109 views

save

- 10.1007@978-3-319-25071-7_2.pdf
- TH2466
- cours-hydraulique-hurbain.pdf
- 9. WEAP_Tutorial_French.pdf
- Madagascar.pdf
- 32277.pdf
- fao56.pdf
- Numerical and Physical Modeling of Hydraulic Structures
- 3023-10771-1-PB.pdf
- modelisations ecoulement
- fluent-100510162517-phpapp02
- incompressible.pdf
- tut15.pdf
- 200609_cote_ivoire_water.pdf
- modelisation-numerique-de-la-carte-piezometrique.pdf
- Numerical_and_physical_modeling_of_hydraulic_structures.pdf
- Developmentofadischargeequationforsideweirs.pdf
- 50955081-tutorial-gambit.pdf
- Discharge Coefficient for Sharp-Crested Side Weir in Supercritical Flow.pdf
- vol5no3-9_HaunSnon.pdf
- 1-s2.0-095559869500016X-main.pdf
- 1-s2.0-0377042795001603-main.pdf
- JPO1986_16(11)_1970-1980.pdf
- 1D NUMERICAL APPROACH TO MODEL THE FLOW OVER A PIANO KEY WEIR (PKW).pdf
- modelisations ecoulement.pdf
- EROSION_ET_TRANSPORT_EN_SUSPENSION_DANS_ LE_BASSIN_VERSANT_DE_L_OUED_MARTIL.pdf
- Dimensionnement[1].pdf
- transfert_dans_systemes_fluides_mono_multiphasiques.pdf
- Memoire_Ata_R.pdf
- Yes Please
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- Steve Jobs
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Master
- Bel Canto
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- The Wallcreeper
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- Interpreter of Maladies
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- The Cider House Rules
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- Everything Is Illuminated

Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement, Course #506 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com A weir is basically an obstruction in an open channel flow path. Weirs are commonly used for measurement of open channel flow rate. A weir functions by causing water to rise above the obstruction in order to flow over it. The height of water above the obstruction correlates with the flow rate, so that measurement of the height of the flowing water above the top of the weir can be used to determine the flow rate through the use of an equation, graph or table. The top of the weir, which is used as the reference level for the height of water flowing over it, is called the crest of the weir. Weirs are typically classified as being either sharpcrested or broad-crested. This course is devoted to the more widely used sharpcrested weir. The major emphasis is on the calculations used for flow rate over various types of sharp-crested weirs. There is also information about guidelines for installation and use of sharp-crested weirs. This course is intended for hydrologists, civil engineers, hydraulic engineers, highway engineers and environmental engineers. An attendee of this course will gain knowledge about calculations and installation & measurement guidelines for sharp-crested weirs as used to measure flow rate in open channels. Upon completing this course, the student will be prepared to study additional open channel flow measurement topics. To receive credit for this course, each student must pass an online quiz consisting of fifteen (15) questions. A passing score is 70% or better. Completion of this course and successfully passing the quiz will qualify the student for two (2) hours of continuing education credit. Course Author: Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E.

Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E.

www.pdhsite.com

Page 1 of 27

Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement

1.

Introduction

A weir is basically an obstruction in an open channel flow path. Weirs are commonly used for measurement of open channel flow rate. A weir functions by causing water to rise above the obstruction in order to flow over it. The height of water above the obstruction correlates with the flow rate, so that measurement of the height of the flowing water above the top of the weir can be used to determine the flow rate by the use of an equation, graph or table. The top of the weir, which is used as the reference level for the height of water flowing over it, is called the crest of the weir. Weirs are typically classified as being either sharp-crested or broad-crested. This course is devoted to the more widely used sharp-crested weir. The major emphasis is on the calculations used for flow rate over various types of sharp-crested weirs. There is also information about guidelines for installation and use of sharp-crested weirs.

Sharp Crested Weirs

2.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of this course, the student will • Be familiar with standard terminology used in connection with sharpcrested weirs for open channel flow measurement.

Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. Bengtson, PhD, P.E.

www.pdhsite.com

Page 2 of 27

Sharp-Crested Weir Background II. 3. Topics Covered in This Course I. • Be familiar with installation and use guidelines for sharp-crested weirs for open channel flow measurement. • Be able to use the Kindsvater-Carter equation to calculate the flow rate over a contracted rectangular weir for given head over the weir and weir dimensions. Cipolletti Weirs VI. Bengtson. P.pdhsite. • Know the conditions required in order to use a simpler equation instead of the Kindsvater-Carter equation to calculate the flow rate over a suppressed rectangular weir and over a contracted rectangular weir for given head over the weir and weir dimensions. to calculate the flow rate over a V-notch weir for given head over the weir and weir dimensions. Contracted Rectangular Weirs V. Installation and Use Guidelines for Sharp-Crested Weirs Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. given head over the weir and weir dimensions.E.48.com Page 3 of 27 . PhD. V-notch Weirs III.49 H2. • Know the conditions required in order to use the equation. • Be able to use the Kindsvater-Carter equation to calculate the flow rate over a V-notch weir for notch angles other than 90o. Suppressed Rectangular Weirs IV. www.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement • Be able to use the Kindsvater-Carter equation to calculate the flow rate over a suppressed rectangular weir for given head over the weir and weir dimensions. Q = 2.

Figure 1 below shows a longitudinal section representing flow over a sharp-crested weir.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement VII. Sharp-Crested Weir Background A sharp-crested weir consists of a vertical flat plate with a sharp edge at the top (the crest). PhD. Figure 1. Flow Over a Sharp-crested Weir Some of the terminology used in connection with sharp-crested weirs. References and Websites 4. P.com Page 4 of 27 . The term Nappe is used for the sheet of water flowing over the weir. Longitudinal Section.pdhsite. www. placed in an open channel so that the liquid must flow over the crest in order to drop into the pool below the weir. Summary VIII. is summarized here: Drawdown. Free flow is the flow condition over a sharp-crested weir when there is free access of air under the nappe. illustrated in Figure 1. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. as shown in the figure. occurs upstream of the weir plate due to the acceleration of the water as it approaches the weir. Bengtson.E.

is the 2001 revision. www.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/index. The source for the equations. Accurate measurement of flow rate is not possible under submerged flow conditions. contracted rectangular. PhD. suppressed rectangular.pdhsite.E. They are the four shapes shown in Figure 2 on the next page: V-notch. Bengtson.S. divided by the crosssectional area of flow at the head measuring station. which should be upstream far enough that it is not affected by the drawdown. Four common sharp-crested weir shapes will be covered in some detail in this course.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement The Velocity of approach is equal to the discharge. but has some coverage of pipe flow (closed conduit pressurized flow) as well. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. of the Interior.usbr. It is primarily about open channel flow. produced by the U. Dept. of the Water Measurement Manual.htm . This manual is available for free download and/or free online use at: http://www. graphs. and cipolletti. The Water Measurement Manual has very extensive coverage of water flow rate measurement. P. Submerged flow or a submerged weir occurs when downstream water rises above the elevation of the weir crest. Bureau of Reclamation. etc used for calculating flow rate over a weir based on measured values such as the head over the weir and various weir parameters. Q. of the 1997 third edition.com Page 5 of 27 . The equations to be discussed for sharp-crested weirs all require free flow conditions.

units: Q in cfs. sharp-crested weir is especially good for measuring low flow rates. as an equation suitable for use with a fully contracted. A V-notch weir (sometimes called a triangular weir) is shown in Figure 2 (a) and in Figure 3. in their Water Measurement Manual.S.pdhsite. sharp-crested weir if it meets the conditions summarized below the equation.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Figure 2.E.com (1) Page 6 of 27 . Q = 2. 90o V-notch. PhD.49 H2. H in ft) Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.48 www. below. Bengtson. so a reasonable head is developed even at a very small flow rate. Equation (1) below is given by the Bureau of Reclamation. (U. V-Notch Weirs The V-notch. P. The flow area decreases as H increases. Common Sharp-crested Weir Shapes 5.

25 ft for the head over a fully contracted 90o Vnotch weir. P.E. Where: S > 2 Hmax.pdhsite.2 ft to 1. P > 2 Hmax = 2.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Subject to: P > 2 Hmax.5 ft.2 ft < H < 1. Fully Contracted V-notch Weir The Bureau of Land Reclamation in the their Water Measurement Manual recommends 0.25 ft Hmax is the maximum head expected over the weir P is the height of the V-notch vertex above the channel invert S is the distance from the channel wall to the to the V-notch edge at the top of the overflow Figure 3. www. illustrates the parameters S.25 ft as the useable head over a V-notch weir for accurate measurement of flow rate.com Page 7 of 27 .2 ft to 1. Figure 3. Example #1: Calculate the minimum and maximum flow rates covered by the recommended range of 0. Bengtson.) Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. & H. 0. (Note: in order to be fully contracted. P. below. PhD.

