. the robot was modified to be lighter and able to dock the solar panel and circuit board on it. We discussed the problems we faced in each of the subsystems among ourselves even though we were assigned with specific subsystem.

meeting arrangement Searching for low power motor First low power DC motor testing Research on mechanical design and components First prototype draft using Autocad CA1 report Purchase mechanical parts Fabricate and assemble the first prototype First prototype testing Improve design refer to the test result Fabricate and assemble new frame CA2 preparation Feedback and review Table 1: Task performed in semester 1 5    .1. Tables below indicate my timeline for the project and summarize tasks carried out during the whole course of the Final Year Project. Project Schedule A problem of this complexity requires detailed planning prior to solving it.5. Week Agenda 1 2 3 4 5 6 R 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 V Read and understand the scope of FYP Research for similar project.

Wheels 3mm thick solid aluminum wheel and a 32mm caster.Week Agenda V 1 2 3 4 5 6 R 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 Stepper motor control circuit Stepper motor testing Control system programming Integrate control system with motor Motor driver design and PCB Integrate charging system with motor Finalize mechanical design with all subsystems Final testing and debugging CA3.9° step angle. two 15cm diameter. CA4 preparation Table 2: Task performed in semester 2 1. Robot Specifications The summary of the specification of the robot built is given in the table below. rear-wheelSteering Method drive. LinkSprite Y201 JPEG color camera Texas Instrument EM-CC430F6137- 6    . NEMA14 bipolar stepper motor Motor with 0. Differential steering. Robot frame material Camera Microcontroller 900 Ultra-low power microcontroller Aluminum. Three wheeled.6.

Main energy storage 4. Chapter 3 will include the design of the subsystem. Lastly. Chapter 4 will illustrate the development of the subsystem.4mF electrolytic capacitor 15~30 second from capacitor Charging time voltage from 3V to 12V Power Source Weight Dimension Amorphous silicon solar panel 2kg Approximately 410 x 340 x 80 mm Table 3: Robot specification 1. Chapter 6 will provide the conclusion of the project and future work for improvement.7. Thesis Overview The following chapters will describe in detail the approach used to solve the problem. Chapter 5 will describe the robot specifications and features. 7    . Chapter 2 will explain the research process of the project.

a pair of plastic gear with module 1. I designed a simple prototype in the first few weeks in order to understand the problem and to study the robot dynamic and design. improved prototype and final product.1 Mechanical Design The mechanical design for this project was divided into three stage. The wheel assembly made from the solid wheel. The purpose for designing the first prototype was to examine the concept of two-wheel self-balance in practical and serve as a test bench for various types of motors. only the Motor drive system and steering method were decided. low power motors are always small in size and produce less torque. a pair of plastic gear with same module but 16 teeth was selected as the motor gear. In first prototype stage. A pair of solid aluminum wheels with 150mm diameter and 3mm thickness was fabricated as the drive wheel for this project. Hence. This chapter included the problems found in the prototype and the proposed solution to be implemented. 8    . 2. Usually.625. Corresponding to the wheel size. gear and bearing housing was used throughout the two prototypes and the final product for this project. in order to increase the torque. For this reason.CHAPTER 2 PROJECT RESEARCH The first phase of this project involved understanding the problem and doing a background research on the project. first prototype.0 and 90 teeth was chosen as the wheel gear. Therefore. the design for this stage was just the combination of the concepts. the gear ratio between the wheel and motor was 5.

brainstorming the solution Create. basically fixed deflects found in the first prototype (to be discussed in next chapter). an improved prototype was fabricated. wheel assembly (red box). understanding the problem Ideate. With this in mind. I took a few procedures of design before I started to fabricate:     Define. from the experience gained from the first prototype. motor mount (green box) Next. Using the experience from the first prototype and improved prototype. in order to save materials and time.Figure 2: First prototype. From here onward. several solutions were proposed and 9    . building a virtual model for simulation Solve. in order to let the mechanical design of the final product stage to be more efficient. more design and planning should be done before the fabrication. the mechanical design could no longer to be in trial and error mode because as the robot became more complicated. manufacturing using the blueprint from the virtual model The main concern for the mechanical design was to make a sturdy model to integrate all the different subsystems together.

McGraw Hill. For this project. 2006.2 Motor drive system The power available for the motor drive system was limited as we are using the indoor solar energy as our power source. to minimize the power consumption. M. as shown in Figure 3.simulated with model design software SolidWorks. Besides that. lightweight and accessible in the ECE workshop. McComb. large but thin solid aluminum wheel was used. two-wheel-drive concept was proposed.                                                              1 G. 2. “ Robot Builder’s Bonanza”. with large diameter wheels. the robot was able to balance itself without any supporting caster by centering the weight of the robot. Therefore. 313 10    . To reduce non-necessary friction between wheel and ground. Furthermore. aluminum was used as main fabrication materials because it was durable. Predko. SolidWorks was able to generate part drawing from the 3D model which could be used as the fabrication blueprint with all dimensions stated. The benefit of using the design software was to simulate the model virtually before any of the parts are made. Centerline drive motor mount design1 was implemented to distribute the weight evenly by placing the motors and wheels at the centerline of the robot.

