Low-Power Wireless Charging

by gripen40k

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Hi and welcome to my first instructable! I'm going to show you how to make your own low-power wireless charging circuits that will let you pass electricity through the air (or any other non-metallic medium) over short distances. This is suitable for wireless battery and capacitor charging and powering of very small un-buffered circuits (such as a single LED). Please make sure to check out the last page as there are tons of references and other sources I managed to gleam from the internet and other instructables. Also note that I spent a GREAT deal of time experimenting and researching to get this right. I'm an electrical engineer, and even still it took quite a while to get my head around some of the technical challenges. As such this is for experienced hobbyists only, unfortunately it's not easy to do although I tried to make it as simple as possible. It doesn't take a lot of skill, just a lot of tinkering to get it to work right.

and Walton all made this stuff yeaaaaars ago). As current through an inductor is what generates the magnetic field.Now there shouldn't be current patents on any of this (Tesla. The long story. Step 1: Theory of Operation The short story: this is a Cockcroft-Walton generator hanging off a resonant transformer. most importantly. Colpitts. Take a coil. well. I went about devising the first part. Use a clever AC to DC converter and voila. Cockcroft. I used the suggestion on wikipedia of using a Colpitts oscillator. an oscillator. After some sleuthing on the internet. If you want the circuit then just skip ahead to step 2 and ignore the theory part :). make it resonate at a particular frequency using a capacitor. This is a decent solution because it's dead simple to build and. but I would look into it first if you wish to sell anything using this design. If you don't mind wasting a couple minutes with detailed theory then charge ahead intrepid reader! Otherwise skip to the next step. it's a current oscillator and not a voltage oscillator. then place it near a similarly tuned coil and use the oscillating magnetic field of the first to cause the second to resonate. this is what will drive both coils. you have a method of wireless energy transfer. it's not much longer. Various homebrew methods have been used (see: Wireless Power Instructable) but weren't very good or just temporary solutions. .

This I decided to go with 80KHz. which will determine the amount of resistance in the coil. Then you pick a capacitor value that's commonly available. This is what will shape the received AC into something we can use to charge a capacitor or a battery at a usable voltage. I determined (through experimentation) that a two stage generator would be enough. and for the diodes I chose a nice Schottky diode array with a very low 0. they do need to resonate at the same frequency.38V forward voltage drop. that being the two coils. it allowed me to tune the slave coil to produce exactly the right voltage without going over the charging voltage. It gets tricky when you get into the details however (and they get very. I picked 150nF. You have to experiment to get it right (covered in the next couple steps). For the capacitors I arbitrarily chose 2. which will impact the viability of your oscillator. You now get to pick a some-what arbitrary frequency for your circuit. OK! Enough of this long-winded theory and background info. These values will be your STARTING POINT ONLY. very detailed.2uF caps. The combination of number of turns and diameter determine the inductance. Using the equation: frequency = 1/( 2 * pi * sqrt(inductance * capacitance / 2) ) (from Colpitts oscillator) we use the capacitor value to try to get the inductance in and around 20uH to 70uH. and ~13 turns at ~15cm diameter for the primary. however these are VERY small parts so you will probably have to order individual schottky diodes for this one. This took a while to select because you need to get an inductance that is within the realm of being hand made. the last part of this picture is the AC to DC converter. The P/N is BAS40TW-TP. Although they don't have to be the same physical size. go with 24AWG enamled magnet wire. and that will generally be fine when trying to generate ~5V. this is so it's easy to tune. it happened to be a nice middle ground between easiness and efficiency. Air-core inductors around those values are easy to make. From here you need to use this handy inductor calculator to try to figure out what diameter and number of turns are needed. let's get to the actual good stuff! . To make it somewhat easy. I used a CW generator here to great effect. Note that you are using the same inductance and capacitance for both the resonating coils. Just use ones with a low voltage drop AND a low reverse leakage current. I used values of ~22 turns at 6cm diameter.The second part is fairly easy to understand. I used a value of 53uH. Don't go crazy with different inductances and capacitances or else you won't get it to work. so I won't put the majority down here) as you need to select the diameter of wire to go with the amount of current going through your coil. and some capacitors were added to obtain the correct oscillating frequency. with an arbitrary length around 4-5x the wire thickness for the secondary. OK.