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BASICS OF CRUDE OIL Avg crude has 84% C. cro is classified as parafenic, nephthenic and aromatic based. Assay is used to classify it. It is based on bp and gravity. American petroleum institute(API). Higher api gravity, lighter the crude. If S compounds are more, crude is called sour. If less then sweet. DESALTING Water, inorganic salts, suspended solids and water soluble trace metals are removed. In che desalting water and chel surfactants are added so that impurities get attached to it and we can remove them. Trical desalting has high voltage application so that dirt particles are attracted towards bottom of tank. Both methods are continous. Feed crude oil is heated to 150-350C Nh3 is used to reduce corrosion and acid or alkali used to adjust ph. Safety—inadequate desalting can cause fouling of Hx, so temp and pre can increase. Corrosion by S compounds and overpressuring can also lead to failure. DISTILLATION, FRACTIONATION Atmospheric distillation—Various fractions are obtained by diff boiling ranges. Desalted crude is preheateddirect fired crude charge heatervertical distillation colomn(650-700F, if higher temp, then cracking)vapour rises in the tower so temp is reduces and various products are drawn off. Tower is 120 feet high with steel trays for separating and collecting the liquids. It has bubble cap tray. Liq condences on the tray and overflow pipes take the liq back to the bottom so that it is vaporized again. Product are countinously drawn off and steam is used to lower the vapour pressure. Vacuum distillation—vacuum is maintained so that distillation can take place at low temp and thermal cracking does not take place. Dia of tower is larger. In 1st phase, gas oils, lubricating oil, base stocks and heavy residual for propane deasphalting are produced. Safety—temp, pre or liq level may rise if control devices fail. Temp should be controlled to prevent thermal cracking. NH4Cl corrosion should be checked.
SOLVENT EX It separates aromatics, naphthalene and impurities from product stream by dissolving or precipitation. Counter current process. Sometimes desired product is soluble, sometimes impurities are soluble. Solvent is separated form the product by heating, evaporation or fractionation. Finer residuals are removed from the raffinate by steam stripping or vacuum flashing. Popular solvents are phoh, furfural, etc. selection of solvent depends on the feed, product and contaminents.
SOLVENT DEWAXING Used to remove wax from distillate or residual basestocks. Steps in the process are —1. mixing the feed with solvent, 2— precipitate wax form the mixture by chilling, 3 —recovering the solvent from the wax and recycling. Phme(dissolves oil) and methyl ethyl ketone(dissolves wax) are used as solvents.
THERMAL CRACKING 3 types are there: visbreaking, steam cracking and coking. Visbreaking—its mild thermal cracking and it lowers crude viscosity. Atm distlnresidue is heated at 800-950F gives mild crackingquenching to control overcracking. VB reduces pour point of waxy residues and also reduces viscosity. Steam cracking—used to produce olefinic materials. Feeds are mostly ethane, butane, gas oil and naphtha. Naphtha is also produced by this method using gas oil as feed. Temp is about 1500-1600F. Coking—it breaks heavy residuals to lighter products or distillates. It produces gasoline and middle distillate fractions. Coke is formed in the process. Coking is of 2 types-delayed coking and continuous coking. Delayed coking—we let cracking reactions to complete by allowing long residence time; rxn takes place in large coke drums. Continuous coking—also called contact or fluid coking. Moving bed process. Temp higher than delayed coking. Cracking occurs in reactor at 50psi. large coke particles are removed as product.
CATALYTIC CRACKING Its similar to thermal cracking except, by catalyst heavy molecules break into lighter products. Here improved quality products are produced at much less severe conditions. Temp is 850-950F; pre is 10-20psi. Catalysts used are zeolite, alhydrosilicate, etc.
5. Feed and catalyst mix in the riser and cracking takes place in the riser. CH converts olefins and aromatics to saturated compounds. It depends on the relative rate of cracking and hydrogenation. Catalyst is continuously circulated between these 2. feed+h2+catalysth2s and nh3 2. polymerization. Heavy aromatic is converted into lighter one. H2 prevents formation of polycyclic aromatic compound. Other applications—CH of kerosene gives naphthenes. HC is used for feed containing high polycyclic aromatic content and/or high conc of catalyst poisons. It reduces tar formation and building up of coke. dehydrogenation and isomerization.S. h2 is recycled 4.(NH4)2S and CO should be minimized to prevent corrosion. 5. 3. or 1000psi. High temp and pre are req. If they are not removed. Fractionator separates n-butane from isobutene. 280F 250psi. . nh4hs ISOMERIZATION It converts butane. 2 nd stage products are drawn.2 FLUID CATALYTIC CRACKING Here catalyst is maintained in fluidized state by the oil vapors. Safety: H2s. In c5/c6 ison.phme and other aromatics+h2. Spent catalyst is recycled. Depending on feed and catalyst used. they can damage the equipments.O and metals from liq petroleum fractions. FeS fires should be prevented while unloading coked catalyst. Liq is charged into the fractionators and desired products are obtained. Uses: 1. Large amount of isobutene is also generated. phnh2. H2 is recycled. liquefied and is separated. It also controls pour point and smoke point Process: 1. reforming can produce high conc of phh. Here feed is mixed with h2 preheated at 700F 1in reactor 1000psi is maintainednh3 and h2s are formed. THERMOFOR CATALYTIC CRACKING Preheated feed flows by gravity to the catalytic bed reactor. dried and desulphurized feed +chloride+h2+heat. Then parafins isomerizes to isoparafins. CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING It is used to remove about 90% of contaminants such as N. to improve the quality of pyrolysis gasoline. Catalytic section contains a reactor and regenerator. 4. HYDROCRACKING It’s a 2 stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation. It has higher temp and pressure. It means total effect of numerous reactions such as cracking. pentane and hexane into isoparaffins of higher octane no. Pt is used as a catalyst. ultraforming and thermofor CR. Safety—reduce h2s. Hydrocarbon is cooled. Its done before CR and CC. Diff CR processes include platforming. Its of 2 types—butane and pentane/hexane. As product we get liq isomerate and h2. hcl is removed in stripper colomn. Catalytic hydro-sulphurization process—it is used to remove sulphur. CATALYTIC REFORMING Its used to convert low octane naphtha into high octane gasoline blending components called reformats. hcl. Reactor just serves as the holding vessel. Pre is either 50-200. 2. H2s is removed by stripping. Cracker consists of catalytic section and fractionating section in integrated form. alcl3+hcl are catalyst at low temp and pt is catalyst at high temp. powerforming. In butane ison. Catalytic reformer has reactor section and product recovery section. Bottom fractionator product is rehydrogenated and charged into second stage. Vapours are separated from the catalyst and sent to fractionating tower. 3.