McComb. Predko.3 Tricycle steering method was proposed by driving the rear wheels with one motor and controlling the steering wheel in the front with a servo motor (showed in figure 4). McGraw Hill. 2006.2. robot was able to turn to specific direction when one side of wheels stop or reverse direction while the other side keeps going. therefore. 313 M.  318  11    . the robot could move forward or backward easily by switching the drive motor rotate direction. By using this method. “ Robot Builder’s Bonanza”. Differential steering is most practical with two-wheeldrive system because it minimize the effect caused by friction during steering. Predko. This method was not applicable with our project because the drive motor had to be high power in order to drive both rear wheels with single                                                              2 3  G. “ Robot Builder’s Bonanza”.Figure 3: Centerline drive motor mount The benefit of this mounting design was that the robot had no difference of front or back. differential steering method was considered for this project.1 Steering method To implement the motor drive design above. M.2 2.

consume only 5mW of power. the power consume for this method is the least. McGraw Hill. a servo motor with accurate positioning was required to implement this steering method. the motor used should ideally require low power and had high efficiency.2 Motor selection As available power was limited. “ Robot Builder’s Bonanza”. A variety of types of motors have been considered .                                                                  4  G. as the result. McComb. 320  12    . this motor was used for the first prototype. which could consume more power. M. Because of its lower power consumption characteristic. and cheap.4 Figure 4: Tricycle steering method Thus. Predko. servo motor and stepper motors. differential steering method is more suitable to be implemented because the motors used for this method are the least.motor. 2006. The table below is the specification of this motor. A DC brushed motor is lightweight. 2. small sized. A Mabuchi RF-330TK brushed motor can be operated at 3V with 570rpm. Moreover.2.these include DC brushed motors.

it has certain amount of holding torque and by counting the moved step. Eventually. a servo motor do not fulfilled our requirement because its feedback control system consume too much power.010 A 0. Moreover. thus it offers precise angular positioning by counting the step moved. Although a DC brushed motor can be operated in lower power. A stepper motor operates at low speed but it has high holding torque. the torque generated is lower than stepper motor. 13    .005 W Mabuchi RF-330TK Table 4: Mabuchi RF-330TK specification A servo motor is able to produce high torque but operates at lower speed compare to DC brushed motor. It is capable of precise angular positioning with built-in feedback control system. It has to be operated with motor driver as the input for the stepper motor has to be pulsed.083 mNm 0. our charging system is not able to provide enough power for the brushed motor to rotate continually.Voltage Current Torque Power 3V 0. a stepper motor is proposed to be used in the project. the stepper motor can be implemented with positioning and path planning control system. It moves in step with certain step angle. Its stepping movement characteristic is compatible with the charging system as the stored energy is just enough for the stepper motor to move one step. In addition. By considering with the power constraints we are having for the project.

by using a low power high torque stepper motor and move one step for each                                                              5  Rustle Laidman. Moreover. the amount of energy released from the storage is not enough for continuous rotation.5  High torque step movement For the charging system in this project. Unlike the servo motor uses encoder to feedback the position information. Therefore.com/Tutorials/pgUnipolarTutorial.htm. steppers are easy to control and the position of the shaft is guaranteed as long as the torque of the motor is sufficient for the load.  Holding Torque Steppers are rated in terms of their holding force and use magnetic 'detent' torque by its permanent magnet rotor to hold a position without power applied.2. As the energy available is limited.stepperworld.3 Stepper motor The following stepper Motor features are the reason that it is chosen as the drive motor for this project. http://www. 1999  14    . it has to overcome the static friction every time it moves. the energy is stored in the capacitor and is released once it is sufficient for the motor drive system.2. without using any feedback system. which consume more power for the closed loop system. as the robot remains stationary for most of time to wait for the capacitor to be charged.5  Open loop positioning Steppers have the ability to position the shaft by counting the increment of its steps.

charging cycle. http://www.6 However. the current in the bipolar motor winding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole..htm  15    . hence an H-bridge motor driver is required to control the bipolar motor (to be discussed in session 2. the windings of bipolar motor are better utilized. the charging system is able to provide sufficient energy for the motor to move the robot with sufficient torque. while only half of the windings of unipolar motor are used at any point in time.osmtec.3 Motor driver design). Bipolar stepper motor has a single winding per phase and unipolar stepper motor has two windings per phase. but a bipolar motor is more powerful than a unipolar motor with same weight and size.com/unipolar_vs_bipolar. Figure 5: Conceptual model of bipolar stepper motor                                                              6 OSM Technology Co. because within the same space inside the motor.Ltd.

