Chemistry, Unit 1, Matter And Its Classification 1.

Basic concepts: -Anything which occupies space and has mass is called matter. -Matter can be both living and non-living. E.g. Trees, people, animals, buildings, air, water are all matter in one form or another. -We can identify matter and many of its properties using our five senses - sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing. -So, all the objects we see, smell, taste or touch, in this world are made of matter. 2. Classification of matter: - Study of matter is simplifed by its classification. -Matter is classified according to its state and physical properties. -States of matter - Matter is classified based on state as follows - solids, liquids and gases -Same substance (matter) can exist in three different states at different temperatures. Let us take water as an example. In solid state we see it as ice. In liquid state we see it as water. In gaseous state we call it water vapour. -Solid has definite shape, mass and volume. Example - book, brick etc. The volume of a solid can be changed only by applying external force. -This is because the molecules in a solid are closely packed as if in fixed positions. There is not much space between particles inside a solid. So it is not easy to change the shape of a solid. I.e. a solid cannot be easily compressed or expanded. -Liquid has mass and volume but no definite shape. It flows to take the shape of its container. It cannot be compressed to a smaller volume. -Since liquid can flow, it can be poured from one container to another. But a given volume of a liquid remains unchanged by pouring or transferring it from one container to another. This implies, a given amount of liquid has fixed volume. -Real life example - take 100ml water with a measuring cylinder and pour it in a 1000ml (1 litre) bottle or jar. The volume of water inside the bottle or jar still remains 100ml. -This is because, molecules in a liquid are not in fixed positions and there is space between these molecules. This allows them to move to some extent and take the shape of the container when we pour or transfer. But at the same time they are not so far apart that they can expand to take the shape of the container. -Gases have no definite shape or volume. They expand to occupy the space or volume available. So the volume of gas in a container, say a cylinder, is equal to the volume of the cylinder. -They can also be compressed to a limited space or volume. In other words they can be easily expanded or compressed to fill a container.

-Real life examples - when we blow a balloon the air or gas we pump in, fills up the space in the balloon. Thus the air or gas also takes the shapw of the balloon. Another E.g. is that a cycle or car tyre has air in it. But we can pump more air into it by compressing the air inside. -This is because molecules of a gas are loosely packed. There is lot of space between them. (About 1000 times more space than those in liquids). This allows them to move more freely than the particles of liquid. -Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen are all examples of gases. Air is a mixture of gases. It has 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. 3. Physical properties of matter: -The characteristics of matter that can be observed without causing any change to the matter are collectively called its physical properties. E.g. colour, size, shape, density, hardness, strength, flexiblility, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, boiling point, melting point etc. are all physical properties. Below are the definitions of common physical properties. -Mass: Mass is the quantity of matter contained in a body. -Density: It is the mass of a substance per unit volume. -Elasticity: It is the ability of a substance to return to its original shape and size after being bent, stretched or compressed. E.g. Rubber band, spring balance. -Hardness: The ability to withstand wear and tear and scratches. E.g. Diamond -Strength: The ability to support heavy load without tearing and breaking. E.g. Steel -Solubility: It is the maximum quantity of the solute which can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent. For example 30g of sugar is soluble in 100 cubic cm of water. -Melting point: It is the temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid states. E.g. Ice changes to water at 0 degree celsius. -Boiling point: It is the temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to vapour state. E.g. Water changes to water vapour at 100 degree celsius. -Electrical conductivity: It is the measure of readiness for electricity to flow through a substance. E.g. Wood, rubber etc are poor conductors of electricity. -Thermal conductivity: The readiness of a substanceto allow heat to flow through. Metals are good conductors of heat. So we use them for cooking. -Flexibility: The extent to which the substance changes its shape without breaking even when force is applied on it. Aluminium and many plastic are flexible substances. -Transparency: It is the ability of a substance to allow light to pass through it. Glass and some plastic films are more transparent than brick or wood. -Viscosity: It can be described as the ease wtih which a fluid flows. Higher the viscosity, less easy is the flow. Oil is more viscous than water. (Oil flows slower than water, that what viscosity is about)