Bengtson. are both functions of only θ if the V-notch weir is fully contracted (P > 2 Hmax & S > 2 Hmax). sharp-crested weir require the use of the Kindsvater-Carter equation.33 cfs = Qmax Notch angles other than 90o in a V-notch.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Solution: Substituting values of H into equation (1) gives: Qmin = (2.pdhsite. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. the head correction factor. and k. www. at: http://www. *Equation (3).22.48) = 4. and Equation (4) are from LMNO Engineering.046 cfs = Qmin Qmax = (2. Ce can be obtained from figure 4* or equation (3)*. can be obtained from figure 5* or equation (4)*. Ltd website.49)(0. as given in Water Measurement Manual: Where: Q is the discharge over the weir in cfs Ce is the effective discharge coefficient H is the head over the weir in ft k is a head correction factor θ is the angle of the V-notch Ce.com/Weirs.48) = 0. P.49)(1. the effective weir coefficient. Figure 4 and Figure 5 were generated from those equations.E.252. Figure 3 on page 6 illustrates the parameters P and H. Research and Software. PhD.lmnoeng.com Page 8 of 27 . and k.

P.607165052 – (0.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Figure 4. V-notch Weir.10393334 x 10-6)θ2 (3) Figure 5. PhD. Ce Ce = 0.E.000874466963)θ + (6. Bengtson. k www. Page 9 of 27 .com Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.pdhsite. Head Correction Factor. Effective V-notch Weir Coefficient.

2 ft.2 feet and for a head of 1.046 cfs Substituting into equation (2).25 Q = (4.29819003 x 10-6)θ2 – (1.35 cfs Part b) From equation (3) & (4).5767 & k = 0.5779)[tan(45o)] [(0.25 feet.28)(0.5779 & k = 0.0037 Substituting into equation (2). H = 0.pdhsite. gives: (θ = 90o. H = 0.E. with θ = 60o: Ce = 0.2 ft.0144902648 – (0.com Page 10 of 27 .0029)5/2] = 0.28)(0. with H = 0. Bengtson.2 ft) Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement k = 0.25 + 0.0029 Substituting into equation (2). P.00033955535)θ + (3.0029)5/2] = 4. gives: ft) (θ = 90o. with H = 1. with H = 0. PhD.2 ft) Q = (4. www.2 + 0.25 ft. gives: (θ = 60o.06215442 x 10-8)θ3 (4) Example #2: Use the Kindsvater-Carter equation to estimate the flow rate through a fully contracted V-notch weir for a head of 0.5779)[tan(45o)] [(1. H = 1. with θ = 90o: Ce = 0. a) with a notch angle of 90o b) c) with a notch angle of 60o with a notch angle of 40o Solution: Part a) From equation (3) & (4).

25 + 0. H = 0. The end contractions.0051 Substituting into equation (2). (3).0037)5/2] = 2.0037)5/2] = 0.25 Q = (4.5820)[tan(20o)] [(0.5820)[tan(20o)] [(1.0051)5/2] = 0. with H = 1.com Page 11 of 27 .2 ft.51 cfs Part c) From equation (3) & (4).027 cfs Substituting into equation (2).60 cfs Comment: This example illustrates the use of equations (2). Suppressed Rectangular Weirs The weir goes across the entire channel width for a suppressed rectangular. P.25 Q = (4.017 cfs Substituting into equation (2). gives: (θ = 40o. with θ = 40o: Ce = 0. gives: ft) (θ = 60o.28)(0.5820 & k = 0. H = 1. www. Bengtson.pdhsite.5767)[tan(30o)] [(1.2 ft) Q = (4.25 + 0.0051)5/2] = 1.28)(0. as shown in the diagram below.28)(0.E. PhD.25 ft.5767)[tan(30o)] [(0. & (4) for V-notch weirs with notch angles other than 90o. with H = 1. H = 1. as shown in Figure 2 (c) for a contracted rectangular weir. with H = 0. 6. sharp-crested weir. gives: ft) (θ = 40o.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Q = (4.2 + 0. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.25 ft. are suppressed (not present) in this configuration.28)(0.2 + 0. hence the name suppressed rectangular weir. Note that the answers for the 90o notch angle are nearly the same as those from the simpler Equation (1) used for the same minimum and maximum H values in Example #1.