3. switches B and C are closed for reverse direction. By controlling the 4 switches.  http://homepage.1 H-bridge As bipolar stepper motor was chosen as the drive motor for this project.3. Similarly. The H-bridge motor driver must be able to reverse the polarity of the voltage across the motor winding for the current to flow in both directions. Jones. Basic Stepping Motor Control Circuits. the current is able to flow from the supply.uiowa.edu/~jones/step/circuits.3 Motor driver design 2. For example. Figure 6: The current path for forward direction7 2.cs.2 Stepping Sequences The motor driver has to be able to energize the motor windings in sequence so that the permanent magnet rotor can be attracted by the magnetic field produced by the windings accordingly. through the motor winding and onward to ground.html#bipolar  7 16    .                                                               Douglas W.2. switches A and D are closed to allow the current to flow in forward direction. an H-bridge motor driver was essential to provide power and control the motor.

so One-Phase consumes the least power. Predko. The polarity of terminals is indicated with +/-.9 In this case.8 Sequence Polarity 1000 0100 0010 0001 +---+---+---+ Name Description Wave Drive. which offers an improved torque-speed product and greater holding torque. Two-Phase This sequence energizes two adjacent phases. “ Robot Builder’s Bonanza”. 1999   G.stepperworld. Only one phase is energized at a time. This sequence reduces motor resonance which can sometimes cause -+-++-+--+--+ a motor to stall at a particular resonant frequency. 2006. Half-Step Half Step .3.3 Transistors motor driver A bipolar transistors motor driver is the cheapest solution but the transistors have a voltage drop.The following table describes 3 useful stepping sequences and their relative description.Effectively doubles the stepping resolution of the motor.com/Tutorials/pgBipolarTutorial. M. http://www. but the torque is not uniform for each step. Note that this sequence is 8 steps.htm. which translates to a power loss to the system. McGraw Hill. 1001 0011 0110 1100 0001 0011 0010 0110 0100 1100 1000 1001 +--+ --++ -++++----+ --++ --+-++- Hi-Torque. McComb. To reverse the direction of the motor. 359  17    . Table 5: Stepping sequence8 2. Assures positional accuracy regardless of any winding imbalance in the motor. a MOSFET transistors motor driver is more efficient than the bipolar                                                              8 9  Rustle Laidman. the sequence has to be stepping backward.

However. Moreover.transistor motor driver. it is worth to design and make the motor driver instead of buy a commercial motor driver. this kind of motor drivers are fairly expensive compare to bipolar transistor motor driver. extra power supply is needed in order to operate the motor driver. is also one of the reasons. direct PWM control from the microcontroller to the motor driver. which allows the microcontroller to record the step increment for positioning. Therefore. 18    . Besides that. in term of power loss. For the MOSFET transistor motor driver. similar with other IC chips. it consumes certain amount of power for its operation.

The spring locking method to lock the wheel from coming out from the bearing increase friction between shaft and bearing.1 Mechanical Design Although the first prototype and improved prototype were designed based on trial and error. there were several defects discovered:   The bearing width was too narrow.1. affected the turning of the wheel.  The solar panel was not able to fit into the robot.1 First Prototype & Improved Prototype From the tests in first prototype (using DC brushed motor).  The base frame was too thin (1mm) that it could be bent when external force applied to it.CHAPTER 3 PROJECT DESIGN AND HARDWARE CHOICE 3. 3. some data and defects were noted and used as the design constraints for the final product design. 19    . caused the wheel wobble when turning.

  Lock the shaft directly with screw and washer. The two sides of the frame were bent to increase the strength of the frame against direct compressive stress (loads to the robot) in the upper region of the frame. Improved Prototype 3D model is included in Appendix 4.5mm) to prevent bending. 20    . but those defects found previously were solved (showed in figure 8):  Use two bearing instead of one to hold the shaft. Thicker frame (1. Larger frame to fit in the solar panel directly. minimize the friction. The improved prototype used the same two-wheel-drive method and differential steering method with the first prototype. bent base frame (blue box & figure below) An improved prototype was fabricated after I reviewed the defects and discussed with the machinist in ECE workshop.Figure 7: Narrow bearing width (red box). make the turning to be more stable.

However. 21    . there were still problems found in this improved prototype:  The improved prototype (1500g) was much heavier than first prototype (700g)  The low power DC brushed motor did not have enough torque to move the robot. base frame side was bent (right) Figure 9: Comparison between base frame (left) and wheel holding shaft (right) The improved prototype’s structure with thicker and larger base frame was stronger than the first prototype.Figure 8: Two bearing to hold the wheel (left).

which weighs 980g.2 Final Product Design Constraint From what had been studied in the two prototypes. Furthermore. which is 230g each. the stepper motor was able to move the robot with some load on it. using both HiTorque mode and Wave-Drive mode (to be discussed in section 3. Stepper motor was then replaced the DC brushed motor for the improved prototype after we decided to move the robot in step because of the implementation of capacitor charging system.1. Other components weight less than 100g each. a set of design constraints was stated for the final product design:      Total weight of the robot is below 2kg (include every components) Solar panel has to be integrated into the robot Two-wheel-drive method with one supporting caster Differential Steering method Minimum power consumption Maximum weight of the robot is estimated from the test data of improved prototype with stepper motor. the ratio between base frame and wheel was increased accordingly. the stepper motor will not manage to move the robot in low power mode if the total weight is more than 2kg.3 Motor drive). the two-wheel self-balance method is 22    . An A3 size amorphous silicon solar panel was selected for our project. 3. Next is the two wheel assemblies. but based on the experience in the improved prototype. caused the robot to be harder to balance itself with two wheels. the size of the base frame should not be larger than the solar panel. with a solar panel which is heavier than the base frame mounted on it. As the size of the robot became larger. Solar panel is the heaviest component. Powered by power supply.

