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Kandaules Author(s): George Melville Bolling Reviewed work(s): Source: Language, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Mar., 1927), pp. 15-18 Published by: Linguistic Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/409642 . Accessed: 29/12/2011 05:09
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the former word is high-flown and may perhaps give a hint in the same direction.KANDAUIES GEORGE MELVILLE BOLLING OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY With regard to the vowel of the final syllable. Kretschmer rightly warns against attaching any historical but stylistically importance to the use of MovaIrt instead of Av6aLUt.4 Then epithet .2 (Diehl) of Hipponax: 'Epp/j KUV VXa. if his copyists are not at fault. suggested by the and the fact that "Apyosis a dog's name. The invocation is put in etymology3 he glosses it as vaguely as KX the mouth of Boupalos and is meant to be derisive. 2 The meter does not reveal the quantity of the final vowel. Glotta 3 Even Tzetzes: OKUVXX07rVLKTS.Kvv'yXa. It was 'a dog-like monster'. and on this basis some modern scholars' distinguish a god Kandaulas and a king Kandaules. Hipponax' vocative is the proper form to KavaabaVXs. to some extent Kretschmer. Kav6acXa So Hesychius. KavkaaXa and Hesychius I can find no other evidence for a 'Eppuis for in spite of the clear seems to have known nothing to the point. 6rra. at so early a date is interesting and 4 The implicit interpretation of in agreement with Kretschmer's 'Apy•y'pb6vr•s conclusions about the etymology./4rS. At all events the great god of the Lydians must have done some mightier exploit than the choking of a dog.AVUKi.45-9(1919). cf. I think that the validity of this distinction may be doubted. has either KUvvY-rxs. says Kretschmer---trusting to the literalness of the translation KvvaiyX7s-andit was this exploit that lead to the 1 Prehn in PW 10. Solmsen. For Ionic we need reckon with Kavba'X-s and with nothing else. and I think it is so far safer to interpret Kandaules merely as 'Throttler-of-the-Beast'. The identification of this god with Hermes seems to rest solely on the familiar line 4. 10. the nominative wrongly from Kav3a6Xa2 formed or drawn on a nonIonic source.pyp'icpbvrns that a similar twist has been given to the Maionian term it is probable KavbabV'Xs. AvKd/g3a. Hesychius offers a gloss KavcabXas 'Epluj 'HpaKXij.1860. cf. KVVX•l~. 15 . MKovLtor• and that seems to be an improvisation.

5 We may then assume that it was also the throttling of a lion that gave to the Lydian god his title Kandaules.7) tells us that the Greeks called this king Myrsilos and speaks of him as the son of Myrsos. Excav.163 (1901). Head. and agree (except for the unnecessary qualification) with Sayce.8 drew the essentially correct conclusion that Kandaules was a 'sacral' name. It is probable that in it Kandaules became a titular name comparable with Caesar. and may take us farther. 9JHS 46.86 (note) that this god 'was doubtless represented in art like the Babylonian Gilgames. Bakivalis. For Kandaules however. so that it is also attested for the Pre-Hellenic peoples of the Aegean. Thanks to a new specimen Buckler can now show that the inscription is Lydian and that it reads valves [walwe-S]. But Herodotus himself (1. and the lion is so prominent in Lydia that it has been regarded as the arms of the royal family. holding a strangled lion or similar animal in either hand'. It is true that in Herodotus the name Kandaules seems personal. Bakivas.C.. Sardis. 6. 1 FGrHist 90 F 47 (Jacoby).2. cf. 6 JHS 21. But most recently Buckler9 has published a series of electrum coins that antedate the gold coinage attributed to Croesus and certainly earlier than 546 B.16 GEORGE MELVILLE BOLLING identification with Herakles because he too throttled a monster.5172 (1880).36-41 (1926) . Pharaoh. B. The type may be seen on a Minoan gem. From these facts Gelzer. while Nikolaos of Damascus7 knows him (from Xanthos) as Adyattes or Sadyattes. The device of the die (it appears completely on no specimen through the inexperience of its cutters) was two lion-heads confronted. Brit. This god became the founder of the Lydian dynasty whose members the Greeks called Herakleidai-having identified Kandaules with Herakles.V. with a vertical inscription between them. 8 RhM 35. Essentially correct may be said. the fall of Sardis. The decipherment of the Lydian inscriptions has confirmed Herodotus' use of Myrsos Myrsilos by showing that in Lydian patronymics were actually formed by such a suffix. they seem to have given no information. The monster that Heracles throttled was a lion. The last seems to me right. for 'sacral' and 'royal' are responses to stimuli undifferentiated in such a context. He then and explains the legend as Gyges' cry of equates valve6 with "AX-rs triumph over the conquest of Colophon: 'The port on the Ales river 5 Cf. at Ephesos 91. Syennesis. Mus.

