and W. 0. ORSINGER,


Sixth Army Central Dental Laboratory, Presidio of Salt Francisco,


THE YEARS, poorly contoured palatal surfaces have been the rule rather than the exception in denture service. Not that we dentists did not know better, but rather it was expedient, less costly, and our denture patients somehow learned to manage their unnaturally contoured palates. Our recent dental literature indicates that we are trying to correct this situation. We note that in 1951, Poundl jolted us about our shortcomings in respect to complete dentures, and that in 1952, Jordan” gave us excellent standards for partial denture design. Now we will try further to correct the situation by describing an easy method for making patterns that will reproduce natural palate contours in minute detail on both the tongue and palate surfaces of maxillary denture castings. VER DEVELOPMENT

From our cursory search of the dental literature it seems that woefully little has been written on the subject of making palate patterns for denture castings. Our It dates from 1952 when we initially personal experience is similarly limited. tried the investment-core method suggested by the manufacturer of a dental chrome-cobalt alloy and found it difficult to control. Three factors led to the development of our pattern-making method : first, the opportunity of seeing cold-cured acrylic resin models made from practical partial dPnture casts that had been poured and cured in hydrocolloid molds; second, the reading of an article on temporary acrylic bridgework ;’ and third, our dissatisfaction with the investment-core method suggested for use with a particular dental chrome-cobalt alloy, which, due to its strong investment material, permitted the use of the following technique.

In this method the refractory investment material is applied to the palatal surface of the master cast, covering the palatal design which was previously outlined with indelible pencil. This refractory investment core, or matrix, is then pried off the master cast, trimmed to the indelible outline, and saved until the
The opinions and assertions contained in this article are the private ones of the writers and are not to be construed as reflecting the policies of the Surgeon General in regard to professional practices, or as representing the official policy of the Army. Received for publication May 28, 1953. *Colonel, Dental Corpe, United States Army. **Lieutenant Colonel, Dental Corps, United States Army. 54

l‘hr cr 973’ refractory cast by means of wax shims WI of the casting. the castings would be too thick or would have holes where core and cast had been in crintact. and then used to press out a self-curing acrylic pattern against the previously tin-foiled master cast.” our hydrocolloid-resin method which appeared to be better. plaster. wherein clay. is pried off the master cast. HYDROCOLLOID-RESIN hlETIIOD We suggest this method because we believe it to be efficient and universal in its application to palates of any size or shape. Repositioning of the refractory cores was a ‘. The basic method is not new. made and is ready for tvaxing. there was frequent breakage of either the refractory cores or the master casts. and wax were used instead of the hydrocolloid and resin used in our method. when hardened. flat palates with low rugae. It was released to us 1)~ the same manufacturer who called it the “Technique For Making Sparks St!-le We did not try this method hecause we were then using Tru-Rugae Partials. otherwise. We did note wifh interest that the method could be used with other than the manufacturer’s owtl particular chrome-cobalt alloy. or lost wax process. connectors. etc. On the contrary it is as c&-l BS some of the earliest bronzes that were cast by the tire perdue. Except in wide.~ the \Ve found this method to he very unsatisfactory for high palates with parailel lateral lvalls and prominent rugae zones. high palate cases required the refractory cores to be c”trt into two or more pieces to permit their removal from the master casts and their subsequent repositioning on the refractory casts with sufficient space to receive the metal of the palate casting.5in dipped. It can be briefly described as using a plaster matrix made similarly to the refractory core used in the previous method.duplicate refractory cast has been is then carefullv positioned on the provide space for the palatal portion at its ljeriphery with wax to which to complete the pattern. For descriptive purposes we have termed this the hydrocolloid-resin method because it employs hydrocolloid for copying the contours and a resin for transferring the contours in the form of a resin pattern. PLASTER-MATRIX METIIOD ‘e received the outline of this method in 1953. Its chief advantages are lhat defective matrix a. . the palatal refractory core. The method was not suitable for the chrome-c’obalt alloys that used I’+ fractory materials that were fragile before being thoroughlv dried and rc.. Furthermore. exacting procedure in even the most simple cases because. This matrix. are lured portion of -cvhich is already invested 1. coated with a tin-foil ~bstitute. It retains 4he disadvantages that we previously noted in high palates having parallel lateral walls and prominent rugae zones. ‘This space is then cloaetl the clasp struts.N.lignment results in holes in the acrylic patterns instead of in the castings as before and also that it can be used for chrome-cobalt alloys using fragile investment materials.

