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Notes on French Historical Syntax Author(s): Oliver M. Johnston Reviewed work(s): Source: Language, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Jun., 1927), pp. 100-104 Published by: Linguistic Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/408962 . Accessed: 29/12/2011 05:11
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In line 570 of this passage the manuscript reads: Qui si set avoir et conquerre. (Froissart. 6. 570 et v. ed. also wrote L'Escoufle and Guillaume de Dole. the author of Le Lai de l'Ombre. 326). or because he was not familiar with the use of avoir as a reflexive verb in the sense of se conduire. Il faut qu'elle soit peu usuelle. Qui si vaillamment se savoit estre et avoir entre tous Seigneurs et toutes dames. . de (Guillaume Dole.' The passage referred to in the latter part of the quotation just given is as follows: Itels rois doit bien tenir terre Qui se fet avoir et conquerre L'amor et le cuer de ses genz. JOHNSTON STANFORD UNIVERSITY I. 1Le Lai de l'Onbre.NOTES ON FRENCH HISTORICAL SYNTAX OLIVER M. 6. puisque l'6diteur de ce roman a voulu corriger l'un cdesdeux passages ofi'il la rencontrait. xi. et mieux s'y avoit sceil avoir que nuls autres. One of the fifteen points discussed is as follows: 'Il se sot mout bien avoir. Le Lai de l'Ombre. For examples of se ravoir (= se retirer. Froissart. Paris 1893). Servois.3 The following examples will suffice to show that this construction occurs much more frequently than has been supposed: Car bien afferoit A`estre entre tels seigneurs qu'il estoit. a l'appui de notre opinion. compare Burguy's Grammairede la langue d'oil 2. 1870). Chroniques. B6dier says:' 'Voici. Elle reparait par deux fois dans Guillaume de Dole (v. 100 .257. The editor has changed set to fet. 1853.Avoir with a reflexive pronoun was also used in the sense of se tenir. Berlin. Avoir with a ReflexivePronoun in Old French Justifying his statement that Jean Renart. (Froissart. 71.v.2 Expression qui signifie "savoir bien tenir son rang".406). 469-71. car il y a tant de vignes que cheval ne s'y poroient avoir. either because he misunderstood the meaning. cit. se mouvoir: Si convenra sieuvir tout a piet. 2143). op. 390 (de Lettenhove: Bruxelles. une liste de quinze remarques'. Chroniques5. 1913. p. se sauver). Paris.

op. Genuens.4 ed. 10. tom. Gerere se. Col. Settegast. 1881. by P.) Belle estoit et jolie et bien ce sout avoir. se Comporter. 36. (Li Hystore de Julius Cesar. by Jehan le Teinturier. 6 Compare the same text 170. p. by A. (Le Menagier de Paris. 6 See opus cit. apud Ludewig. Car moult ot en aus de savoir. Gall. 1244. 1835. 1215.8. . 1886. qui bien s'en seut avoir. 7 ad ann. lib. N. Biblioth.) Bel et bien se sorentavoir. 23183. B. Vous m'i ver6s entre les sages Bellement avoir et deduire. 141. Michelant. in Paris. 509: Qui ad defensionem exercitus Mediolanensis et offensionem exercitus domini Friderici Se mirabiliter Habuerunt. 108).) Franchois.) The French dictionary in vol. 154. 1266 ibid. Jubinal. 2168. Paris. by H. (Li Roumans de Cleomades. fo. 171: Tentabantquatenus Pragenses HaberentSe ad defendendum. under habere. Scheler 2. MSS. si sace biel parler el courtoisement et se sace bien avoir. (La vie Carlemaine. Halle. tom. 1421.publ. 6 ad ann. Podsies.5 Celes qui pluz estoient beles Et qui miex avoir se savoient. by F. Cele ki biele n'est. Genuens. (Froissart. Paris. by Jehan de Tuim. Bruxelles. 6 Reliq. qui ne se sevent avoir. 198 c. see his Poesies 2. With reference to the use of the construction under consideration in medieval Latin. Lanfranci Pignoli Annal. Quia vero dictus Admiratus et consiliarii et 4 For another example of this construction in Froissart. 1. 1865. 6 Col. Du Cange says:6 'Habere se. lib. Bartholomaei Scribae Annal. Laurentius Bizinius de Origine belli Hussitici ann. 7 of Du Cange's Glossarium mediae infimae latinitatis contains two examples of s'avoir in the sense of se comporter.. (Froissart. in Le Cabinet historique XIII [1867]. (Le Mariage des Sept Arts et des Sept Vertus. 28). (Jongleurs et Troveres. cit. 336). 16607.) Vous vous savez mult bien avoir. Tubingen.) Les estoires ensegnent comment on se doit avoir el siecle et en Diu. (La vie Saint Franchois nach manuscrit francais 19531 der Nat. 1846. ed. Pub. 4764. 169. 222. Paris. apud Murator. (Der Roman von Escanor von Gerard von Amiens. 539.NOTES ON FRENCH HISTORICAL SYNTAX 101 Et sont ensi comme gent sauvage. ed.) Je te vueil monstrer comment tu te dois avoir.