proved that the actual model for the final product could be simulated by this software.no longer applicable to be implemented in this project. Same with the two prototype.) with the actual model. Thus. further details of the base frame will be discussed in the next session. generated by the software.3 Motor drive). center of gravity and etc. The stepper motor is controlled by the microcontroller with the motor driver. The virtual model of the improved prototype had the similar properties (mass. the base frame of the robot had to be light in weight.2 Final Product As mentioned earlier in the project research section. 3.1. so the power consumption can be controlled by switching the stepper motor phase current waveform (to be discussed in section 3. the next step was to create a virtual model for the robot. 3.2). I started to create the virtual model of the improved prototype using SolidWorks. with the experience gained from two prototype. Then. 23    . Therefore.1 Base frame As mentioned in the previous session (3. all the mechanical comomponents were designed using SolidWorks and all the figures below were used as blueprint for fabrication. differential steering method is still be used as this method consume the least power. Final Product 3D model is included in Appendix 5.2. SolidWorks was used for the design of the virtual model of all the robot components. able to integrate with all the components and withstand the load. I learnt the basic of software from my friend in Mechanical Engineering and some advance features such as SimulationXpress through online tutorial. after the define stage and ideate stage of design. a new design with a supporting caster for the base frame was proposed.

supported by holders mounted on the base frame. Therefore. shown in figure 11:                                                              10  G.For the improved prototype. Predko. The weight and size of the base frame for the improved prototype were far beyond the wheel assembly. The center of balance slid toward the rear drive wheel but had to avoid putting all the weight there or extreme there since maneuverability and stability of the robot might be diminished and the robot might tip over. so that the base frame size could be minimized. the solar panel integrated into the new base frame vertically by its width. The new design was similar with the prototype design but instead of fitting the solar panel by its length horizontally. the base frame was modified from the two-wheel self-balance centerline motor mount.10 Weight Figure 10: Sliding the center of balance toward the drive wheel in a single-caster robot. which can fit in the solar panel directly onto it (showed in figure 9). 310. which was not feasible. M. As mentioned previously. “ Robot Builder’s Bonanza”. 313  24    . to two-wheel-drive single-caster rear-drive motor mount (showed in figure 10). 2006. total weight and balancing of the robot were the constraints for this project. McGraw Hill. The solar panel sit on the upper deck of the robot. the base frame was built by a 1.5mm thick aluminum sheet with size of 310 x 510mm. McComb.

The we eight of the base frame e for improv ved prototyp pe was 700g g. To o reduce we eight. was then re educed to 37 70g for base e frame A.Figure 11: 1 Bottom v view (left). is sometric vie ew (right) adsfasdfasdfasdfadfasdfsdf The front fr portion n beside the caster was removed to o reduce the e weight. The T weight for the sola ar panel was s reduced fro om 1. a and further reduced to 275g 2 for ba ase frame B. lef ft on nly the porti ion where th he solar pan nel holders were mounted on (show wn in figure e 12 2A). The solar panel showed s in fi figure 11 wa as mounted with alumm mium frame e. After the t printed circuit c board d (PCB) for r the motor driver and c charging sy ystem were made. the frame was rem moved and left only th he tempered d glass for th he so olar panel.3kg to o 980g. 25    . the base b frame w was modifie ed by leavin ng the place e to mount PC CB and rem moving the unused u porti ion to further reduce weight w (show wn in figure e 12 2B). the co omparison is i showed in n the Appen ndix 3.

which was capable of determine the effects of force and pressure applied to the parts.A B  Figure 12: Base frame before modified (left). From the simulation result of base frame B.68% lighter than base frame A. a simulation program of SolidWorks. the mounting holes for wheel assemblies and caster were set to be the fixture and 15N force. after modified (right) Similar to the two prototypes. the edges of left. right and back side of the base frame were bent to strengthen the base frame against direct compressive stress on the surface. which was 45N. it was able to support up to 3 times of the force applied on it. the base frame A was able to support up to 3. was applied to the surface of the base frame. For the base frame. the finalized base frame was then analyzed by SimulationXpress. base frame B was 25.4 times of the force. which equaled to 1. To prove that. which was 13.5 times of the solar panel weight.33% more than base frame B. The data had proved that the design for base frame B was feasible as it was lighter and able 26    . however. Without removing the unused portion.