camphor. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS REQUIRED Cardboard box approximately 6 by 6 by 2 inches deep. or any denture base liquid acrylic resin. differ in several respects from the patterns built of wax or plastic sheets placed directly upon the casting investment casts. Pros. your actual building and trimming time will average about five and one-half minutes per resin pattern. artist’s colors ground in oil. Wax spatula. DuPont Lucite HG-24 or equal. 1954 Resin patterns. Pattern cement : Preformed plastic pattern scraps dissolved in acetone. When you are familiar with the method. trimmed with scissors. however. This results in better fitting appliances because it eliminates warpage and holes through the castings due to excessive heat and pressure during finishing and polishing. which are not required on palate Likewise the polishing operations are easier castings made from resin patterns. Their thickThey can be built thinner than it is practical to ness can be easily controlled. finished by electrolytic polishing. large water coloring size. Small nasal atomizer (DeVilbiss Economy Atomizer No. Powder : Ethyl methacrylate polymer. Plasticizers : Methyl salicylate. The hydrocolloid-resin method is efficient. or suitable commercial plasticizers such as Dow Resin 276 may be added to the methyl methacrylate monomer to keep patterns soft and pliable for several hours or overnight. This 80 per cent saving of time results from eliminating the grinding and rubber wheel finishing operations. Iris or cuticle scissors. Instead of being built upon the investment casts. January. and they resist surby the hydrocolloid material. Coloring material for the liquid : Prussian blue. rosin. We particularly recommend the method for palate castings made with the chrome-cobalt type alloys. Castings made from the resin patterns can be finished and polished in approximately 20 per cent of the time you would ordinarily require for the same palate area as commonly made from wax or plastic sheet patterns.56 WALKER AND ORSINGER J. face deformation while being cemented onto the refractory casts. and then transferred and cemented onto the refractory casts. or larger. They reproduce all of the anatomic detail that can be copied from the master casts They are tough and flexible. Camel’s-hair brush. 182 is satisfactory). cast any metal for rugae zone coverage. The paint brush is for sprinkling additional . For partial dentures you normally utilize the hydrocolloid mold that remains after making the refractory cast. and polished by low speed bristle wheels using appropriate polishing compounds. built by the hydrocolloid-resin method. Liquid: Methyl methacrylate monomer. since YOU have no rubber wheel scratches to remove. the resin patterns are built in hydrocolloid molds from which they are removed. exclusive of the time required to cement it onto the cast. Den. The cardboard box is the container for the powder and facilitates dumping the powder into and out of the molds. the tendency is to build the patterns thicker than necessary when the method is first used.