9 Ferons is grammatically impossible. B. which she prints as follows:' 'Seigneur'. 1119. 1090. fet il. 1.if any one) is followed by the conditional. 9 This is the reading adopted by J. This usage is illustrated in the following passages: Ki purreit faire que Rollanz i fust morz. En ferons nous bruir(e) nostre charnage in preference to that of A. 8 See p. London. In such cases the condition refers to the future from the point of view of the present. Chanson de Geste. 11. Qui Ne tendroieNarbonne. French Conditional Sentences Introduced by qui The question of these sentences is raised by Crossland in her treatment of the text of Guibert d'Andrenas.) 7 Guibertd' Andrenas.' The examples given above show that the use of avoir as a reflexive in medieval French and Latin. Que molt est granz la proie. D. 1922). by Jessie Crossland. Melander in his edition (Paris. the future never being found in hypothetical sentences of this type. the conditional is also used in the clause expressing the conclusion. JOHNSTON comiti ejus male Se Habuerunt. 86. II. When qui (= whoever. which can not be defended. The correct reading is ferions.' I wish to call especial attention to her adoption of ferons for ferions in 1.102 OLIVER M. .' In explanation of her reading she remarks : 'The construction of this passage is not clear in any of the MSS. (Aimeri de Narbonne 397-8. 1086-91. The fact that this verb was well klnown construction occurs both in Le Lai de l'Ombreand in Guillaume de Dole has slight value therefore as an argument supporting the statement that these poems were written by the same author. ed. 1923. adeo quod praesumptum fuit eos fuisse proditores. En ferons nous bruir nostre charnaje. En ferions no bruit et no charnage. We have taken the reading of C. (La Chanson de Roland 596) me donroit tot le tresor Pepin. 'veez quel pasturaje! Qui onques vit si riche bestiaje! Qui le porroit conquerre par barnaje Malooit gr6 la pute jent sauvaje. Dunt perdreit Carles le destre braz del cors.

Livy. 9.12 In Hale and Buck's Latin Grammar?580 this construction is illustrated from Quint. Miraretur qui tumrn cerneret. p." where it is introduced by qui and the subjunctive is used in both clauses: Qui hoc dicat. It occurs frequently in Old French and even up to the end of the seventeenth century. In this construction the subjunctive occurs both in the clause expressing the condition and in the conclusion. Destre et senestre au branc les rens serchier. translated by Obert. 34. cf.revised and enlarged by Gildersleeve and Lodge. 5. In such cases the conditional is used in the apodosis. in idem incidat vitium. This type of conditional sentence refers to the future and hence it represents the condition as being possible. A survival of this usage is found in the modern French phrase comme qui dirait.2. 2707-09. 1."' It will be observed that qui in the examples cited above is used without an antecedent and serves to introduce a condition. De coardie nel detist blastengier. 4. 50: 'Qui dicat pro illo "ne feceris".) Qi li veist son escu manoier.) Many more examples of this construction might be cited. 23. urbem captam diceret.) This type of conditional sentence is also found in Latin: Qui videret. Cou m'est a vis plus bel seroit. if it occurs in the clause following qui. (Floire et Blancheflor. 89. Haec qui videat.' It will be of interest to note here the frequent use of qui introducing a future condition from the point of the past.NOTES ON FRENCH HISTORICAL SYNTAX 103 Mais qui le porroit si tolir Qu'ele n'en estuest morir. Syntaxe frangaise du XVII siBcle. Qi li veist son maltalent vengier. 593. (Raoul de Cambrai. The same construction occurs in Latin. Cicero. Bien li menbrast de hardi chevalier. 309-11.ed. '1 Cicero. Paris. by Du Meril. Destre et senestre les rens au branc serchier.12. A third type of conditional sentence introduced by qui in Old French is that referring to the present. Et bras et pis et ces testes tranchier. New York. 1856. Paris. 2. Verr. Haase. De Natura Deorum. "non feceris". In such cases qui is followed by the present indicative and the clause expressing the conclusion may contain 10 See A. . erret. 11See Gildersleeve's Latin Grammar. 4 (258).. nonne cogatur confiteri deos esse. 52. 2565-8. 1898. (Ibid. being equivalent to a protasis.

They are never of the contrary to fact type.) The hypothetical sentences under consideration are derived directly from the Latin as indicated above. JOHNSTON a verb in the present or future indicative. 13161-2. 17735. (Ibid. (Langlois' edition of Le Roman de la Rose. the condition expressed always being possible. 13035.) Qui nou set a clerc le demande Qui leu l'ait e qui l'entende. . (Ibid.) Qui l'en creit chier le comparra. They may refer to the present or to the future. or in the present subjunctive with the force of an imperative: Qui s'amour en un seul leu livre N'a pas son cueur franc ne delivre.104 OLIVER M.