11Hermes 18. behind these varying vowels we have dialectic differences of the Asia Minor languages. 46. we must remember that the earlier efforts'3 to explain the name started not only from a different form.12 If we attempt the etymology.430. perhaps The same may be true of Kav6<. Glotta 6. The frequent use of ideograms and of ideograms combined with alphabetic writing in the systems of writing in vogue in Asia Minor. Or it may be that x•na-rqs. 2.' Against the equation valved"AXJS no objection can be brought. I should therefore suggest that the coin may offer a combination of picture and phonetic writing and be read as KANDvalved [Kandwalwe* S]. Hirt. and of her ever-existing priest-king.17 (1914).KANDAULES 17 now belongs to the Lydian kingdom. LANGUAGE 1. Lambertz. 3.10that the natural thing to be looked for in such a legend is a 'personal. but the remainder of the interpretation appears most unlikely. From this form the Greek names derive readily. while a form without which long ago Wilamowitz'1 epenthesis may be preserved in KavaaXos as the of the non-Hellenic name founder of Kos.e. and b) because of his close connection with the Lydian lion as Throttler-of-theBeast. Herm. 134-5. 45. whereas we now know that it meets the languages of our family only in a Pre-IndoEuropean period. if it arose in a Doric-speaking community. If KavboXAos recognized the name of one of the KMpKOw1r7 (but given also as 'AvoD•Xos) belongs it has been assimilated to bo0Xosby popular etymology. the lions being represented by their heads.286-91 (1911). When the inscription was imperfectly known.' I would then submit the following considerations: 1. the vertical inscription taking the place of the male figure. a) as being the name of Lydia's strong-arm god. KZ 34. 10 Note 9. royal. 599. That language was then put in the Thracian-Phrygian branch. 13 Kretschmer.~os glossed by Hesychius as KaKop'yos. Einl. but it shows a fact which Buckler himself sees. but from a false hypothesis about the relationship of Lydian. i.Xs.97-8 (1912).77 (1925) for the principle involved. 12 Cf. name.77-80 (1897). Boisacq 541 (s. Idg. . Epenthesis in Lydian will account for the diphthong in Kavaab. Solmsen. 388-9 (1896). here. Sturtevant. The obvious affinity of the device to the art type posited for Kandaules by Sayce on other grounds. That is now impossible. Ktifci). The most probable name is Kandaules. the practice was to connect it with 'AXv&rr1s.v.

Finally valves would contain an element corresponding in form to IE welu. Brugmann 2. Phryg. 'whelp'. if so.94. the semantic development would parallel that of catulus and caniculus discussed elsewhere in this issue. will have to be abandoned because the division of the compound must be Kand-valve4. It is clearly a compound in which the first member is governed by the second. in which case Goth. that it should be neuter is not surprising. and the fact that the Lydian word does not begin with a sibilant is no longer a difficulty. If it became definitely 'lion'. 'cub'. dovyti 'torment'.'6 and Solmsen must therefore assume a special law to account for its disappearance in Lydian. Starting from Kand-valves. or 'lion'. of the type represented by Sanskrit dhanadr-jaya-. aaos 'wolf'.it is easily explained in this compound as due to dissimilation. but the idea of a rolling or twisting motion may underlie both the Lydian and the Indo-European senses of the words. seems to me weak. if we had the plainly written name of a Lydian king Kandvalves. with the well recognized -d ending of Lydian. Parallels for it may be found. 101-2. and I should regard kand as an accusative neuter.'4 the use of a case form for the first member was original. with OCS daviti 'choke'. we would unhesitatingly identify it with Kandaules. 'monster'. Kandaules is the name that we have most reason to expect to find on such coins as those discussed. LANGUAGE . the assumption of rebus writing. The meanings seem to diverge greatly. cf. It is not surprising to find the earlier type persisting in Lydian. What the word meant in Lydian must be uncertain: 'whelp'. Can the latter be a short name equivalent to Alyattes? 14Cf.18 GEORGE MELVILLE BOLLING The connection of the second half of the word. The connecting link however. Indo-European shows no trace of a form without the w-sound. EXbto. or a better interpretation of valves. To sum up. The use of a stem-form is ascribed to the analogy of the determinative compounds"5and is dated back to the time of the parent language itself. canis. and we could etymologize it on somewhat the same lines as I have proposed. Lith.etc. walwjan should be compared. are all possible. 15Ib. Kent. 'beast'. The word kan I would still equate with IE kwon-. 18 On 2. The change of gender will have come in Indo-European with the specialized meaning 'dog'.186-7 (1926). In that type.seen in volvo. It has been suggested by and meant originally 'young others that the word is connected with KVcO animal'.1. Or the word may mean nothing more definite than 'killer'.