The Kindsvater-Carter equation for a rectangular. The recommendations in that paper have come to be known as The Kindsvater-Carter method. which is recommended in Water Measurement Manual. Kindsvater and R. e is a subscript denoting "effective". #3 at the end of this course).W. The Kindsvater-Carter Method will be presented and discussed here. which is suitable under particular conditions.com Page 12 of 27 . P. Ce is the effective coefficient of discharge in ft1/2/s. will then be presented as an alternative. as a method with flexibility and a wide range of applicability for rectangular sharp-crested weirs. PhD. A simpler equation. Bengtson.E. www. sharp-crested weir (suppressed or contracted) is: Q = Ce Le He3/2 where: Q is the discharge (flow rate over the weir) in ft3/s. Le = L + kb He = H + kh (5) Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. Carter presented a paper on the discharge characteristics of thin-plate rectangular weirs (see ref.pdhsite.E.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement C.

kh is a correction factor having a value of 0. www. PhD.E.003 ft The factor kb depends on the ratio of crest length to average width of approach channel (L/B). kb as a function of L/B (as given in Water Measurement Manual) Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. L is the length of the weir crest in ft. Bengtson. Figure 6. B is the average width of the approach channel in ft.pdhsite. H is the head measured above the weir crest in ft. Values of kb for ratios of L/B from 0 to 1 are given in Figure 6 on the next page (from Water Measurement Manual).Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement In these relationships: kb is a correction factor to obtain effective weir length.com Page 13 of 27 . P.

Sharp-crested Weir As shown in Figure 1. Ce. L/B. is a function of relative depth. Figure 7 on the previous page (from Water Measurement Manual). (NOTE: The term “invert” means the inside.E. P is the vertical distance to the weir crest from the approach pool invert.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Figure 7. H/P and relative width.com Page 14 of 27 . Also Ce can be calculated from equation (6) and Table 1.) The effective coefficient of discharge. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. Ce as a function of H/P & L/B for Rect. of the approach channel. www. upper surface of the channel. P. Bengtson. PhD.pdhsite. gives a set of curves for Ce in terms of H/P and L/P.

0612 0.4000 and C2 = 3.205 3.0087 0. Table 1. for a suppressed rectangular weir (L = B or L/B = 1. as presented on the last three pages is rather complicated.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement The straight lines in figure 7 can be represented by an equation of the form: Where the constants.5 0. (from Water Measurement Manual) given below.2 0.9 1.1602 0.0 C1 -0. C1 and C2.178 3. P. so C1 = 0.8 0. in equation (6) are functions of L/B as shown in Table 1.152 3.6 0.pdhsite.3447 0.com Page 15 of 27 .189 3. Bengtson. www.182 3. however. Values of C1 & C2 for equation (6) (from Water Measurement Manual) L/B 0. Equation (6) thus becomes: Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.7 0.220). PhD.220 The Kindsvater-Carter equation for a rectangular. sharp-crested weir.0995 0.0317 0.4000 C2 3. It simplifies a great deal.173 3.164 3.0.4 0.2376 0.E. in general.

as an equation suitable for use with suppressed rectangular. & L are in ft. B & H in m): To be used only if: Q = 1.84 B H3/2 (9) Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. units to give the following: (S. Bengtson. P. sharp-crested weir: (Note: Equation (7) is a dimensional equation. so: He = H + kh = H + 0. in their Water Measurement Manual.003.003.003 Putting the expressions for Ce.0. units: Q in cfs. www. gives the following Kindsvater-Carter equation for a suppressed rectangular. & He into equation (5).0.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement From Figure 6 (L/B= 1): kb = .) The Bureau of Reclamation.com Page 16 of 27 . B & H in ft): To be used only if: Q = 3. so: Le = L + kb = L .pdhsite. Le.I. gives equation (8) below.E.I.33 B H3/2 (8) Equation (8) can be converted to S. sharpcrested weirs if the conditions noted below are met: (U. PhD.S. P. Q is in cfs and H.003 As given above: kh = 0. units: Q in m3/s.

33). using equations (7) & (8).Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Example #3: There is a suppressed rectangular weir in a 3 ft wide rectangular channel.0 ft. The solution consists of substituting values of B. Calculate the flow rate for H = 0. www.3. P. The weir crest is 1.33). Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. and (H/P) into equation (7) and equation (8) and calculating Q for each value of H.7.5 ft. H. This facilitates comparison of the results from the two equations while taking into account whether or not the conditions specified for the use of equation (8) were met (H/B < 0.3 ft. The calculations were made with Excel. 1. For the larger values of H. PhD. 0.5.pdhsite. Bengtson. The results from the spreadsheet are shown in the table below. 0. The results show good agreement between the flow rates calculated from the simpler equation (8) and the more comprehensive equation (7) for the three smaller values of H (for which H/B < 0.33 and H/P < 0.5 ft above the channel invert. L = B = 3 ft. the disagreement between the two equations becomes greater as the values of H become larger. and P = 1.2. & 1. Solution: From the problem statement.E. 0. Summary of Solution to Example #3 Discussion of results: The summary table shows values for H/B and H/P for each value of H. where Q7 is the flow rate calculated from equation (7) and Q8 is the flow rate calculated from equation (8).com Page 17 of 27 . L.33 and H/P < 0.

Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.33.33 and H/B < 0.596 cfs = Qmin Qmax = [3. because H/P < 0. however the V-notch weir can measure a much smaller flow rate than is possible with the rectangular weir. sharp-crested weir.2 ft. equation (8). so equation (3) must be used.pdhsite. Q = 3.25 ft.5)](2 – 0. Contracted Rectangular Weirs A contracted rectangular sharp-crested weir.33. may be used if H/P < 0.25 ft for the head over a suppressed rectangular weir in a 2 ft wide rectangular channel.33 or H/B > 0.40(1. The calculations are shown below: Qmin = (3.33.2 ft to 1.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Conclusions: For a suppressed rectangular. the 2 ft rectangular weir can carry more than twice the flow rate that the V-notch weir can carry for the same head above the channel bottom. 7. has weir length less than the width of the channel.33)(2)(0.33. For H/P > 0. Example #4: Calculate the minimum and maximum flow rates covered by the range of 0.33 & H/B < 0. Solution: Equation (4) can be used for H = 0.25/2.23/2) = 0. so that the suppressed rectangular weir is fully contracted from the channel bottom. This type of rectangular weir is sometimes called an unsuppressed rectangular weir. the more comprehensive Kindsvater-Carter equation [equation (7)] should be used.003)[(2 + 0. however for H = 1. Bengtson.42 cfs = Qmax Comments: As shown by Example #1 and Example #4. as shown in Figure 2c and in the figure on the next page. www.33BH3/2. Assume that P = 2.5 ft. as with the V-notch weir in Example #1. P. PhD.32 + 0.E.003)3/2] = 10.com Page 18 of 27 . H/B & H/P are both greater than 0.

Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement For a contracted rectangular. in its Water Measurement Manual. specifies this equation as being suitable for use if the conditions noted below the equation are met.33(L – 0. for a known value of L/B.e. (U.pdhsite. simpler equation for a fully contracted rectangular weir. P. the following conditions must be met: i) Weir must be fully contracted. www.com Page 19 of 27 . (Table 1 is on page 12 and Figure 6 is on page 10. L & H in ft): Q = 3.) Equation (10) below is a commonly used. the KindsvaterCarter equation becomes: Where: C1 and C2 can be obtained from Table 1 and kb can be obtained from Figure 6.33 B – L > 4 Hmax and P > 2 Hmax Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. i.2 H)(H3/2) (10) For use of equation (10).: ii) H/L < 0. units: Q in cfs.E. Bengtson.S. The Bureau of Reclamation. PhD. sharp-crested weir (L/B < 1).

2 ft P = 2.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement The equivalent equation for S.4 ft P = 2 ft P = 2.E.I.4 ft. b) Calculate the flow rate. & P having each of the following sets of values. www. L = 3 ft. so condition 1 is barely met P = 1 ft & 2 H = 1 ft. so condition 3 is met Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. L. P. a) Determine whether the conditions for use of equation (10) are met for each set of values. H = 0.2 ft.2 ft. B = 6 ft. Bengtson. L = 3 ft. units is: (S.84(L – 0. 2) P > 2 Hmax & 3) H/L < 0. so condition 2 is barely met H/L = 0.33.5 ft.com Page 20 of 27 .pdhsite. L = 2. PhD.5 ft. Example #5: Consider a contracted rectangular weir in a rectangular channel with B.75 ft.5/2 = 0. B = 6 ft. units: Q in m3/s. B = 6 ft.I. i) ii) iii) iv) v) B = 4 ft.25 < 0. H = 0.4 ft Solution: a) The required conditions for use of equation (10) are: 1) B – L > 4 Hmax. P = 1 ft P = 1. H = 2 ft. L = 2 ft. H. H = 1. L & H in m): Q = 1. B = 6 ft. using equations (9) & (10) for each set of values.33 i) B – L = 2 ft & 4 H = 2 ft. Q. L = 4.2 H)(H3/2) (11) The two conditions given for equation (10) apply to equation (11) also. H = 0.

Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement ii) B – L = 3.8 ft. Q9 & Q10. www.25 < 0. Values for C1 & C2 were obtained from Table 1.com Page 21 of 27 . so condition 3 is met iv) B – L = 1.4 ft & 2 H = 2 ft.8 ft & 4 H = 4.2/4.6 ft & 4 H = 2 ft.pdhsite. so condition 2 is not met H/L = 1.33. so condition 1 is not met P = 2. All three are functions of L/B. The results are summarized in the table below. Hey. In order to use equation (9). so condition 3 is met iii) B – L = 3 ft & 4 H = 3 ft. values were needed for C1. P. Flow rates were calculated with both equations using the given values of L.33.75/3 = 0. & kb.4 = 0.21 < 0. This is a pretty long solution isn't it ? Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.4 ft & 2 H = 4 ft. C2.2 ft & 2 H = 1 ft. so condition 2 is met H/L = 0. so condition 1 barely is met P = 2. so condition 2 is met H/L = 0. are the flow rates from equations (9) & (10) respectively. so condition 2 is not met H/L = 2/3 = 0.5/2.33. so condition 3 is met v) B – L = 3 ft & 4 H = 8 ft.E.4 ft. P & H.2 = 0.33. so condition 3 is not met b) The calculations for part b) were done with an Excel spreadsheet.67 > 0. PhD. so condition 1 is met P = 1. so condition 1 is not met P = 2 ft & 2 H = 2. Bengtson.28 < 0. and values for kb were obtained from Figure 6.

009 2.5 0.339 6. & iii). The results for the two equations differ considerably more for cases iv) and v). PhD. yes 0.330 2. sharp-crested weir.7% v) no 0. This equation is also acceptable to the U. where the criteria for use of the simpler Equation (10) were met (B – L > 4 Hmax. Bengtson.1602 3.49 11.1% iii) yes 0.38 17.0612 3.010 6.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement i) eqn (10) ok? L/B C1 C2 kb Q9.0% ii) yes 0. S.33 5.33).173 0. & H/L < 0. www.7 0. cfs Q10.5 0. cfs % diff.0612 3. appears to be adequate when the three criteria mentioned above are met. Cipolletti Weirs A cipolletti weir has a trapezoidal shape. The sides of the trapezoidal opening have a slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical as shown in the diagram.173 0.0612 3. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. as shown in figure 2(d) and in the figure below.4 0.708 2.33(L – 0. where the criteria were not met.8% iv) no 0.0317 3.1% Discussion of Results: The results from the two equations agree quite well for cases i).010 2.E.2 H)(H3/2) ].pdhsite.173 0.163 2.237 4.com Page 22 of 27 . Conclusions: For a contracted rectangular. The U. Bureau of Land Reclamation recommends the use of the slightly more complicated Kindsvater-Carter equation [equation (9)] for use when any of the three criteria given above for use of Equation (10) are not met.164 0. P.182 0.766 2.5 0. ii). the simpler equation [Q = 3.013 18. P > 2 Hmax.010 27. Bureau of Land Reclamation for use when those criteria are met. 8.S.53 24.

so that both weirs are fully contracted.S.I. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. (b) Compare with the flow rates for H = 0. Bengtson. units is as follows: (U. units: Q in m3/s.367 L H3/2 (12) To be used only for: 0.7 ft for a suppressed rectangular weir in a 2 ft wide channel. www.I.2 ft and H = 0.84 L H3/2 (13) The conditions given for equation (12) apply to equation (13) also Example #6: (a) Calculate the minimum and maximum flow rates for 0. units: Q in cfs. Assume that the channel width. B is 7 ft and P = 2 ft. L & H in m): Q = 1. and for a contracted rectangular weir each with a weir length of L = 2 ft.pdhsite. in U. units to give the following: (S. L & H in ft): Q = 3. P.E.2 ft < H < 2 ft and H < L/3 Equation (12) can be converted to S. PhD.S.com Page 23 of 27 .7 ft for a cipolletti weir.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement The equation commonly used for discharge over a cipolletti weir.2 ft < H < 0.