4. leaving surfaces uniformly damp and free of surface water in any area. The scissors are for trimming the resin pattern!.OID-lilI’SIN XETHOD . Th e combination of camphor and methyl salicylate in the monomer prolongs the soft. Survey.ii large grain of the powder. equal pa. for lwtter ~IWPSS. 1. However for ordinary use. The lvax spatula is used to level an occasion. 1) . A thin syrupy mis d the cement is satisfactory casts that have been treated with a resin dip. 3. Use compressed air to quickly remove surplus water. pliable condition of the patterns for many hours withotlt unduly increasing the time that the patterns must remain in their hpdrocolloid molds. ivherein the usual and trim of hydrathe mold . or have received a plastic spray treament to seal the surface. 2.rls of camphor and methyl salicylate dissolved in the methyl methacrylate monomer in percentages of 25 to 40 per cent of the total volume mill serve as an escellent plasticizer.. I. The pattern cement is an adhesive for attaching the resin pxcm terns to the refractory casts. PATTERNS The sides BUILDING This procedure is suggested for complete andjor partial dentures mechanical relief of midline hard tissue areas is not required. and duplicate the master casts in manner. The atomizer holds the monomer liquie! for wetting each layer of powder.-The refractory of the cast removed from mold are trimmed THE RESIN the hyclrocolloid mold. Rinse the molds with running water to remove loose particles colloid or investment material. design. A pea-sized portion of Prussian blue will color a pint of the liquid to furnish w:trast against the mold material so that minimum Ivetting of the powder can 1~ easily observed.Volume Number 4 1 PALATE REPRODUCTION RS I-IYDROCOLT. Save the hydrocolloid molds after removing the refractory casts down the sides of the molds for better access (Fig.’ uniform layers of powder into the molds. block out. Plasticizers should be omitted from the monomer liquid when semirigid patterns are desired within one or two hours. Fig.

Use the atomizer to spray liquid monomer onto the powder coated mold to wet down the powder (Fig. Once the monomer has been applied to a mold. Avoid excess use of the liquid which may wash powder off the high points. sugar-coated appearance (powder layer No. Pros. Dip the brush into the powder. Fig. 5). 8. 2). givpowder. causing uneven pattern thickness. successive layers of powder and monomer should be applied immediately while the preceding layer of resin is still tacky ienough to catch and hold the dry grains at their first point of contact when sprinkled into the mold. Invert each filled powder (Fig. to remove surplus ing the molds a granular WALKER AND ORSINGER J. and tapping the brush handle with your third or ring finger. hold it over the mold and tap it to sprinkle a uniform layer of powder onto all areas of the monomer-moistened mold surface (powder layer No. 1). Den.-Powder being poured into the hydrocolloid mold. 7. mold over the cardboard box and dump out the surplus three or four slaps on the back of the hand holding the This leaves a uniform coating of powder. This leaves your other hand free to hold and tip the mold to any desired position. 1954 powder dumped from the cardboard box (Fig. 2. bristles downward. Give mold.58 5. Fill the molds with 6. . 4). You can do this nicely by grasping the middle third of the brush handle between your thumb and forefinger. 2) (Fig. 3). January.

for example. 12. they should be resin-dipped or-sprayed to seal the surface. Again moisten with monomer as before. When the refractory casts are dry.the time you have K.s> of the resin palate patterns. the 1ongitudinaI mid-section of posterior palatal bars and the areas where minor connectors or struts will he attarhrtl t. 6). Fig.-Excess powder being dumped remains on the molt1 surface out of the mold to form the fiwt Sufficient r!oating.for u~xing.ltterns :~Gtlc~ until the duplicate refractory casts are dr!. . and a heavy coat on the palate areas of the refractory casts. These three layers of ljo\zdu anal licluitl will furnish atlequat~~ thickness for most castings. amined the mold and picked up your spatula. and apply a second uniform layc:+of brush-sprinkled powder (powder layer So. pow&~ 11.9. Then attach retention loops and linishing line patterns where indicated. 10.. Also add wax to the casts where needed to increase the thickne. This will make a tacky surface on all areas that are to be contacted 1~~ the resin palate patterns.. The monomer will have softened these grains b!. 3. Set the ~nolds and p. Apply a thin coat of the pattern cement to the wax and plastic pattern parts. the resin patterns. Examine the pattern and use the wax spatula to press down into tlx: pattern any large powder grains protruding above the .am1 read>.eneral level of its stir face. t\llow the pattern cement to dry (Fig. 3 )I follu\z-cd by a third spra+ug with monomer.