27    . Holder A was mounted at the front and back of the base frame (figure 14). minimized the height of the robot which might cause instability. so that the solar panel could lie right above the bearing housing. Its design is shown in Figure 13. 3. The space in between the upper deck and lower deck was enough to place the PCB with large capacitors and microcontroller.to withstand 45N of force against it. Figure 13: Motor holder 3. Two sets of vertical holders were designed to serve as the “pillar” of the robot to hold solar panel. The height of the holder was designed to be higher than the bearing housing of the wheel assemblies.4 Solar panel holder (vertical) Solar panel holder was designed using 1mm aluminum sheet.2 Motor holder The motor mount bracket was made by 1.5mm aluminum sheet to mount the stepper motor on the base frame.2. Holder B was mounted at the side of the base frame (figure 15).2. Detail reports for both base frame A and B was attached in Appendix 1 and Appendix 2.

Three sets of horizontal holders were designed to serve as the “beam” of the robot to hold solar panel. Holder D was mounted on holder A. at the middle part of the robot (figure 16).Figure 14: Solar panel holder A Figure 15: Solar panel holder B 3. Holder C was mounted on holder B. Figure 16: Solar panel holder C 28    . at the front (shorter) and back (longer) of the robot (figure 17).5 Solar panel holder (horizontal) Horizontal solar panel holder was made by the same materials with vertical holder.2.

the motor drive system was remained the same. back (left).3 Motor Drive System Although the robot had changed from two-wheel-drive self-balance to two-wheel-drive method with single caster. 29    . Figure 18: Solar panel with all holders attached 3. front (right) Figure 18 below showed the solar panel attached with its holders. Likewise. differential steering method was still used for the final product.Figure 17: Solar panel holder D.

9 AM1524-V-3-10 30    .7 6 mNm 0.5 6 mNm 0. and phase current from 0.3 4.3.15 16.1 Stepper motor Several stepper motors with low operating voltage from 3V to 6V.3.15A to 0. the technical data of the stepper motors that close to our requirement is shown in the table below: Motor Photo Voltage/ Phase (V) Current /Phase (A) Phase Inductance (mH) Holding Torque Power (Watt) 1 6 0.5A were reviewed and from that.9 AM1524-V-6-35 2 3 0.

5 40 mNm 1. Osmtec 14HR05-0304S was selected as the drive motor for this project because of its low phase current and high torque characteristic.5 14HR05-0304S Table 6: Stepper motors specification Among these stepper motors.5 16 10 mNm 2.5 4.3 3 0.5 25BY4801 5 5 0. 31    .3 22 mNm 1.5 AM2224-AV-4-8 4 5 0.3 8.

the addition weight and the lever length were then used to compute the torque. and balanced the lever with 2 AA batteries as counterweight. To simulate the one step situation. Two different stepping sequences.As mentioned earlier. I made a lever by using an unused aluminum plate found in ECE workshop. shown in the figure 19: Figure 19: Balanced lever mounted on the stepper motor The length from the center of motor to the load was 14. Therefore. for this project. To measure the torque produced by the motor for one step.5cm. as the torque showed in the datasheet was measured under stable power supply. Wave-Drive and Hi-Torque were used to measure the torque of the motor in low frequency. If the motor was able to hold the lever horizontally after the load was added into the box. 32    . I made a simple setup with refer to online tutorial. the torque produced using the solar charging system might be different with the datasheet. I connected the motor with power supply but extended the delay between every sequence cycle for the PWM signal. and the motor would not be powered out of that particular discharge moment. tied with a paper box act as load. the stepper motor turned one step for one charging cycle.

2 for f Wave-D Drive is 10 0. Fr rom the two o figures (20 0. 21) above e. the energ gy consumpt tion for the 33    .15gcm.75gcm.Figure 20: : Hi-Torque e waveform Figure 21: Wave-Drive waveform The to orque gener rated for Hi -Torque is 21.

edu/~jones/step/circuits.uiowa. I built an H-bridge by refer to stepper motor online tutorial11.Hi-Torque is around 0. Basic Stepping Motor Control Circuits. but the voltage applied to the motor winding was not equal to the voltage supply.html#bipolar  11 34    .017J (34mA x 5V x 25ms x 4 phases). There was lack of 0V when the output is supposed to be LO and there was loss in voltage when the output is supposed to be HI.03J (60mA x 5V x 25ms x 4 phases).pt) This H-bridge motor driver was able to make the stepper motor turn. Figure 22: The H-bridge circuit suggested by Antonio Raposo (ajr@cybill.4 Motor driver design An H-bridge circuit was required to operate a bipolar stepper motor. Jones.inesc.  http://homepage. used 4 NPN BJT transistors and controlled by the microcontroller. 3. (showed in figure 23)                                                               Douglas W.cs. for Wave-Drive is 0.

Pmos would not be opened while the Nmos would be opened. Therefore. a new h-bridge motor driver was built using the combination of N-MOSFET and P-MOSFET. the path was cleared for the current to flow through the windings. After some research then I realized that BJT transistors were used inside the L293 chip. there were a VCE(sat)H with 1V and a VCE(sat)L with 1V. By referring to the L293 datasheet. (showed in figure 24) To solve this problem. when the signal was H for Q1. Pmos would then be opened while Nmos remained closed. The L293 experienced the same problem with the BJT h-bridge. and the reason for this problem was the saturation voltage between collector and emitter of the BJT transistor. I built another H-bridge motor driver by using L293 push-pull drivers. The circuit diagram was provided in the datasheet of the IC chip (showed in figure 24). an L signal was sent to the other side of the bridge Q2. lack of 0V in LO (left). P-MOSFET was used for the upper part of the bridge and N-MOSFET for the lower part (shown in figure 25). which caused the problem for the hbridge using BJT transistors. Expected output voltage (right) After this. By connecting the gates of both Pmos and Nmos together. The voltage drop problem had been solved and this H-bridge motor driver design was decided to be used for this project.Figure 23: Voltage loss in HI. 35    . In the meantime.