cfs 0. PhD.627 Suppressed Rectangular Q. Installation & Use Guidelines for Sharp-Crested Weirs A summary of installation and measurement guidelines for sharp-crested weirs extracted from Water Measurement Manual. This was done with Excel. P. since it is fully contracted. Equation (8) will be used for the suppressed weir calculations since the conditions for its use are met. b) The entire crest should be level for rectangular and trapezoidal shaped weir openings. the flow rates over the cipolletti and suppressed rectangular weir are nearly the same for the same weir length and head. 9. cfs 0. cfs 0.596 3. The results are summarized in the table below. d) The upstream edges of the weir opening plates must be straight and sharp.602 3. a) The upstream face of the weir plates and bulkhead should be plumb. and the bisector of V-notch angles should be plumb.901 H. All that needs to be done is to substitute L = 2 ft and the two different values for H into the three equations.E.03 and 0. smooth. and normal to the axis of the channel.com Page 24 of 27 . c) The top thickness of the crest and side plates should be between 0. Equation (10) will be used for the contracted rectangular weir calculations.2 0. www. The flow rate over the contracted rectangular weir is slightly less for the same weir length and head.584 3. Edges of plates require machining or filing perpendicular to the upstream face to remove burrs or scratches and should not be smoothed off with abrasive cloth or paper.pdhsite. Bengtson.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement Solution: Equation (12) will be used for the cipolletti weir calculations.7 Cipolletti Q. ft 0. is given in this section.08 inch. Contracted Rectangular Q. Avoid knife edges because they are a safety hazard and damage easily Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.944 Discussion of Results: For this range.

Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.2 ft below crest elevation. unobstructed approach are required. H.pdhsite. h) The approach to the weir crest must be kept free of sediment deposits.2. For V-notch Weirs: All of the general conditions.com Page 25 of 27 . g) The measurement of head on the weir is the difference in elevation between the crest and the water surface at a point located upstream from the weir a distance of at least four times the maximum head on the crest. apply. www. should be less than 1. Also: a) For a fully contracted V-notch weir. frequent observations are necessary to verify that the nappe is continually ventilated without waves periodically filling the under nappe cavity. unobstructed approach are required. when measuring close to the crest. thirty measuring heads of straight. i) If the weir crest length is greater than 50% of the approach channel width. then ten average approach flow widths of straight. unobstructed approach after the jump should be provided.E. However.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement e) The overflow sheet or nappe should touch only the upstream faces of the crest and side plates. a jump should be forced to occur. j) If the weir crest length is less than 50% of the approach channel width. H/B should be less than 0. f) Maximum downstream water surface level should be at least 0.25 ft. PhD. l) The minimum head over the weir should be 0. then twenty average approach flow widths of straight. k) If upstream flow is below critical depth. Bengtson.2 ft. a) through l) above. P. In this case. the maximum measured head. b) For a fully contracted V-notch weir.

Sharp-crested Weirs: All of the general conditions.333 b) Values of H should be less than 0. c) B – L > 4 H 10. are covered in detail in this course. d) The V-notch of the weir should always be at least 1. L. apply. Also: a) The crest length. B. a general equation with a wide range of applicability is presented and discussed along with equations and/or graphs as needed for use with the main equation. P. Emphasis is on calculation of flow rate over a weir for given head over the weir and weir/channel dimensions.5 P. and cipolletti.E. P. Bengtson. Summary Sharp-crested weirs are commonly used for flow rate measurement in open channels.com Page 26 of 27 . apply. www. suppressed rectangular. contracted rectangular. For Cipollette Weirs: All of the general conditions. a) through l) above.5 ft above the invert of the weir pool for a fully contracted V-notch. PhD. For each of the four types of sharp-crested weir. c) Values of H/P should be less than 2. For Rectangular.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement c) The average width of the approach channel. should be at least 6 inches. Four types of sharp-crested weirs: V-notch. should be at least 4 inches.4. Also. a) through l) above. for each of the four types of sharp-crested weir. a simpler equation is presented along with a set of conditions under which the simpler equation can be Copyright © 2011 Harlan H.pdhsite. Also: a) Values of H/L should be less than 0. b) The crest height. should always be greater than 3 ft for a fully contracted V-notch.

" Paper No. Kindsvater. Munson. Carter. Inc. Bureau of Reclamation.pdhsite.com. 4th Ed. T.Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement used.com Page 27 of 27 . LMNO Engineering. F. and R. Practical installation and use guidelines for sharp-crested weirs are presented. H.. & Okiishi.. R.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/index. available for on-line use or download at: http://www. H. American Society of Civil Engineers. PhD. Ltd website. T. Water Measurement Manual.htm 2. D.E. B. New York: John Wiley and Sons. V..E. Bengtson. Copyright © 2011 Harlan H. 124. “The V Notch Weir for Open Channel Flow Measurement. 2002.. References and Websites 1. Dept. 3.usbr. http://www. C. 2001 revised. www. Several worked examples are included covering all four types of weirs. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. New York: McGraw-Hill. H. 2011. of the Interior.lmnoeng. 4. Websites: 1..S. 1959.W. 11. P. 2.com . vol.com/Weirs 3. Research and Software.engineeringexcelspreadsheets.” April. at www. Transactions. U. "Discharge Characteristics of Rectangular Thin-Plate Weirs.. Young. 3001.. Contains equations and graphs for open channel flow measurement. Bengtson. Open Channel Hydraulics. A source for Excel spreadsheets to make sharp crested weir calculations: www.engineeringexceltemplates. Chow. 1997 third edition. 1959.