Fig. Pros.60 WALKER AND ORSINGER January. the they powder fall coating as powder evenly layer Fig. B. 13. 2 is brush-sprinkled into the mold. 7. 1 through 9 show the steps taken on a test casting that did not have finishing line patterns or wax added to increase the pattern thickness in any area. 1954 J. Fig.-Liquid monomer is sprayed from an atomizer to wet until it appears glossy. covering over the edge of the finishing line patterns and any wax that was previously added to thC casts (Figs. Figs.-The tacky first coating holds tbe powder grains where No. They should be sorted and matched with their respective refractory casts before being trimmed. otherwise it is difficult to segregate patterns of similar outline. Remove. and cement the resin patterns onto their respective casts. The cured patterns are quickly squeezed out of their hydrocolloid molds by pinching the patterns with thumb and forefinger on opposite sides of the palate. 4 . 4. Den. and 9). . 8. trim. 5. Flg.

The food-seal beading should then be filled in with hot was IO seal the edge of the pattern. \. been dried and sprayed lightly with a plastic cast spray. and place midline and acrylic retention reliefs where needed on the master cast. and pre-extension casts are available for copying the palate contours that existed before the loss of teeth : 1. . is shown on the master cast to illustrate the exacting reproduction of tissue detail (Figs. This will facilitate trimming the patterns to their correct outline form.-The The cast has previously refractory cast is being painted with pattern cement. Fig.duplicate this in the refractory investment. B. design. after being polished. A thin coating of the pattern cement should be applied to the under surface of the trimmed patterns just before they are pressed into correct position on the refractory casts which were previously coated with pattern cement which wal: allowed to dry. Then . for use in building the resin pattern. 2. ALTERNATE PATTERN BUILDING PROCEDURE This procedure is suggested for dentures where the mechanical relief is required over midline hard tissue areas. The trimming cut with the scissors should follow the inner edge of the beading. Four typical castings are shown to illustrate how the rugae zones blend with other parts of the dentures (Fig. 10 and 11). Make a hydrocolloid mold on the unrelieved master cast or upon the pre-extraction cast.ery fine-grained acrylic powder pressed into the surface of the beading wax to remove its gloss will simulate natural tissue contours and reduce finishing time. 12j . block out undesirable tooth undercuts. Wax which flows onto the resin patterns should then be scraped off and the area flamed lightly with an alcohol torch to restore natural contours. Survey. The test casting.Volume 4 Number 1 PALATE REPRODUCTION BY HYDROCOLLOID-RESIN METHOD 01 A slight food-seal type beading on the master casts will transfer to the hydrtlcolloid molds and from them to the patterns. or where there has been excessive loss of tissue.

mold. 1954 3.-The resin pattern 8.62 WALKER AND ORSINGER J. reand fit the patterns onto the pre-extraction casts. Fig. from the hydrocolloid outline desired. Fig. . Allow the patterns to harden for fifteen minutes or longer before cementing them into place over the relieved areas on the refractory casts. For move. Den. as removed is trimmed pattern to the exact 4. Fig.Lift . January. with a mix of quick setting plaster to make a pattern matrix. except the hydrocolloid molds which were made from the unrelieved master casts or pre-extraction casts should be used. complete dentures with great loss of tissue: omit the plasticizer. covering the palate Tack down the edges of the pattern with wax and cover reproduced. 7. Pros. Build the resin palate patterns in the manner previously described.-The Fig. 7. areas to be the pattern. trim. 8.