sulfonated aromatics. dissolved metals and inorganic salts dissolved in emulsified water are removed from petroleum fractions or streams. hydrocarbon feed stock is first scrubbed to prevent catalyst poisioning.al. thiophene and mercapta to improve colour. Product is sent to fractionator. fin fans. Treating materials include acids. distillate and residual oils. In h2s scrubbing. vapour compression refrigeration system. In absfracn. Wax manufacture process—raffinate from extraction unit contains considerable amount of wax that is removed by solvent extraction and crystallization. Polymerization is tried to be stopped at diamer or triamer form. ALKYLATION Its combining of low mol wt olefins with isobutene in presence of catalyst either h2so4 or hf. Common coolants are water. pentane. By lubricating oil refinery operations. absorption-fractionation or straight-fractionation is used for separation. co2. . ethane. ASPHALT PRODUCTION Asphalt is portion of the residue that remains after primary distillation.3 POLYMERIZATION Olefin is feed. alkalis. WAX AND GREASE MANUFACTURE These are refined from residue of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. Product is called alkylate and is composed of mixture of high octane branched parafins. Vacuum distillation is used to produce road tar asphalt from the residue. Reformed gas contains h2. Grease compounding—grease is made by blending metallic soaps and additives into a lubricating oil medium at temperatures of 400-600F. Heavier fractions are stripped and sent to debutanizer and oil is recycled back to absorber-de-ethanizer. Temp should be controlled to about 350F. n. gas/liqde-ethanizerc2 and lighter fractions are separated from heavier fractions. By steam-methane reforming. co is converted to co2 and is removed by amine washing. co. It also reduces CO conc. Here propane or hexane is used as the solvent. As a bi-product of refinery process. here desulphurized gases are mixed with super heated steam in tubes with a nickel based catalyst. 2. Sweetening treats h2s. HEATING OPERATIONS Process heaters and hx preheat feed in ditln towers and in refinery processes to rxn temp. gas.li. Grease may be either batch produced or continuously compounded. paraffin and iso-paraffin waxes. SATURATED GAS PLANTS It separates butane. Characterstics of grease depend to a great extent on the metallic element (ca. COOLING OPERATIONS Its done by air and water exchangers. Asphalt is also used for roofing materials. TREATING It is a means by which contaminants such as organic compounds containing s. Temp is 1325F. It is passed over h3po4 where exothermic rxn occurs. etc. o. Alkyalte has good antiknock props. Another method of prodn is solvent deasphalting. oxidizing and adsorption agent. heat is generated from heaters fuelled by natural gas. catalytic cracking feed and asphalt. we remove asphalts. Steam-naphtha reforming is continuous process for prodn of h2 from liq hydrocarbons. mainly from catalytic reformer product gas.na.etc) in the soap and the additives used. LUBRICANT. So h2 left out is taken as product 3. lpg. S recovery after sweetening converts h2s hydrocarbons to S. odour and oxidation stability. alcohol etc. H2so4 is mostly used in treating process. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION It can be produced 1. Heavy oil fractions are separated to produce heavy lubricating oil. solvents. Dehydrn of asphalt form h2s and oxn forms so2.liq coolers.
Pretreatment—it’s the separation of hydrocarbons and solids from waste water. Tricking filter. anaerobic treatment etc is done. RO. ion exchange. WATER TREATMENT It has 3 steps: 1. Boilers have a no of tubes that carry water steam mixture through the furnace or maximum heat transfer.4 STEAM GENERATION Heat for steam generation is obtained from flue gas mostly. Gravity separation and neutralization of ph is also done. activated C adsoption. Secondary treatment—sedimentation. . Biological impurities are separated. It is done by API separators. Water used in the system must be free from contaminants including mineral and dissolved impurities that can damage the system or affect its operation. Stripping is done to remove oils and chemicals from water. interceptor plates and settling ponds. 6 stages for boiler feed water treatment are clarification. sedimentation. Fuel oil is mixture of refinery crude oil with straight run and cracked residues and other products. Tertiary treatment—chlorination. ozonation. Co2 and o2 cause corrosion and r removed by deaeration and treatment. filtration. 2. deareation and internal treatment. air floatation. Feed water entering the system should be equal to the feed leaving the system. filtration. ion exchange. 3.
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