- Yes PleaseByAmy Poehler
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New AmericaByGeorge Packer
- Sapiens: A Brief History of HumankindByYuval Noah Harari
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic FutureByAshlee Vance
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi DeltaByRichard Grant
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital RevolutionByWalter Isaacson
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New AmericaByGilbert King
- John AdamsByDavid McCullough
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of CancerBySiddhartha Mukherjee
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic GeniusBySylvia Nasar
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The ClimateByNaomi Klein
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True StoryByDave Eggers
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & PowerByDaniel Yergin
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit ManByJohn Perkins
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham LincolnByDoris Kearns Goodwin
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first CenturyByThomas L. Friedman
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy AnswersByBen Horowitz
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in AmericaByAndrew Yang
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't IgnoreByJay Sekulow
- Angela's Ashes: A MemoirByFrank McCourt
- Steve JobsByWalter Isaacson
- How To Win Friends and Influence PeopleByDale Carnegie
- Bad Feminist: EssaysByRoxane Gay

- The Light Between Oceans: A NovelByM.L. Stedman
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)ByViet Thanh Nguyen
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A NovelByJonathan Safran Foer
- Leaving Berlin: A NovelByJoseph Kanon
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A NovelByMatthew Quick
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A NovelByAlexandra Kleeman
- The Incarnations: A NovelBySusan Barker
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A NovelByAdelle Waldman
- Life of PiByYann Martel
- The MasterByColm Toibin
- Bel CantoByAnn Patchett
- A Man Called Ove: A NovelByFredrik Backman
- Brooklyn: A NovelByColm Toibin
- The Flamethrowers: A NovelByRachel Kushner
- We Are Not Ourselves: A NovelByMatthew Thomas
- The First Bad Man: A NovelByMiranda July
- The Rosie Project: A NovelByGraeme Simsion
- The Blazing World: A NovelBySiri Hustvedt
- The WallcreeperByNell Zink
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A NovelByGarth Stein
- Wolf Hall: A NovelByHilary Mantel
- The Kitchen House: A NovelByKathleen Grissom
- Beautiful Ruins: A NovelByJess Walter
- Interpreter of MaladiesByJhumpa Lahiri
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A NovelByTom Wolfe
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A NovelByFrancine Prose
- The Perks of Being a WallflowerByStephen Chbosky
- The Cider House RulesByJohn Irving
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A NovelByJohn Irving
- Everything Is IlluminatedByJonathan Safran Foer

- 10.1007@978-3-319-25071-7_2.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- TH2466Uploaded byNacera Benslimane
- cours-hydraulique-hurbain.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 9. WEAP_Tutorial_French.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- Madagascar.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 32277.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- fao56.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- Numerical and Physical Modeling of Hydraulic StructuresUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 3023-10771-1-PB.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- modelisations ecoulementUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- fluent-100510162517-phpapp02Uploaded byNacera Benslimane
- incompressible.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- tut15.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 200609_cote_ivoire_water.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- modelisation-numerique-de-la-carte-piezometrique.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- Numerical_and_physical_modeling_of_hydraulic_structures.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- Developmentofadischargeequationforsideweirs.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 50955081-tutorial-gambit.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- Discharge Coefficient for Sharp-Crested Side Weir in Supercritical Flow.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- vol5no3-9_HaunSnon.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 1-s2.0-095559869500016X-main.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 1-s2.0-0377042795001603-main.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- JPO1986_16(11)_1970-1980.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- 1D NUMERICAL APPROACH TO MODEL THE FLOW OVER A PIANO KEY WEIR (PKW).pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- modelisations ecoulement.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- EROSION_ET_TRANSPORT_EN_SUSPENSION_DANS_ LE_BASSIN_VERSANT_DE_L_OUED_MARTIL.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- Dimensionnement[1].pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- transfert_dans_systemes_fluides_mono_multiphasiques.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane
- Memoire_Ata_R.pdfUploaded byNacera Benslimane