Figure 24: H-bridge circuit using L293. VCE(sat) for the L293 Figure 25: MOSFET H-bridge 36    .

For these parts. A part with minor defect was still being usable. 37    . such as wheel shaft with different diameter. then the parts were still considered to be acceptable. excluding those standard mechanical components such as bearing housing and plastic gears. In fact. as long as the part could be mounted and served its purpose. I fabricated most of the parts myself. expect for those parts that required high precision. without experience. and all photos are attached in the Appendix 3. any misalignment or incorrect measurement would make the parts to be not usable. which were purchased from hardware supplier. In some cases. those parts were fabricated by the skilled machinists in the workshop. students were not allowed to use those high precision machines. to prevent waste on materials. if the misalignment portion was still adjustable. Despite with the detailed part drawings created from the SolidWorks.CHAPTER 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT 4.1 Mechanical Design For all the mechanical parts designed for this project were fabricated in the ECE workshop. Therefore. The fabricated parts are listed in the table below. large solid wheel and motor holder. even though there was a misalignment made. the parts that fabricated might not be exactly identical with the designed model. This was mainly due to the human error throughout the process of fabrication.

Part List Wheel assembly Motor holder Stepper motor on-board Solar panel with aluminium frame Solar panel with aluminium frame Solar panel holder MOSFET dual H-bridge motor driver on-board Base frame (before final modification) Solar charging system Microcontroller unit on-board Assembled Robot Example of human error during fabrication Attachment Appendix 3a Appendix 3b Appendix 3c Appendix 3d Appendix 3e Appendix 3f Appendix 3g Appendix 3h Appendix 3i Appendix 3j Appendix 3k Appendix 3l Table 7: Mechanical parts attachment list 4. The command received in the PC will be transmitted to 38    . solar charging system. The energy from the capacitor will then turn the stepper motor in one step. which controlled by the PWM signal generated by the microcontroller. Once the capacitor voltage reached the threshold point. the microcontroller will trigger the gate to be opened for the capacitor to be discharged.2 Motor Drive System Integration The integration between motor drive system. The movement of the robot can be controlled remotely from the User Interface in the PC. and wireless communication system is shown in the project architecture (figure 1). The microcontroller monitors the voltage of the capacitors by using ADC.

microcontroller by serial port, and then be transmitted to the on-board microcontroller by wireless communication. The on-board microcontroller will decode the command and control the motor with the PWM signal accordingly. In the meantime, the on-board microcontroller record every movement made by the motors on each side for positioning. The information will then be transmitted to the PC by wireless communication and serial port. The navigation system in PC will then update the information to the User Interface. 4.3 Motor Driver Design 4.3.1 MOSFET H-bridge The MOSFET used for the H-bridge motor driver design were NDP6020P for Pmos and STP80NF03L-04 for Nmos. The H-bridge was able to operate with 4V as supply voltage and controlled according to the PWM signal. However, the driver was not functioning once the supply voltage started to increase. After few rounds of troubleshooting, the problem was found in the threshold voltage of the Pmos, which was -1V by referring to the datasheet. The gate voltage for the MOSFET was the voltage of the PWM signal, which was in same voltage with the microcontroller supply voltage, in this case the voltage was 3V. Hence, refer to the previous MOSFET H-bridge circuit, when supply voltage was 5V and gate voltage for Q1 was 3V, the Nmos with threshold voltage of 1V would be opened, meanwhile, the Pmos would be opened as well, because the Vgs for Pmos was 3V-5V=-2V, which was over the threshold voltage of the Pmos. For this reason, the MOSFET H-bridge circuit was modified in order to solve the problem. For the new driver, two Nmos and two 2.2k ohm resistor were

39   

added into the circuit, shown in figure 26:

Figure 26: Modified MOSFET H-bridge motor driver

Instead of connecting the gates of MOSFET in same side together, the gates cross opposite were connected together, for example, gate of Q5A was connected together with gate of Q2. So when the signal was H, Q5A would be opened and shunt the current to ground, which made the gate voltage of Pmos to be 0V and opened the Pmos. In the same time, the signal would open the Nmos of Q2 as it was connected with the Q5A. Hence, the current would flow from supply, though Pmos of Q1, motor winding and Nmos of Q2 to ground.