Again place the resin pattern onto the matrix and tack the paI tern-matrix edges together with wax. Deformation strains in the resin pattern should then be relieved by a few gentle applications of dry heat from an alcohol torch. .off the matrix and resin pattern as soon as the plaster has gained its initial W. Coat the under surface of the resin pattern with a water soluble separating fluid. Remove the pattern from the matrix and relieve the plaster matrix irb an amount somewhat greater but corresponding to the relieved areas on the rt’fractory cast. When the wax has cooled. remove. hut is still soft enough to break without tearing the rugae on the pattern. ready for spruing. drying oven. and allow it to continue hardening on its plaster matrix. followed by lightly pressing the matrix supported pattern into proper position on the investment cast. Allow the pattern and matrix to rest upon the cast until it has cooled to room temperature. 8. and dry the resin pattern. 5. sealed with beading wax. Then place the matrix supported pattern into proper position on the refractory cast and pour hot wax to fill in the junction-line angle formed hy pattern and cast. wash. A little dry heat will soften the pattern-too much will make it bubble! 7.-The pattern is cemented onto the refractory cast. Use the relieved matrix to adapt the resin pattern onto the relieved areas on the refractory cast while it is still hot after coming from the 180” F. Q. The borders are 6. Fig.

cast. 10. Fig. Den.-A test casting. 1954 Fig.-Close-up of the test casting seated on the stone Note reproduction of the rugae zone detail. polished and seated on the original stone cast. . Pros. January. 11 .64 WALKER AND ORSINGER J.

headaches. 12. the following warning which we quote from DuPont “Health Hazards : Inhalation of the vapors of metha“Methacrylate Monomers. Build retention and finishing lines. avoidance of inhalation of the vapors or contact of the liquids with the skin. PRECAUTIONS Spraying of the molds causes heavier air concentrations of the monomers than is ordinary encountered in dental laboratories.Volume Number 4 1 PALATE REPRODUCTION BY HYDROCOLLOID-RESIN METHOD l’p . . Complete the pattern by using hot wax to seal its posterior edge to t’& cast. You should. joining them to the junction-line wax. which is the same as for acetone. and protection of the eyes against splashing liquids.” Sixth Army Preventive Medicine Section indicated that industrial hygiene standards permit 100 to 500 parts per million air concentrations of methacrylalc monomers. Precautions recommended in the WC: of these materials include adequate ventilation. Contact of the liquids with the skin can cause irritation. note Polychenzicals Rdletin.-Typical polished castings. 12.F 9. gastro-intestinal disturbances.” crylate monomers can cause irritation of the mucous membranes. then spring it off the plaster matrix and cement it into proper position on the refractory cast. as required for acrylic denture bast: material. 11. with California standards set at 500 parts per million. therefore. Paint the resin pattern very lightly with pattern cement. 10. avoidance of internal consumption. and possibly irritation of the kidneys. Paint the junction-line wax and the refractory cast with pattern cemem and allow it to dry for a few minutes. Fig.

We anticipate the early reporting of still better methods for palate reproduction to the lasting comfort and benefit of all denture patients. In this connection. Earl: Esthetic Dentures and Phonetic Values. DEN. it was interesting to note that the average cost for materials was approximately vZ cent per resin pattern. These patterns are used for castings which furnish true reproductions of palate contours at less cost than for conventional castings in which the parts covering the rugae zones must be finished by grinding and rubber-wheeling before polishing. DEN. 1954 CONCLUSION 1. SIXTH ARMY CENTRAL DENTAL LABORATORY PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO. J. Den. 1:104-105. Pound. Luzerene G. PROS. January.: Designing Removable Partial Dentures. A method has been described for making inexpensive. The method is not being used as a standard procedure for complete maxillary dentures. CALIF. COMMENT study casts should be a The pattern making method was developed to improve the quality of chromecobalt partial dentures and to reduce dental laboratory labor-material costs. 2. 3. Leo: Temporary Acrylic Fixed Bridgework and Splints. 1952. 2:693-702. DEN. terns for denture castings which reproduce the natural contours tough. Jordan.51. The method is applicable to partial and complete dentures and is not limited by palates with parallel lateral walls and prominent rugae zones.66 WALKER AND ORSINGER J. Talkov. 2:718. REFERENCES 1. J. . flexible patof the palate. 19. 2. PROS. 3. J. The method suggests that accurate pre-extraction part of the permanent ‘records of all dental patients. 1952. Pros. 4. PROS.