40   

4.3.2 PCB design After the circuit of the motor driver had been finalized, I started to design the printed circuit board for the motor driver. As I had not designed any PCB before, I learnt the PCB design software Eagle from my friend, Tan Ngan Leng. The schematic design was easy, but the board design was a bit tricky. There were many design constraints regarding the copper wire width, hole size and etc. Besides that, the routing for the board design was the critical part because it might affect the circuit if the copper wires were too close to each other. I was managed to finish the design in short period of time, however, I was not aware that those via points between the top surface and bottom surface of the PCB were not connected. I had to revise the design as I placed many via points under the surface mount IC chips, which occupied the space for the IC chips to be soldered. After the PCB was fabricated, I proceeded to solder every component onto the PCB accordingly. I had to be very alert while soldering, especially the eight pin surface mount IC chip, because the pin was very thin and the space to solder was limited too. I tested the connectivity patiently every time after any point was soldered. This was to prevent failure and save time for troubleshoot when failure happened. Eventually, few defects were found and been fixed.

41   

Figure 27: The PCB design for motor driver 42    .

using differential steering method. with two reardrive solid aluminium wheels and a supporting 32mm diameter caster. The Texas Instrument EM-CC430F6137-900 ultra-low power microcontroller is used for on-board microcontroller and PC-based microcontroller. Component Weight per No.9° step angle. The robot structure is made by aluminium with dimension approximately 410 (length) x 340 (width) x 80 (height) mm. the robot is three wheeled. of unit unit / g Motor with holder Charging system PCB Solar panel with holders Wheel assembly Robot base frame Microcontroller Camera 70 35 1000 230 275 30 25 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 Total weight /g 140 35 1000 460 275 30 25 43    . Amorphous silicon indoor solar panel is used as the power source and 4.CHAPTER 5 ROBOT SPECIFICATION As mentioned in session 1.6. The camera used in this project is LinkSprite Y201 JPEG color camera. The distribution of the weight is listed in Table 8. The rear wheels are driven by two Osmtec NEMA14 stepper motor with 0.4mF electrolytic capacitor is used as the power storage.

The navigation system in PC will then update the information to the 44    . The movement of the robot can be controlled remotely from the User Interface in the PC. The onboard microcontroller will decode the command and control the motor with the PWM signal accordingly. When it reaches 12V. The motor will then move one step. The information will then be transmitted to the PC by wireless communication and serial port.Motor driver Total 35 1 35 2000 Table 8: Weight distribution The robot is powered up by the solar charging system. the charging system take around 15 to 30 second to charge the load capacitor from 0V to 12V. In the linear electronic lab with indoor lighting of 660 lux. The load capacitor voltage is monitored by the ADC of microcontroller. and remain stationary while waiting for the next charge-discharge cycle. the microcontroller will open the gate to power up the motor driver. The command received in the PC will be transmitted to the on-board microcontroller by serial port and wireless communication. When the load capacitor that charged by the charge capacitor. the on-board microcontroller record every movement made by the motors on each side for positioning. and in the meantime generate a PWM signal to the motor driver. The amorphous silicon solar panel is charging a charge capacitor all the time and the charge capacitor is connected parallel with a large load capacitor. In the meantime. which is controlled by the microcontroller. reach the threshold voltage. the microcontroller will open the gate to let the energy flow from load capacitor to the motor.

5s 3mA MCU 3.3V 70mA 1s/s 231mJ for 1s Powered by 3. total power consumption: 0.5s Powered by solar panel. The photo taken by the camera will be transmitted to the PC via the same path as well.3V AA battery (700mAh). total power consumption: 0.3V 41mJ for 0.277W Table 9: Total Power Consumption 45    . Below is the table for the total power consuption for the motors (powered by solar charging system) .5s 25mA 500ms/s (wireless) 500ms/s (normal) Camera 3. MCU and camere (powered by battery): (showed in table 9) Component Voltage Current Operation time Power consumption Stepper motors and motor 500ms driver 297mJ for 0.User Interface.594W 5mJ for 0.

12 8.37 944.96.67 412. Breakdown of the total cost is shown in Table 10: Component CC430F6137 Micro-Controller FET430UIF USB Debugger LinkSprite LS-Y201 Camera MAX232 IC Amorphous Photovoltaic Panel NEMA14 bipolar stepper motor Mechanical Components Solar engine circuit Motor Driver Caster Number 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Total Cost: Table 10: Cost distribution of the robot Cost (SGD) 186 (USD150) 62 (USD 50) 62 (USD 50) 1 120 85.The total cost of the robot is S$946.8 (USD 7.96 46    .12) 5 2. which is within our expectation of S$1000.

I learned to design and built a H-bridge motor driver and program the microcontrollers to control the motor. I learned the characteristic of various drive systems. which achieve the objective of the project. Throughout the entire course of the project. which include the mechanical design. most of the indoor solar panels are having similar characteristic and the efficiency of the indoor solar panel is proportional with the price. The size of the solar panel determines the charging efficient and this factor restricts the development of the robot to be smaller and compact. The main constraint of this project is the power provided by the solar panel is very limited. I gained the hands on experience in fabricating mechanical parts and parts assembly in the workshop. I have learned to implement CAD design by using SolidWorks and force applied simulation using SolidWorks SimulationXpress software. in fact. I have acquired valuable knowledge regarding mechanical design and motor drive system. our team has designed and built the indoor solar powered robot.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION & FUTURE IMPROVEMENT In this project. communication and control subsystem. I am managed to design and build the mechanical and movement subsystem. the efficiency of the amorphous silicon indoor solar panel is much lower than those outdoor solar cells. and types of DC motor. For the mechanical design. Moreover. By integrating with the solar power charging subsystem. Moreover. motor drive system and motor driver. For the motor drive system. Furthermore. steering methods. 47    .

another suggestion for this project is to improve the traction of the wheels by putting a thin rubber coating on the wheel surface to increase friction. However. the wheels were slipped because the traction was not sufficient.This proposal was proved when we used a lamp with 800 lux and projector with 1200 lux to shine on the solar panel. The robot was tested on the workbench with rougher surface and the thin solid wheels were able to gain sufficient friction to move the robot. By using high efficiency solar panel. Furthermore. Therefore.One suggestion to further improve this project is to use solar panel with higher efficiency. the robot may be able to achieve continuous movement and many features such as feedback control system can be implemented. when the robot was placed on normal office table with smoother surface. the charging time can be shorten and with large capacitor used as storage. the MCU can be powered by the charging system if the power supply is stable. the charging time for the solar charging system was shorten from 10~20 second to 2 second. 48    .

McGraw Hill.uiowa. http://homepage. McComb.html#bipolar 49    .com/Tutorials/pgBipolarTutorial. http://www.edu/~jones/step/circuits. Predko. Jones.cs.htm. Basic Stepping Motor Control Circuits.REFERENCES 1、G. M. 2006 2、Rustle Laidman. 1999 3、Douglas W. “Robot Builder’s Bonanza”.stepperworld.

75742e+007 N/m^2 6.89356e+007 N/m^2 Loads and Fixtures Fixture name Fixture Image Fixture Details Entities: Type: 12 face(s) Fixed Geometry Fixed-2   Load name Load Image Entities: Type: Load Details 1 face(s) Apply normal force 15 N Force-2 Value: 50    .802549 lbf Material Properties Model Reference Properties Name: Model type: Default failure criterion: Yield strength: Tensile strength: 1060 Alloy Linear Elastic Isotropic Unknown 2.Appendix 1 – Base frame (before modify) simulation report Model Information Document Name and Reference Boss-Extrude3 Treated As Volumetric Properties Mass:0.23316 in^3 Solid Body Density:0.803093 lb Volume:8.0975437 lb/in^3 Weight:0.

11 Node: 12350 51    .38454 Node: 13944 Max 6978.53 N/m^2 Node: 12350 Max 8.14711e+006 N/m^2 Node: 13944 Name Displacement Type URES: Resultant Displacement Min 0 mm Node: 71 Max 0.101059 mm Node: 6175 base .Copy-SimulationXpress Study-Displacement-Displacement Name Factor of Safety Type Max von Mises Stress Min 3.Study Results Name Stress Type VON: von Mises Stress Min 3951.

Appendix 2 – Base frame (after modify) simulation report Model Information Document Name and Reference Boss-Extrude3 Treated As Volumetric Properties Solid Body Mass:0.600122 lbf Material Properties Model Reference Properties Name: Model type: Default failure criterion: Yield strength: Tensile strength: 1060 Alloy Linear Elastic Isotropic Unknown 2.75742e+007 N/m^2 6.60053 lb Volume:6.89356e+007 N/m^2 Loads and Fixtures Fixture name Fixture Image Fixture Details Entities: Type:   12 face(s) Fixed Geometry Fixed-2 Load name Load Image Entities: Type: Load Details 1 face(s) Apply normal force Value: 15 N Force-2 52    .15652 in^3 Density:0.0975437 lb/in^3 Weight:0.

4 Node: 8848 53    .19386e+006 N/m^2 Node: 255 Name Displacement Type URES: Resultant Displacement Min 0 mm Node: 107 Max 0.Copy-SimulationXpress Study-Displacement-Displacement Name Factor of Safety Type Max von Mises Stress Min 2.Study Results Name Stress Type VON: von Mises Stress Min 1399.9992 Node: 255 Max 19703.248734 mm Node: 11090 base .46 N/m^2 Node: 8848 Max 9.

APPENDIX 3a – Wheel assembly APPENDIX 3b – Motor holder 54    .

APPENDIX 3c – Stepper motor connected APPENDIX 3d – Solar panel with aluminum frame 55    .

APPENDIX 3e – Solar panel without aluminum frame APPENDIX 3f – Solar panel holder   56    .

APPENDIX 3g – MOSFET dual H-bridge motor driver on-board APPENDIX 3h – base frame (before final modification)   57    .

APPENDIX 3i – Solar charging system APPENDIX 3j – Microcontroller unit (on-board)   58    .

APPENDIX 3k – Assembled Robot APPENDIX 3l – Example of human error during fabrication (marked) 59    .

APPENDIX 4: Improved Prototype 3D Model Enable 3D View 60 .

APPENDIX 5: Final Product 3D Model Enable 3D View 61 .